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um UNE D ME 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
C. H. OLDFATHER 


PROFESSOR OF ANCIENI HISTORY AND LANGUAGES, 
TITE UNIVERSIIY OI NEBRASKA 


IN TWELVE VOLUMES 
V 


BOOKS AII 4l-riI 





CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON 
WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 


MCML 





Pnnted in Great Brilaan 


CONTENTS 


TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT ACRAGAS5 Front piece 

PAGE 
BOOK AII (CHAPS. 41-84) 1 
BOOK XIII : 117 
A PARTIAL INDEXA OF PROPER NAMES 449 
MAPS OP THE AREAS DESCRIBED IN VOL. V At end 


l SIEGE OF SYRACUSE (FROM THUCYDIDES III, LC L) 


2. SICILY AND GREECE (FROM DIODORUS III, LC.L) 


THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 
OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


BOOK XII 


VOL V" B 


AIOAOPOT 


TOT ZIKEAIOTOY 


BIBAIOOHKHZ IZTOPIKHZ 


BIBAOS AQAERATH 


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TV Twes karaA0cau T]v airovopiav BovAóuevoi 


OeAéy0rcav Tots Bowwrots, émoyyeMpevoi TÜV 
2 


THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 
OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


BOOK XII 


41. Now the causes of the Peloponnesian War were a81sc 
in general what I have described, as Ephorus has 
recorded them.  Ánd when the leading states had 
become embroiled 1n war in this fashion, the Lacedae- 
monians, sitting 1n council with the Peloponnesians, 
voted to make war upon the Athemians, and dis- 
patehing ambassadors to the lung of the Persians, 
urged him to ally himself with them, while they also 
treated by means of ambassadors with their alhes in 
Sicaly and Italy and peisuaded them to come to their 
aid with two hundred triremes ; and for their own 
pait they, together with the Peloponnesians, got 
ready their land forces, made all other preparations 
for the war, and were the first to commence the con- 
fiet. For in Boeotia the eity of the Plataeans was 
an independent state and had an alhance with the 
Athemans?! But certam of rts citizens, wishing to 
destroy its independence, had engaged in parleys 
with the Boeotians, promising that they would range 

1 'The fuller account of the following 1ncident 15 in Thucy- 
dides, 2. 9 ff. 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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mpéyrov vmoAaflóvres mravónuei roos QBaiovs vap- 
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bGvres ovveX)Ünoav, dmaca 9' 7) xópa. rapayfis 
kai Ovaprayfjs éyepev. 

49. Ot 8é llÀarowe(s 8vampeofevodpevot pos 
roUs Onaiovs T£lovv àreAMetv ék ríjs yepas adràv 
kai GmoAafétv Toós aiyuaMoTovs.  Oi0 kai fs 


4 


BOOK XII. 41. 3—42. 1 


that state under the confederacy ! organized by the i31zc 
Thebans and hand Plataea over to them if they would 
send soldiers to aid in the undertaking.  Conse- 
quently, when the Boeotians dispatched by night 
three hundred picked soldiers, the tra:itors got them 
inside the walls and made them masters of the city. 
The Plataeans, wishing to maintain their alliance with 
the Athenians, since at first they assumed that the 
Thebans were present in full force, began negotia- 
tions with the captors of the city and urged them to 
agree to à truce ; but as the night wore on and they 
perceived that the Thebans were few in number, 
they rallied en masse and began putting up a vigorous 
struggle for their freedom. The fighting took place 
in the streets, and at first the Thebans held the upper 
hand because of their valour and were slaying many 
of their opponents ; but when the slaves and children 
began pelting the Thebans wath tiles from the houses 
and wounding them, they turned in fhght ; and some 
of them escaped from the city to safety, but some 
who found refuge in a house were forced to give 
themselves up. When the Thebans learned the out- 
come of the attempt from the survivors of the battle, 
they at once marched forth in all haste 1n full force. 
And since the Plataeans who dwelt im the rural 
districts were unprepared because they were not 
expecting the attack, many of them were slam and 
not a small number were taken captive alive, and the 
whole land was filled with tumult and plundering 
42. The Plataeans dispatched ambassadors to the 
Thebans demanding that they leave Plataean territory 
and receive their own captives back. And so, when 
! (The Boeotian League, which had been revived after 


Athens lost ber dominating position in Cential Greece in the 
battle of Coroneia in 447 s.c. (cp. chap. 6) 


9 


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1 rore] rois Wurm. 

! "Thucydides (2. 5. 7) saysthat the Plataeans persuaded the 
Thebans to withdraw from their territory and that they then 
slew the Theban captives. 


6 . 


BOOK XII. 42. 1—5 


this had been agreed upon, the Thebans received 151 ».. 
their eaptives back, restored the booty they had 
taken, and returned to Thebes. 'lhe Plataeans dis- 
patched ambassadors to the Athenians asking for 
aid, while they themselves gathered the larger part 
of their possessions into the city. The Athemans, 
when they learned of what had taken place in Plataea, 
at once sent a considerable body of soldiers ; these 
arnved in haste, although not before the "Thebans, 
and gathered the 1iest of the property from the 
countryside into the city, and then, collecting both 
the children and women and the rabble,? sent them 
off to Athens. 

The Lacedaemonians, deciding that the Athenians 
had broken the truce,? mustered a strong army from 
both Lacedaemon and the rest of the Peloponnesians 
The alhes of the Lacedaemonians at thus time were 
al the inhabitants of the Peloponnesus with the 
exception. of the Argives, who remamed neutral; 
and of the peoples outside of the Peloponnesus 
the Meganians, Ambraciotes, Leucadians, Phocians, 
Boeotians, and of the Locrians,* the majority of those 
facing Euboea, and the Amplussians of the rest. The 
Athenians had as alhes the peoples of the coast of 
Asiaà, namely, the Canans, Dorians, lonians, and 
Hellespontines, also all the islanders except the 
inhabitants of Méelos and Thera, hkewise the dwellers 
in Thrace except the Chaleidians and Potidaeans,. 
furthermore ihe Messenians who dwelt m Naupactus 
and the Cereyraeans | Of these, the Chuans, Lesbians, 

? ''hucydides (2. 6 4) calls these ** the least efficient of the 
men." 

3 'he thirty-yeati tiuce concluded in 446 5 c. (chap. 7). 


* ''hose facing Euboea were the Opuntian Locrians, those 
on the Corinthian Gulf the Ozohan. 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! rojrov | . . Kepkvpato,. added by Wessehng from Thuc. 
2::9:.5 


? So the MSS.; moAeuéows Hermann, followed by Wurm, 
Dindorf, Bekker, Vogel. 





* "There 1s a lacuna 1n the Greek ; the prececung words of 
the sentence are taken from Thucydides, 2 9. 9. 5. 


8 


BOOK XII. 42. 5-8 


and Cercyraeans furnished ships,! and all the rest sup- i31 sc 
plied infantry. The alhes, then, on both sides were 
as we have listed them 

After the Lacedaemonians had prepared for service 
a strong army, they placed the command in the hands 
of Archidamus ther lang. He invaded Atüea with 
his army, made repeated assaults upon its fortified 
places, and 1avaged a large part of the countryside 
And when the Athenians, being incensed because of 
the raiding of their countryside, wished to offer battle 
to the enemy, Pericles, who was a general * and held 
in his hands the entire leadership of the state, urged 
the young men to make no move, promang that 
he would expel the Lacedaemonians from Attica 
without the peni of battle. Whereupon, fitung out 
one hundred triremes and putting on them a strong 
force of men, he appointed Carcinus general over 
them together with certain others and sent them 
against the Peloponnesus. This force, by ravaging 
a large extent of the Peloponnesian terntory along the 
sea and capiuring some fortresses, struck terror into 
the Lacedaemonians ; consequently they speedily re- 
called their army from Attica and thus provided a 
large measure of safety to the Peloponnesians.? In 
this manner Áthens was dehvered from the enemy, 
and Pencles received approbation among hi. fellow 


? 'The ten geneials were the most important Athenan 
magistrates of this period, and Pericles, elected every y ear as 
one of the ten, acted as their president. 

3 Many editors (see critical note) read " enemy " for 
* Peloponnesians," thereby malang the AÁthenians the ones 
who were made safe. But there 1s no reason to emend the 
text. The fleet dispatched by Pericles was ravaging the terri- 
tory of many of Sparta's Peloponnesan alhes; cp. the 
following chapter, and Thucydides, 9 25, 30. 


VOL V B9 0 


b» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! The eastern coast between Argolis and Laconia 
* The single able general the Peloponnesians produced in 


10 ' 


BOOK XII 43. 8—43. 4 


citizens as having the ability to perform the duties of 421 5c. 
a general and to fight 1t out with. the. Lacedaemo- 
nians. 

48. When Apollodorus was archon 1n Athens, the 4:0c 
Romans elected as consuls Marcus Geganius and 
Lucius Sergius. During thus year the general of the 
Athenians never ceased plundering and harrying the 
territory of the Peloponnesians and laying siege to 
their fortresses ; and when there were added to his 
command fifty triremes from Cercyra, he ravaged all 
the more the territory of the Peloponnesians, and in 
particular he laid waste the part of the coast which 1s 
called Acté ! and sent up the farm-buildimgs in flames 
After this, sailing to Methoné in Laconia, he both 
ravaged the countryside and made repeated assaults 
upon the city There Brasidas? the Spartan, who 
was still à youth in years but already distinguished 
for his strength and courage, seeing that Methoné 
was in danger of capture by assault, took some 
Spartans, and boldly breakimg through the hostile 
forces, which were scattered, he slew many of them 
and got mto the stronghold. In the siege which 
followed Brasdas fought so brilhantly that the 
Athenians found themselves unable to take the strong- 
hold and withdrew to their ships, and Bragidas, who 
had saved Methoné by his imdividual bravery and 
valour, received the approbation ofthe Spartans And 
because of this hardihood of his, Braadas, having 
become mnordinately proud, on many subsequent 
occasions fought recklessly and won fo: himself a 
great reputation for valour. nd the Athemnans, 
sading around to Ehs, ravaged the countryside and 


this ten-year war. For his further career see below, chaps. 62, 
617-68, T1 
11 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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eis TT ovuaxtav Tpocayayópevot TÓV eis Tüàs 
'Aürivas Àobv émowvjcavro. 

44. Meraà, 86 ra0ra 'AÜw«vato, oTparwWyOv cpo- 
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* 8o Palmer, fiom Thuc. 9. 95 3- depà» P, deptav v. 
12 


e 


BOOK XII. 43. 4—44 3 


laid siege to Pheia, a stronghold of the Eleians. The i30 5c 
Eleians who came out to 1ts defence they defeated 

in battle, slaying many of their opponents, and took 
Pheia by storm. But after this, when the Ele1ians 

en masse offered them battle, the Athenians were 
driven back to their ships, whereupon they sailed off 

to Cephallenia, where they brought the inhabitants 

of that island into their alhance, and then voyaged 
back to Athens. 

44. After these events the Athenians chose Cleo- 
pompus general and sent him to sea with thuty ships 
under orders both to keep careful guard over Euboea 
and to make war upon the Locrians. He, sailing forth, 
ravaged the coast of Locris and reduced by siege the 
city of Thronium, and the Loerians who opposed him 
he met in battle and defeated near the city of Alopé.! 
Following this he made the island known as Atalanté, 
wlueh hes off Locris, into a fortress on the border 
of Loens for his operations against the inhabitants 
of that country — Also the Athemans, accusmg the 
Aeginetans of having collaborated with the Lacedae- 
monians, expelled them from their state, and sending 
colonists there from their own citizens they portioned 
out to them in allotments both the city of Aegina 
and its terutory To the Aeginetan refugees the 
Lacedaemonmans gave Thyreae,? as it 1s called, to 
dwell in, because the Athemans had also once given 
Naupactus as a home for the people whom they had 
dnven out of Messené? "The Athenians also dis- 
patched Pericles with an army to make war upon 
the Meganans He plundered them territory, laid 


1 Thronium and Alopé are m Opuntian Locris facing the 
northern tip of Euboea. 


? In northern Laconia near the borde1 of Argolis 
3 Cp. Book 11. 84. 7. 


13 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ / M ^ 
kai ràs krYjoew; abTÀv AÀvwwQváuevos perà moAMfs 
^ 5 A E] 7 - 
dóeAeias émavijM9ev eis vàs ' AOrjvas 
/ V 
45 Aake8auuóvtot 06. jer lleÀosovvijotcov. iot 
^ b M » M N 
rÀv dÀAcv cvuqiáycv évéBaAov eis cv ' Arrucrv 70 
M M / hi 
GeUrepov.  émwmopevó|.evou O6 c?v xopav éóevópo- 
A ^ 
Tóuovv xal ràs éma/Aew évem)pilov, kai mcav 
^ ^ / 
oye8óv Tv yfjv éAvjijvavro mÀjv Tíjs kaÀovuévuos 
» M N M 
TerpamóAecs  ra)r9gs 9' améoyovro Óià TO TOUS 
^ ^ / M N 
"poyóvovus a)rÀv évraüÜa kuarqknkévas kai TOV 
/ M Lj M ) 2 
Eipvo0éa vewQkévas Tf» Opp é« ra)T)Ss m0w- 
e ^ ^ 5 7 
caj.évovus Bíkauov yàp TyyoÜvro Tots eUQpyernkóot 
^ 5 M] / 
TOUS Tpo'yóvovs Tapà TOV éKyÓvov Tàs Tppoo"koU- 
b / ? / € o 'AO0 ^ 
cas eUepyecías amoÀapDávew —— ol (vato. 
b 
vapardfaoÜa. uév oUk éróAuov, cvveyópevow 9 
^ Le M 
évrós TÓv Tejwudv évémeoov «ig Aowukmv mepí- 
oracw: TOoÀÀo80 yàp AcÜovs kai mavrooaro0 
cuveppvmkóros eis TT)v mÓAuv Óià TTv oTevoxcpíav 
e0AÓycs eis vóoovs évémwmTOv, éÀkovres dépa Qi- 
2 
edÜapuévov. GOimwep o) Ovvduevou rods moÀeutovs 
» ^ ? ^ L4 4 ^ A 3667 
ékfaAetv ék Tíjs yepas, m&Àw vaüs moAÀàs ééé- 
/ 
vejrrov eis TeAomróvvqoov ovparryóv éniorrjcavres 
IleokAéa. | oóros 8é soÀMjv xopav TÍís mapa- 
ÜnÀarriov On«oocos kat mas mÓAes mopÜ(cas, 
Hi / 3 ^ 5 ^ $ ^ M 
émoioev àmeAÜetv éx cífjs 'Acvrwukfis vro)s Aake- 
^ € ^ ^ 
Oauuoviovs. uerà O06 TaU0' oi 'AÜmvato: cf uév 
Xcpas Oe8evOpokommévns Tíjs O6 vócov «oAÀoUs 
! U Foui-city " This was the north-eastein part of Attica 
containing the four demes of Marathon, Oenoe, Priobalinthus, 
and Tricorythus, forming an administrative unit. 
? 'The Athenians had been the only people of Greece to 


offer a home to the Heracleidae, 1n 'Tricorythus of the Tetra- 
polis; ep. Book 4. 57. 


14 


e 


BOOK XII. 44. 3—45. 4 


waste their possessions, and returned to Athens with 180 x.c. 
much booty 

15. The Lacedaemonians together with the Pelo- 
ponnesians and their other alhes invaded Attica for 
a second time. In their advance through the country 
they chopped down orchards and burned the farm- 
buildings, and they laid waste almost the entire land 
with the exception of the region known as the 
Tetrapolis* This area they spared because their 
ancestors had once dwelt there and had gone forth 
from 1t as their base on the occasion when they had 
defeated Eurystheus; for they congidered it only fair 
that the benefactors of their ancestors should in turn 
receive from their descendants the corresponding 
benefactions. As for the Athemans, they could not 
venture to meet them in a pitched battle, and being 
confined as they were within the walls, found them- 
selves involved in an emergency caused by a plague ; 
for since a vast multitude of people of every desenp- 
tion had streamed together into the city, there was 
good reason for their falling victim to diseases as they 
did, because of the cramped quarters, breathing air 
which had become polluted.? Consequently, since 
they were unable to expel the enemy from their 
territory, they again dispatched many ships against 
the Peloponnesus, appointing Pencles general. He 
ravaged a large part of the territory borderimng on the 
sea, plundered some cities, and brought 1t about that 
the Lacedaemonmans withdrew from Attica. — After 
this the Athenians, now that the trees of their country- 
side had been cut down and the plague was carrying 


? "The detailed desciiption of this plague, whose symptoms 
resemble more those of typhus than of any other disease, 1s in 
Thucydides, 9 47 ff. 


. 15 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8.aÜe.posons, év a8 vp. kaBevorikecay, «ai TÓV 
ILepucAéa vop.izovres airiov aUrots yeyovévai TOU 
mroAépov Ov Opyfjs ,elxov. Diórrep door cavres 
ajrÓv Tfs oTpaTQoylas kai pAKpds Twas aóoppas 
éykAqudmeov Aafióvres, ebnpieoay aDTÓV oor jkov- 
ra rüÀávroiw.  perà. 66 ravra mpeopeias Gmooreí- 
Aavres AaieDaupiovious j&touv karaAvoacÜ0a. TÓV 
TÓÀepov' cs om oU0eis a)Troís mpooetxev, Tvaykdá- 
Lovro máAu róv llepucAéa orparmyóv aipetaaa. 

Taóra uév ov émpáyÜn xarà ToÜrov TÓv é£w- 
avTÓV. 

46. 'Emr Gpxovros o A8fvnaw " Exrapetvovos! 
Popaío: KaüTéoTqcav UmáTovus Aeóiov IHamipwov 
kai ÀóAov KopvijÀvov Makeptvov. | ézi 06 roUTwv dv 
uev rais '"AÜvvaus IlepwAfjs 0 ovpoarmqyós ércAed- 
TnOev, àv?p yévew kai TÀoUvrq, mpós Oé ToUrois 
ewóT)T0 Àóyov kal ovrpaTm«ylq. TroÀD v poéyov TÓV 
mOÀVTÓV. 

'O 8e 8fuos QuioruioUpevos. Kürà Kpdros &Aeiv 
TÜV Hori8atav, e&améareiey Ayvava OTpaTwyóv 
EXovra. TV Bóvaqu» Üv mpórepov exe. ILepwAMs. 
obros O6 nerà mavrÓs Tob oTóAov karazrAeócas 
eis Tv Horíóatav rrapeokeváaaTo TÀ TOS TV 
mOALopk(av* wryavás T€ yàp mavrobamás TOGpegkeU- 
ace moAwopiryrucas Ka Omcov kai BeAàv vÀfjfos, 
éru 06 aírov DastAeiay ICA YT] mráon Tjj Owvápeet. 
"pocBoÀàs 8é moio)pevos ovveyeis kaÜ' ékáorwv 

* So Palmer: "Ezapwovàov 





* Thucydides (2. 65. 3) mentions only ^ à fine" ; Plutarch 
(Perles. 35) states that estimates of the fine Sanc from 
fifteen to fifty talents ; according to Plato (Gorg. 516 4) the 
charge was embezzlement. The schoha on Aristophanes, 


16 


- 


BOOK XII. 45. 4—46. 2 


off great numbers, were plunged into despondency 480 »c. 
and became angry with Pencles, considering him to 
have been responsible for the: bemg at war. Con- 
sequently they removed him from the generalship, 
and on the strength of some petty grounds for accusa- 
tion they imposed a fine upon him of eighty talents ! 
After this they dispatched embassies to the Lacedae- 
monians and asked that the war be brought to an 
end ; but when not a man paid any attention to them, 
they were forced to elect Pencles general again. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

46 When Epameinon was archon in Athens, the 429 c. 
Romans elected as consuls Lucius Papius and Aulus 
Cornehus Macennus. Thi year in. Athens Pencles 
the general died, à man who not only in birth and 
wealth, but also 1n eloquence and skill as a. general, 
far surpassed his fellow citizens 

Since the people of Athens desired for the glory of 
it to take Potidaea by storm,?* they sent Hagnon there 
as general with the army which Pericles had formerly 
commanded. He put m at Potidaea with the whole 
expedition and made all his preparations for the 
siege ; for he had made ready every kind of engine 
used in sieges, a multitude of arms and missiles, and 
an abundance of grain, sufficient for the entire army 
Hagnon spent much ime making continuous assaults 


Clouds, 859, explam that Pericles entered 1n. his. accounts 
an expenditure eig rà ÓBéovra (" for necessary purposes "), 
which the Lacedaemonians interpieted as being for bribes 
and accordingly punished some of then leading men. Also 
mentioned is the charge that the gold on Athena's statue was 
not of the weight charged , but Phexdlias removed and 
weighed it, disproving the allegation. 

? An Athenian arniy had been before the city for four 
years ; Cp. chap. 34. 


17 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


fjpiépav Ouérpube mroAàv xpóvov, o) Ovvájievos cAetv 
TOV mÓÀw. oi pév yàp mroAvopkovpuevoi Oi TOv éx 
Tfjs dÀccecs dópov éppcopévcos T)vovro kai rais 
brepoxoís TÓV TeUxÓv memoiióres érAeovékTovv 
ToUs ek ToU Auévos* ul 9€ vócos TOUS roAwopkobvras 
cvvéyovaa ToAo)s ávijpei, KQi TÓ arparrómebov 
a8vjta koreétyev. ó O Arva ei9cs ToUs '"AÜm- 
vaious Oe0amavmkóras eis viv TOoÀopkiav TrÀelco 
TÓY yAÀUcov TOÀvTOV Ka xoAemrás Óuuceuuévovs mrpos 
TroUs lloriGaudras 0i TO vpovrovs &roorfvai mpos 
ro)s Aake8auuovtovs, édoBetro Aca TTv TroAi- 
opkiav: Olóvzep TvaykdáLero DLacaprrepety KQL TOUS 
eTporudyras GyaykáLew. T0 Ovapuv pav mpoc- 
áyew Tjj TÓAe. enel 06 TÓÀv mroAvrv mroAAol 
OuedÜcipovro KO/TG. Ts mpooBoAás kai karà cmv 
eK Tob Aou408 vócov, GaroÀvrov pépos Tfjs Dvvápecos 
émi TÍs moAtopktas &TémAevoev eis ràs 'AOWvas, 
àzoBeBAniecs rv OTpOTLoT Àv mÀetous TOV XtMcov. 
àmeAÜóvrev O6 ToUrov oi llorióaára, ToU Te 
oírov TvreÀOs ékAumóvros KQi TÓV karà TÜV 
z'ÓÀww aÜvpotvrev, emerrpukeóoavro pos ToUs T0- 
Avopkofvras zepi OuuÀjoewcs.  Qouéves O6 xàkei- 
v«v trpooóe£auévcov 9vaAUoeu érovjcavro rouras, 
dmeAÜetv ék -íás mÓÀews A&mavras ros llomoi- 
dras, GÀÀo uév wnÜcv Aapóvras, €yovras 8€ coUs 
Mev vópas iudriov €v, Tüs 0€ yvvoikas OUO. ye- 
vol.évoov 0é TOUTOV TÓV OTOvÓOV oi pév. IoriGa- 
Gra mrávTes ner, yvvawüv kai TÉiVaY é£éAurov 
TV varpiàa, cor Tàs cvvÜXkas, kai TrapeADóv- 
Tes eis TroUs émi Opdkms XaoÀkióeis map! ajrots 
| So the MSS. ; émAeovékrow, 5j 9' àk ToÜ AMowuoÜ vócos 
Vogel. 
18 . 


BOOK XII 46 2—7 


cvery day, but without the power to take the city. 429 ».c. 
l'or on the one side the besiegcd, spurred on by the 
fear of capture, were putüng up a sturdy resistance 
and, confiding 1n the supenor height of the walls, 
held the advantage over the Athemans attacking 
from the harbour, whereas the besegers were dying 
in large numbers from the plague and despondency 
prevaied throughout the army — Hagnon, knowing 
that the Athenians had spent more than a thousand 
talents on the sege and were angry with the 
Potidaeans because they were the fivst to go over to 
the Lacedaemonians, was afraid to rame the siege; 
consequently he felt compelled to continue 1t and to 
compel the soldiers, beyond their strength, to force 
the issue against the city. But since many Athenian 
cibzens were being slam in the assaults and by the 
ravages of the plague, he left à part of his army to 
maintain the siege and sailed back to Athens, having 
lost more than a thousand of his soldiers. After 
Hagnon had withdrawn, the Potidaeans, since ther 
grain supply was entirely exhausted and the people 
i the city were disheartened, sent heralds to the 
besiegers to discuss terms of capitulation. These 
were received eagerly and an agreement to cessation 
of hostihties was reached on the following teums. 
All the Potidaeans should depart from the city, talang 
nothing with them, with the exception that men 
could have one garment and women two. When this 
truce had been agreed upon, all the Potidaeans 
together with ther wives and children left ther 
native land in accordance with the terms of the com- 
pact and went to the Chalaidians in Thrace among 


19 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


karQkrgav: oí 0. "A0qvato Tv voÀwr|üv eig Xt- 
Acovs oiKT)jropas e&emepabay eis Trv lLorióosav, kai 
Tv T€ TÓÀw kai viv ycpav karekAnpoUymoav. 

4T. "AÓnvaiot 0€ CD'oppitcova. OTpaTTyOv Trpoxet- 
puoápevoi pier elcoot TpUpcv e&oméoreiAav. oOTOS 
0€ mepurAevoas TTV ILeAomóvvjoov eis Nasmrakrov 
«arífpe, kai ÜaÀarrokporóv ToU Kpwcaiou kóAmov 
Ovekc)Àvae raíry) TÀetv Tos akeOotuovtovs. Aa- 
kebauLóVioL or Osvapuv dGióAoyov é£émrejujav per 
"Apyibdpov Tob BaoiAéms oDros O6 mapeAÜow fis 
Bovwrias eis IIAarauàs éorparozéOecvoe. | ueAAóv- 
TOV Ó. ü)rGv 05o0v Tv xcopav kai rapakaAo)vrav 
roos llÀAaraweis dmooT$voaw rÀv '"AÜnvaiwv, cs o) 
er pocetyov avrots, érrópÜnoe T')v yopav kai ràs kam. 
a)rTv kT?cews éAvpvaro. perà 0€ rabTO TT TÓó- 
Aw mepvreuxicas Tribe Tjj ovrávew TOv. àvavykalav 
karaTovijcew Tro)s llÀaraue(s: od0ev O' Tjrrov kai 
pQxovàs mpooáyovres kai Oià mroUrcv oaÀeUovres 
Tà Teiy9 kai mpooDoÀàs dóiaAeirTwS TowoULLevol 
OveréAovv. | émei Oe oU0€ Oud TÓV mpoaBoÀàv 
zjosvavro xeupocacÜa, 79v nó, dToAvmÓvres Tv 
ikaviv dvAa«)v érravíjABov «is I eAomóvvqaov. 

Afnvaioi O6 orpaTwyo)s karaorijoavres Mevo- 
óvra KQ Oavópaxov &méoreiav émi Opdkmv 
perd, oTporuuTóv yiAeov. o9ro,. Oé mro paryeym- 
Üévres eis Enáproov" Tfs Borrukfs éreuov Tv 
xopav kai vOv otrov év yAóg OuéÜewav. — mpooc- 


* So Dindorf: Podpereude 
? So Palmer (Thuc. 2. 79. 2) : IIákroAov. 





! At about the centre of the north side of the Gulf of 
Corinth 


20 


BOOK XII. 46. 7—47 3 


whom they made ther home; and the Athenians 420 s.c. 
sent out as many as a thousand of their citizens to 
Potidaea as colonists and portioned. out to them in 
allotments both the city and its territory. 

47. The Athenians elected Phormio general and 
sent him to sea with twenty turemes. He sailed 
around the Peloponnesus and put in at Naupactus, 
and by gainng the mastery of the Crisaean Gulf! 
prevented the Lacedaemonians? from sailing 1n those 
parts | Ánd the Lacedaemonmans sent out a strong 
army under Archidamus their king, who marched 
into Boeotia and took up positions before Plataea. 
Under the threat of ravaging the territory of the 
Plataeans he called upon them to revolt fiom the 
Athenians, and when they paid no attention to him, 
he plundered their territory and laid waste their 
possessions everywhere. After this he threw a wall 
about the city, mn the hope that he could force the 
Plataeans to capitulate because of lack of the neces- 
sities of life ; at the same time the Lacedaemonians 
continued bringing up engines with. which they kept 
shattering the walls and makmg assaults without 
interruption. But when they found themselves un- 
able to take the city through their assaults, they left 
an adequate guard before it and returned to the 
Peloponnesus. 

The Athenans appointed Xenophon and Phano- 
machus generals and sent them to Thrace with a 
thousand soldiers. When this force arrived at 
Spartolus ? 1n the territory of Bottcé, 1t lad waste 
the land and cut the grain in the first growth. But 


? Specifically the Corinthians, the leading naval alhes of 
the Lacedaemonians. 
3 In the Thracian Chalcidicé near Olynthus 


21 


ca 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ 7 ? d e "4 
BoxÜncdvrov 96 rots Borriatow 'OAvvÜLov, 1yrri- 
/ » / N -^ 
Óncav )mó roórov puáxym: àvgpéÜncav O6 TÓv 
'AOqvaiov ot re orpaTwyoi kai TÀV OTpaTwTÓV 
t 7 
oí mÀetovus. dpa 06 roDrow mporrouévow Aake- 
? ^ E / 
Oawuóvio, TewÜévres omo "AufparwrrGv éorpá- 
M / 
Tevcav eig 'Akapvavíav | TwyoULevos Oé ToUTov 
^ 7 7 A ^ 
Kv$uos eye ovparwras melLoUs xyuiÀovs kai vaüs 
^^ / 
oAbyas: mpocÀapópevos 96 kat srapà, 7v cvuudycv 
T 5 7 
oTrparuoTOas TOUS (KavoUs 7kev eis T7]jv "Akapvaviav 
/ ^ ? 
KQi kareaTparoméOeuce mÀmoiov móAÀecs Tís Óvo- 
€ ^ 
paLouévms I£párov | oi 06 'AÁkapvüves ovorpa- 
dévres kai rois mwoAejois éveOpeUcavres voÀAoUs 
dékrewav, kat ovvyváykacay róv Kvfuov ázaya- 
yetv v7)v OUvapuv eis Tos óvouatouévous Otvidóas. 
A x X 5 b / 4 e 
48. llep( 8é ro)s a)Dvovs xpóvovs QGoputov Oo 
^ , / 
TÀv 'AÜnvaíov orpaTqyós éyov etkocu TpW/peis 
mepiéruye vavoi AakeÓauuoviov émrà «pos Tois 
TeTTQpákovra. vovuayncas Oé spós Tra/vTras TV 
T€ oTpaTrWyióa vaüv TOv mvoÀenicov karéOvoe kai 
TÀV dÀÀwv ToAÀÀAs ümÀovs émoinoe, O9c0exa 86 
a)rávÓpovs «etÀe, ràs O06 Aowrás péypu Tfjs yis 
oL M 8é A à / ? 2A 7 
KareOio£ev. ot 06 Aakeóauuóvio. map! éXmiGas 
€ / ^ € / A » , 
1TTQ1Üévres vais vjmoAewjÜeionus vavoiv éQvyov cis 
llárpas Tfs 'Axaias. abr5 pév ov v) vavnayita 
/ N M "PL / e ,» 5 
cvvéoro Tepi TO 'Piov xaAoUuevov. oi 9' 'AQm- 
votou rpóTOLOv oT)0aVTes kai TQ llooeiBw Trepi 
1 M ^ 
TOv TropÜpov' vatv xaÜiepeocavres dmémAevoav eis 


1 mepi] TO epi Wurm. ? So Palmer: ioüuóv 





1 In southern Acarnania. 
Dd 


BOOK XII. 47. 3—48. 1 


the Olynthians came to the aid of the Bottiaeans and 420 sc 
defeated them in battle; and there were slain of 
the Athenians both the generals and thc larger part 
of the soldiers. And whie this was taking place, 
the Lacedaemonians, yielding to the request of the 
Ambraciotes, made a campaign against Acarnania. 
The leader was Cnemus and he had a thousand foot- 
soldiers and a few ships. To these he added a con- 
siderable number of soldiers from their alhes and 
entered Acarnama, pitching his camp near the city 
known as Stratus. Dut the Acarnamans gathered 
their forces and, laying an ambush, slew many of the 
enemy, and they forced Cnemus to withdraw his 
army to the city called Oeniadae : 

48. During the same time Phormio, the Athenian 
general, with twenty tru emes fell in with forty-seven 
Lacedaemoman warships. And engaging them in 
battle he sank the flag-ship of the enemy and put 
many of the rest of the ships out of action, capturing 
twelve together with their crews and pursuing the 
remaining as far as the land.? The Lacedaemonians, 
after having suffered defeat contrary to their expecta- 
tions, fled for safety with the ships which were left 
them to Patrae in Achaea This sea battle took place 
off Rhium,? as it is called. The Athenians set up à 
trophy, dedicated a ship to Poseidon at the strait,* 
and then sailed off to the city of Naupactus, which 


* Phoimio's famous manoeuvring 1n this battle 15 described 
in Thucydides, 2. 83-84. 

3 A cape at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf. 

* 'The Greek, wluch reads '*at the Isthmus," must be 
defective, for Thucydides' (2. 84. 4) account makes 1t ceitain 
that the ship was dedicated near the scene of the battle; the 
emendation of Wurm (see cemibcal note) would have the 
dedication made '' to Poseidon the patron god of the Isthmus." 


28 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 qóÀw cvuuayióa Navwaxrov | AakeOauuoviot 9 
érépas vaüs éfémepav eis vàs llaàrpas. aora 
86 mpoocAa[lóueva. Tàs €x Tíjs vavpaxtas repi- 
AeAeuupévas Tpwjpew "ÜpotoÜnoav eis TO 'Piov 
eis rTÓv a)róv Oé rÓmov kai TÓ vre£Ov oTpaTÓmeOov 
rüv lleAomovvgoicwv karw.vrQoe kat mzÀQjoiov ToU 

3 orÓÀov kareorparoméOevoe.  (Dopuiv 8é Tfj mpo- 
yeyevnuévm viky $povguarwÜeis éróMugoev ém- 
0caÜa. rais vroAeuíous vavoiv ovoaus roAAamAao(aus: 
«ai rwas aüTÓÀv karaóUcas kai TrÓv L(Oicv dro- 
BaAov àápuóüofov éoye rjv vikqv — uerà. 96 rara 
' Aünvatcv àrooreiAávrov. eikoou Tpvjpeu, ot a- 
«eOauuóviot doDrÜévres &ümérAevoav eis v)jv Kópw- 
Üov, o9 ToÀuGvres vavpaxetv. 

Tabra uév o)v émpáxyOn karà coÜrov TÓv éw- 
aUTÓv. 

49. 'Ec' &pyovros O9 ' 'AO5wv«o( Awor(uov 'Po- 
poio. pév omárovs karéoTrqcav duov 'losAwv 
xa, lloókAov Oepyüuov 'Tpikoorov, 'HAeto. 9' 

Tyayov "OÀvumiáóa. óy8óqv mpós rais OyOor/kovra, 
kaÜ' Tv évika oráówv 2uuaxos MecoowWwwos dmó 

9 EukeMas.  émi 06 rovrov Kvfüuos O rÀv Maxe- 
GauLovicv vavapyos €v Tfj KopüÜc Bwrpifcv 
ékpwyye TOv llewod&  koaraAaféoÜa,. ^ érvvÜdvero 
yàp ww/re vabs év avrÀ kaÜeukvouévas Drápyew 
Myre orparuwDTas eivau. reraypévous émi Ts duv- 
Aakfjs: ro0s yàp 'AÜmvaiovs àueAOs éyew epi 
Tfs ToUrov dQvÀakfs Ou TO pma9auós éXniLeaw 

3 roÀuífjoat rwas karaAaBéoÜa. rÓv TÓwov.  Oiómep 
év rots Meyápow kaÜeA«)cas ràs veveoAknuévas 
rerrapákovra Tpvjpews vukTOs émÀevoev eis cTv 
ZaÀauiva: mpoomecov O' àmpooOokvyrcs cis TÓ 
24. 


BOOK XII. 48. 2—49 3 


was intheiralhance. The Lacedaemonians sent other 429 s c. 
ships to Patrae — These ships Joined to themselves 
the triremes which had survived the battle and 
assembled at Rhium, and also the land force of the 
Peloponnesians met them at the same place and 
pitched camp near the fleet And Phormio, having 
become puffed up with pride over the victory he had 
just won, had the daring to attack the ships of the 
enemy, although they far outnumbered his!; and 
some of them he sank, though losing ships of his own, 
so that the victory he won was equivocal. After this, 
when the Athenians had dispatched twenty triremes,? 
the Lacedaemonians sailed off in fear to Corinth, not 
daring to offer battle 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

40. When LDuotumus was archon in Athens, the 428 s.c. 
Romans elected as consuls Gaius Juhus and Proculus 
Vergimus Tricostus, and the Eleians celebrated the 
Eighty-eighth Olympiad, that 1n. which Symmachus 
of Messené in Sicily won the "stadion" In thus 
year Cnemus, the Lacedaemoman admural, who was 
active in Corinth, deeaded to seize the Pexaeus. 
He had received imformation that no ships in the 
harbour had been put into the water for duty and no 
soldiers had been detailed to guard the port; for 
the Athenians, as he learned, had become negligent 
about guarding it because they by no means expected 
any enemy would have the audacity to seize the 
plaee. Consequently Cnemus, launching forty tri- 
remes which had been hauled up on the beach at 
Megara, sadled by mght to Salamis, and falhng 


* "Thucydides (2. 86. 4) states that there were seventy-seven 
ships against Phormio's twenty. 
? 'These were 1einforcements from Athens. 


25 


Cit 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


fpotpuov Tfjs ZoAapívos TO kaAoSp.evov Bov66pvov, 
cpeis vals dwéomaoe kai TQv OÀmv ZaAagtva 
KaTéÓ0paue.  rÓv 8€ XaAapuvtcoy vvpceuoávrtv 
Tote kaà mr»v ' Aerucjv, ot uev ' AÜqvato, 9ó£avres 
TOv lleuau& koreiModüa« rayécs é£eBovÜovv uerà 
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oí 8€ [IeAorovvijovo, Tfjs émuoAfjs OvaievoOévres 
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py 3igÀaptvos émwueAeoTépav $vAakTv émowvíjcavro 
kai KaréAvrov dpovpo)s ToUs (ikavoUs, cvóv Oe 
IIeuat& kAeiBpouw kai óvAarats tkavots 9.uAaóvres 
(XUpocav. 

50. IIepi 8é rovs aDrovs xpóvovs ZivráAknqs ó 7v 
Opakóv BacuAe?s mapeuijoe: uév Bacueiav 0ACcynv 
xcpav, 0.& 6€ c»v ióíav àv8petlav kai oveouw émi 
ToÀU Tjjv Ovvacceiav qU£qcev, émwewucds uév ápyov 
TÓv Dmoreraypévov, avOpetos 0. àv ey rats uáyous 
Kai oTpaTWyukós, ér. O6 TrÓÀv mpocóÓcv pueyáAqv 
TTOLOUJLeVOS émpéAeuxv. TO 0€ réÀos émi rocoÓrov 
OvvdiLecos mpofjAQev, dore xopas &p&au TrÀAeio Ts 
TOV mpó a)TOÜ pacwevodrrov Karà Tiv Opdáicnv. 
7 pev yap mapaBaAsrrios aUTís dO Tís Afnpu- 
TÓV xXcpas Tv ápxiv éyovca Oiéretve Héxpt ToU 
"lerpov vorauoü, 70 8é ÜaAárrQs eis TO peoó- 
yevov Topevonévq TocoÜrov eiye OuíoT"La, core 
TeLóv eULovov O8ovropfjom. T"uépas Oéka Tpeis. 
ryÀwaUr)s 806 xyopas Pacuv éAáuave mpoc- 





! Used to block the entrance; cp. Book 18. 64. 4. 
26 


BOOK XII. 49. 3——50. 2 


unexpectedly on the fortress on Salamis called 48 s« 
Boudorium, he towed away thiee ships and overran 
ihe entre island. When the Salamimans signalled 
by beacon-fires to the inhabitants of Atüca, the 
Áthenians, ihmlang that the Peraeus had been 
seized, quickly rushed forth in great confusion to its 
suecour; but when they learned what had taken 
place, they quickly manned a considerable number 
of warships and saded to Salamis The Pelopon- 
nesians, having been disappointed in their main 
design, sailed away from Salamis and returned home. 
And the Athenians, after the retreat of the enemy, 
in the case of Salamis gave 1t à more vigilant guard 
and left on it à considerable garrison, and the Peiraeus 
they strengthened here and there with booms * and 
adequate gua1ds. 

50. In the same period Sitalces, the king of the 
Thracians, had succeeded to the kingship of a small 
land mmdeed but nonetheless by his personal courage 
and wisdom he greatly increased his domuinion, 
equitably governing his subjects, playing the part of 
à brave soldier in battle and of a skilful general, and 
furthermore giving close attention to his revenues. 
In the end he attained to such power that he ruled 
over more extensive territory than had any who had 
preceded him on the throne of Thrace. For the coast- 
line of his langdom began at the territory of the 
Abderites and stretched as far as the Ister? Ruver, 
and for à man going fiom the sea to the interior the 
distance was so great that a man on foot travelling 
hght required thirteen days for the journey. Rulhng as 
he did over a territory so extensive he enjoyed annual 


? Abdera was on the Nestus Paver facing the Aegean Sea , 
the Ister 1s the Danube 


Pn 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


€ j / 
óBous ka" ékaorov éwavróv mÀcíc xiAiv raAáv- 
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TQV. KGTà OÓé To)s bmwokewiévous kaipoUs €xcv 
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zóÀeuov TÜpowcev ék Tíjs Opék«s orparvwras 
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347.4 ? 1 / € 1 / 
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eis rà kapreporora dpoUpua, pévovres év rovrous 
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d / HIA! ^ À ? M N ^ A 
póvrav émi Tv paoueiav TÓ pév mpóvov Oi 
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Tpcorq ópovpiq mpoopaÀóvres karà kpáros eiÀov. 
p.erà 8é rabrá Twes TÀv qróAecv kai rÀv ópovptov 


1 In 431 &.c. The war described below opened two years 
ater. 


28 


DOOK XII. 50. 9—7 


revenues of more than a thousand talents ; and when 428 ».c 
he was wagmg war in the period we are discussung 

he mustered from Thrace more than one hundred and 
twenty thousand infantry and fifty thousand cavalry. 

But with respect to this war we must set forth its 
causes, 1n order that the discussion of 1t may be clear 

to our readers. 

Now Sitalces, since he had entered into a treaty of 
friendship with the Athenians, agreed to support 
them in their war in Thrace ; and consequently, since 
he desired, with the help of the Athenians, to subdue 
the Chaleidians, he made ready a very considerable 
army. And ance he was at the same time on bad 
terms with Perdiccas, the king of the Macedonians, 
he decided to bring back Amyntas, the son of Philip, 
and place him upon the Macedoman throne. lt was 
for these two reasons, therefore, as we have described 
them, that he was forced to raise an 1mposimmg army. 
When all his preparations for the campaign had been 
made, he led forth the whole army, marched through 
Thrace, and 1nvaded Macedoma. The Macedomans, 
dismayed at the great size of the army, did not daxe 
face bim in battle, but they removed both the gram 
and all the property they could into their most power- 
ful strongholds, in which they remained inactive. 
The Thracians, after placing Amyntas upon the 
throne, at the outset made an effort to win over the 
cities by means of parleys and embassies, but when 
no one paid any attention to them, they forthwith 
made an assault on the first stronghold and took xt by 
storm. After this some of the cities and strongholds 


? Perdiccas had diiven his brother Philip from the king- 
dom, and Phihp had taken refuge at the court of Sitalces ; 
cp Thucydides, 9 93. 

209 


b2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Oià, TOV $ópov ékovaics Ümeráynoav. rropÜricavres 
8c mücav TV Maxeóoviav kal oA js c$eAelas 
KÜpLoL yevóp.evo peréBqoav évi vàs '"EAAqw(óas 
vTÓóÀes ràs TÓv XaÀróéov. 

51. Toó 8e XwráAM«ov sept ra0Ta. OwwrpiBovros 
QGerraAoi kai 'Ayoatot xai. Máyvqres kai oi dÀÀoL 
rávres "EAMMves óoov karQkovv uera£0 Make8ovías 
kaL OepporvÀOv, ovveópóvgoav kai Osvapav. à£ió- 
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vocaUraus pupiáciw oí Opükes éuDáAwow a)rÀv 
eis T?v xyc)pav kai kwOvveUocou. TOig TüTpioi. TO 
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rrÜóp.evos TOUS " EAMrvas GBpáàs Dvvdpueus cvyrÜpo- 
kévat kai TOUS orpamwárras Ümo TOÜ xeuidvos évo- 
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Ova Avodpievos emvyaputas émovjcaTO, Tàs O6 Ovvd- 
p.evs Amriyyayev eis TV Opdkmv. 

52. "Aqua 06 Toros Trpo TOjAEvoLs Aake8at- 
póvwow uév vapaÀaBóvres vo); éx« IleAomovw(áocov 
cju ovs eloéBaAov eis Uo "AvTucv, eXovros 
TÜV Tryepoviay M ua TOÜ BaoiMéos, TOv O6 
oirov év Tfj yÀóg ouédeipav, KQi TT)V xcpav 0no- 
cavres émavíjÜov eis às Tospíóas. ol o "AUn- 
vaio mraporá&aaÜa, p.v o9 ToÀuÓvres, ovo 0€ Tfjs 
vócov kai Tfs ocwvroOe(as mwelópevow, kaküs mrepi 
TOUÜ uéAAovros éAáuBavov éXmiGas. 

Taóra uév o$v émpáxyÜn xavà roÜürov vOv &w- 

/ 
QUTÓV. 

53. "Ec &pyovros 9' 'AO5vqow EkAe(óov 'Po- 
pato. karéoTQoav üàyri TOV ÜÓmárov xwuápyovs 
Tpeis, Mápkov Mávwov, Kówrov 2ZiovArrikvov. Tpoa- 


! évvoopevos added by Bezzel. 
90 


BOOK XII. 50 7—53. 1 


subnutted to them of their own accord through fear. 
And afler plundermg all Macedoma and appro- 
puating much booty the Thracians turned against 
the Greck cities 1n. Chaleidicé. 

51. While &talces was engaged in these operations, 
the Thessalians, Achaeans, Magnesians, and all the 
other Greeks dwelling between Macedonia and Ther- 
mopylae took counsel together and united in raising 
a considerable army ; for they were apprehenswe 
lest the Thracans with all their myniads of soldiers 
should invade their terntory and they themselves 
should be in peril of losing their native lands. Since 
the Chalcidians made the same preparations, Sitalces, 
having learned that the Greeks had mustered strong 
armies and reahzing that hus soldiers were suffeiing 
from the hardships of the winter, came to terms with 
Perdiecas, concluded a connection by marnage with 
him, and then led his forces back to Thrace. 

59. While these events were taling place, the 
Lacedaemonmans, accompamed by their alhes of the 
Peloponnesus, invaded Attica under the command of 
Archidamus their ling, destroyed the grain, which 
was m 1ts first growth, ravaged the countryside, and 
then returned home. The Athenians, since they did 
not dare meet the invaders in the field and were 
distressed. because of the plague and the lack of pro- 
visions, had only bleak hopes for the future 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

53. When Eucleides was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected in place of consuls three mulitary 
tnbunes, Marcus Manis, Quintus Sulpiaus Prae- 


1 Seuthes, a nephew of Sitalces and his successor on the 
throne, married Stratonicé, Perdiccas! sister (Thucydides, 2. 
101. 6). 


i 231 


438 B « 


49" B.C 


b» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


rébrarov, Xeposwv! KopnjAov Kócocov.  émi 86 
ToUTcV kürd Tiv XukeAav A«ovrtvot, XaÀkiécv 
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ToÀéuo, kai Ou& TTv DmepoxTv TÓwv Mvpakoctov 
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"péo[ew eis vràs 'AOWvas, &£woÜvres TOv OSQuov 
BonÜSca. rzv raxtoTrqv xai Tr)v vÓAwv éavrOv ék 
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Aéfews éfémAm£e voUs 'AÜmvaiovs Ovras e)dvets 
Kal duÀoAóyovs.  wpáros yàp éxpücaro rois Tfj 
Aéfeos oxynnaorwpois mepvrroTépows kai Tjj duÀo- 
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maptaots kai , ópovoreAerois , kai TiOwW  érépous 
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àzo800xyfs TÉLoUro, vOv O6 mepwpyiav éyew Ooxet 
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kópcs TiÜÉueva. réÀos 96 vre(oas roUs ' AÜnvaitovs 
ovpjuaXxfjoca, rois Aeovrivow, ooros pev ÜavpaoÜecis 
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Aeovrivous émávooov émoujcaro. 

54. "AÜmvato, 0€ kai máÀac pév foav émÜvumrai 
Tíjs 2ukeÀias Ouà Tv üperT]v Tí$s yepas, kai TÓTe€ 
1 $o Dindorf: XiepovAvv. 

32 


BOOK XII. 53 1—54 1 


textatus, and Servius Cornehus Cossus. This year in 427 &« 
Sicily the Leontines, who were colonmsts fom Chalois 
but also kinsmen of the Athenians, were attacked, as 
it happened, by the Syiaeusans. And bemg hard- 
pressed in the war and in danger of having their 
city taken by storm because of the superior power 
of the Syracusans, they dispatched ambassadors to 
Athens asking the Athenian people to send them 
immediate aid and save their city from the perils 
threatening it. The leader of the embassy was Gor- 
gias the rhetorician, who in eloquence far surpassed 
all his eontemporaries. He was the first man to 
devise rules of rhetoric and so far excelled all othe 
men in the instruction offered by the sophists that he 
received from his pupils a fee of one hundred minas.! 
Now when Gorgias had arrived 1n Athens and been 
introduced to the people in assembly, he discoursed 
to them upon the subject of the alliance, and by the 
novelty of his speech he filled the Athenians, who are 
by nature clever and fond of dialectie, with wonder 
For he was the first to use the rather unusual and 
carefully devised structures of speech, such as anti- 
thesis, sentences with equal members or balanced 
clauses or similar endings, and the like, all of which 
at that time was enthusiastically received because 
the device was exotic, but is now looked upon as 
laboured and to be ridiculed when employed too 
frequently and tediously. In the end he won the 
Athenans over to an alhance with the Leontines, 
and after having been admired in Athens for his 
rhetorical skill he made his return to Leontini. 

54. For some time past the Athenians had been 
covetous of Sicily because of the fertility of its land, 


1 Some 1800 dollars, 360 pounds sterling. 
VOL. V C 33 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8' dopuévwwos mpooóefápevow ovs To0 l'opytov 
Aóyovus éJmóicavro cvppuaxtav ékmépmew Trois 
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! So Reiske: Swdáuews émwreAeoáuevoi peyíoras ékékrqvro 
qróAeis. 

* grpaTw»yovs omitted P, Vogel. 

! dAov suggested by Vogel (Thuc. 3. 86) 


34 


BOOK XII. 54. 1-4 


and so at the moment, gladly aecepting the proposals «27 
of Gorgias, they voted to send an alhed force to the 
Leontmnes, offering as their excuse the need and 
request of their kinsmen, whereas in fact they were 
eager to get possession of the island. And indeed not 
many years previously, when the Corinthians and 
Cercyraeans were at war with one another and both 
were bent upon getting the Athenians as allies,! the 
popular Assembly chose the alliance with the Cer- 
cyraeans for the reason that Cercyra was advan- 
tageously situated on the sea route to Sicily. For, 
speaking generally, the Athenmans, having won the 
supremacy of the sea and accomphshed great deeds, 
not only enjoyed the aid of many alles and possessed 
powerful armaments, but also had taken over a great 
sum of ready money, since they had transferred from 
Delos to Athens the funds of the confederacy of the 
Greeks,? which amounted to more than ten thousand 
talents ; they also enjoyed the services of great com- 
manders who had stood the test of actual leadership ; 
and by means of all these assets 1t was their hope not 
only to defeat the Lacedaemonians but also, after 
they had won the supremacy over all Greece, to lay 
hands on Sicily 

These, then, were the reasons why the Athenans 
voted to gwe aid to the Leontines, and they sent 
twenty ships to Sicily and as generals Laches and 
Charoeades. These saded to Rhegium, where they 
added to their force twenty ships from the Rhegians 
and the other Chaleidian colomsts. Making Rhegium 
their base they first of all overran the islands of the 


1 Cp. chap. 33. * 'The Confederacy of Delos. 
85 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Lév wpürov às Avwrapaiov vücous karéópajiov 
84 TÓ cvppayetv roós Awrapaiovs Tois Xvpa- 
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uáyy, ka0' Sv "AÜqvato, vucjcavres dmékreiwav 
uév mÀetovus r&v yiMtov, ébcoyprjcav 86 ook éAdr- 
Tovs TÓv éÉakooiwv: eüU0s O6 xai TO dpoUpwov 
ékmoAiopkijcavres karéaxov. 

Toórwov 6 mporrouévov  karémÀevcav  víjes 
rerrapákovra. Js GméoTeiAev Ó Ofjpos , kptva 
yevvauórepov dureoÜou coU oÀénov: Tyyeiro 
ajrOv E)puuéóov kai XodokAfs.  à0powcÜeuóv 
86 rv rpvjpuov eis évo. rómrov à£uAoyos 70m oTó- 
os KareokevacTo, ovykeip.evos éx pupa Oy8orj- 
Kovrü ToU 86 moÀéuov xpovi&ovros oí Aeovrivoi 
OvvmpeoDevoájuevou mpos ToUs 2wpakooiovs Owe- 
AíÜqcav. GOiómep at uév TOv 'AÜmvatow Tpvüpew 
&mémAevoav eig T"]v oikeiav, ot 6€ Ziupakóotot rots 
Aeovríivois ueraGóvres 7íjs ToAvreias ümavrag Xivpa.- 
Koctovs érovQoay, kai rT|v róuv ópo)piov amé8ei£av 
TÓV Xvpakociov. 

Kai rà pév karà v?jv 3ukeAav év roUTows Tv. 

55. Karà 8é vv '"EAAdóa Aéofiow uév àméorn- 
cav dvo TÓÀv 'AOwvaiov: évekdAovv yàp aDrots, 
ór. BovÀouévov cvvowitew Tácas Tàs kaTÀ TV 
AéoDov móÀews eis ry». MvriMqvatoov zóAw. Qvko- 


! My Aas added by Cluver (Thuc. 3. 90. 2). 


! 'The group of small volcanic 1slands west of the toe of 
Italy ; ep. Book 5. 7. 


36 


BOOK XII. 54. 4—55. 1 


Liparaeans* because they were alhes of the Syra- 4?t wc. 
cusans, and after this they sailed to Locn,? where 

they captured five ships of the Locrians, and then laid 

siege to the stronghold of Mylae?* When the neigh- 
bournng Sicahan Greeks came to the ad of the 

M ylaeans, a battle developed 1n which the Athenians 

were victorious, slaying more than a thousand men 

and takimg prisoner notless than six hundred ; and 

at once they captured and occupied the stronghold. 

While these events were taking place there arrived 
forty ships which the Atheman people had sent, 
deciding to push the war more vigorously ; the com- 
manders were Eurymedon and Sophocles. When all 
the triremes were gathered into one place, a fleet of 
considerable strength had been fitted out, consisting 
as it did of eighty tnremes. But since the war was 
dragging on, the Leontines entered into negotiations 
with the Syracusans and came to terms with them. 
Consequently the Atheman tnremes saided back 
home, and the Syracusans, granting the Leontines 
the night of citizenship, made them all Syracusans and 
their city a stronghold of the Syracusans 

Such were the affairs in Sicily at this time. 

55. In. Greece the Lesbians revolted from the 
Athenians ; for they harboured against them the com- 
plait that, when they wished to merge all the cites 
of Lesbos with the city of the Mytülenaeans,! the 


? Epizephyrian Locris on the east shore of the toe of Italy. 

? On the north coast of Sicily west of Messené. 

* By this union of the land (sunowkismos) the separate 
governments of the different cities would have been dissolved 
and the inhabitants would all have become citizens of Mity- 
lené, the capital and seat of rule ; just as, traditionally under 
Theseus, the governments of the several cities of Attica. were 
put down and Athens became the city-state of the entire a1ea. 


97 


2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Avcav.  &ió kai mwpós AakeOawuuovious drooTet- 
Aavres mpeofevràs kai ovjuuoxtav ovvÜejevou ovv- 
efBoovAevov Tois Xwmrapriórous àvréyecÜa, Tíjs kar 
Ü&Acrrav Tyyep.ovias: mpós raUTQv O06 T»Y émBoATv 
émmyyeiAayro rroÀAás Tpvópeuws eis TOv róAejiov Trap- 
étecÜou. doyuévos 86 ráv areóouuoviov Drakov- 
cávrOv KQL Trepi Tv karaoxev]v TÓV TpUjpov 
ywopévov, ! AÜqvoto. $0ácavres asrÓv T)v mopa- 
okev]v mopaypíüa O)vapuv é£émejubav eis Tw 
Aécfov, mAÀwpócavres vabüs rerrapákovra kai 
orpor$yóv mpoxewuwodpevou KAewvrmióqv. | obTos 
9e mpocAÀaópevos PowÜeuav mapà TÓÀv cvupáyov 
KarémÀevoev eis MvrUMjvqv. — yevouévgs 86 vav- 
poxías oí uév MvriMqvatow ÀAewbÜévres. ovvekAcic- 
cÜgcav eis moAwpkíav, TOv 06 MAakeBOawuuovicv 
Jmóicagévov Bonfeiv rots MuriAqvatow kai mapa- 
okevatbopévov oróAov à£ióAoyov, édÜacav ' AÓnvato 
voaUs üAAas c)v ÓmA(trOus xiÀtows QmooTeiÀavres eis 
AéoBov. co)vrov 9 vyoUpevos lláyns 90 '"EmuAn- 
pov karavr$cas eis rv Muri, kai T']v mpo- 
vrápxovcav Obvapuv vapaAaBov, mepieretywce mov 
vzÓÀw kai ocvuveyets wpoo[oÀás émowtro o) uóvov 
kaTà yfv, GÀÀÀ xai karà ÜdAorrav 

Aaaeóauuóvios G6 é£asréoveuav eis 7?» Mvrivav 
Tpwvípew pév rerrapákovra mévre kai oTparmyov 
'"AÀkioav, eis 8é tv ' Ávrucr]v eioéDaAov uer. rv 
oviudxcv: émeMóvres 86 rods mapaAeAeuuévovs 
Tómous Tíj '"ÁTrwfs kal OyOcavres T7» xdpav 
éravíjAÜov eis vv oikelav | MvriMvato 86 7$ 
ovroÓceiQ kai TQ moÀéuq suelóuevow kai oraciá- 
bovres vpós GÀXjAovs, kaÜ' OpoAoyíav mapé8wav 
Tv TÓMw Tols woMopkoOow. év 8é rats '"AOfjvous 
88 


BOOK XII. 55. 2-8 


Athenians had prevented it. Consequently, after 427 wc. 
dispatching ambassadors to the Peloponnesians and 
concluding an alliance with them, they adwised the 
Spartans to make an attempt to seize the supremacy 
at sea, and toward this design they promised to supply 
many tnremes for the war. The Lacedaemonians 
were glad to accept this offer, but whde they 
were busied with the building of the triremes, the 
Athenmans forestaled their completion by sendimg 
forthwith a force against Lesbos, having manned forty 
ships and chosen Clemippides as their commander, 
He gathered reinforcements from the allies and put 
in at Mytilené. In à naval battle which followed the 
Mytlenaeans were defeated and enclosed within a 
siege of their city. Meanwhile the Lacedaemonians 
had voted to send aid to the Mytilenaeans and were 
making ready a strong fleet, but the Athenians fore- 
stalled them by sending to Lesbos additional ships 
along with a thousand hophtes. Them commander, 
Paches the son of Epiclerus, upon arnving at Myti- 
lené, took over the force already there, threw a wall 
about the city, and kept launchimg continuous assaults 
upon it not only by land but by sea as well. 

The Lacedaemonians sent forty-five triremes to 
Mytlené under the command of Aloidas, and they 
also 1nvaded Attica together with their alhes; here 
they visited the districts of Attica which they had 
passed by befo1e, ravaged the countryside, and then 
returned home. And the Mytilenaeans, who were 
distressed by lack of food and the war and were also 
quarrelhng among themselves, formally surrendered 
the city to the besegers While in Athens the people 


30 


10 


Lt» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ Y / 
ToO Ovov BovAevouévov mós xp") mpoocvéykacÜa, 

^ / e / 5 M 
roig Muriqvatoi, KAéov o0 Ónuoyoryós, opos 
s / M ^ 
cv TOv TpÓTOv kai Diowos, mapdéÉtvve TÓv Ófjuov, 

^ , A 

dsodouvóuevos Oetv. ro?g  MuriAqvatovs | abroUs 

L ^ ) 

pév vB«90v Gmavras dmokréivoi, Tékva O6 xai 

i / 

yvvaikas efavópamoO0(ícacÜon. ^ TéÀos Oé sewÜév- 

vov TOV 'AÁÜnvaiov xarà TÜ)v vyvowqv Te ToD 
* 

KAéovos m$wauévov, dameoráAgcav eis 77v 
^ / / 

Muorujvqv ot rà 9oxÜévra. rQ Ornp« OnMOcovres 

^ ^ ^ J 3 / A 

TÓÀ crpaTQyQ. ToU 8é llàyqros àvayvóvros «0 
E ^ 6 

Vjówpa TÀÓev &vavriov và mporépw érepov. d 
^ ? 

0€ lldyys vyvoós vw pgerdvouv TOv 'AOmvaiwv 

éxydp«, kat ro)s MvrUMqvatovs ovvayayov eis. éx- 

kÀyciav dméÀvoe rÀv éykAguárov, &ua 86 kal 

E ^ ^ / 
rÀv ueyiorav dópwv. ' A0nvato, 86 ríjs MvrUvivas 

M / J * / eU 1 ^ 
TQ Teiym srepieAOvres Tv AéoBov óAwv mX)v cfs 

n8vuvaiov xópas koarekAnposyncav. 

€ b! ^5 ; 5 l4 ? * 9? Ü / 

H pév oiv Aeoüov ámóoracis ám 'AOwvaiov 
votoÜrOV éGye TO TÉÀos. 

56. Ilepi 0é ro)s ajroUs xpóvovs AaxeBouuóviot 
ràs IAarais moMopkobvres sepveretywav 73v mó- 
Aw Kai orportóTOts ToMots mapedUAaTTov — ypo- 
wLojcys Oé Tís ToAopkías kal TOv 'AÜmvaiav 

/ , / / c / 
unoepiav é£azrooreAMvrov Bore, oi mroMopkoá- 
pevow GuvroOe(q 7€ ovve(yovro kai TOv qoAvrÓv 
b ^ ^ A 5 7 ? 
€v rais mpoopoAÀats moAAo)s dmeDeBAkecav. dmo- 
povpévov 9' a)rGv kai BovAevouévow mepi fs 
otcrüpías, rois pév moÀÀots éOókev v Tjovy(av 
» ^ ? » e , 7 » 
àyew, rois 0 dÀAows dg Otakooto:gs obciw £Bofe 
En lucet PENE T. I o o o X 


* Among ÁAtheman colonists. Thucydides (3. 50. 2) states 
40 


BOOK XII. 55. 8—656. 2 


were deliberaung on what acton they should take 427 s.c. 
agamst the Mytülenaeans, Cleon, the leadei of the 
populacee and a man of cruel and violent natuie, 
spurred on the people, declanmg that they should slay 
all the male Mytilenaeans from the youth upward and 
sell into slavery the children and women. 1n the end 
the Athenians were won over and voted as Cleon had 
proposed, and messengers were dispatched to Myti- 
lené to make known to the general the measures 
decreed by the popular assembly. Even as Paches 
had finished reading the decree a second decree 
arrived, the opposite of the first. Paches was glad 
when he learned that the Athenians had changed their 
minds, and gathenrmg the Mytilenaeans in assembly 
he declared them free of the charges as well as of 
the greatest fears. The Athenians pulled down the 
walls of Mytilené and portioned out in allotments ! 
the entire 1sland of Lesbos with the exception of the 
territory of the Methymnaeans. 

Such, then, was the end of the revoltofthe Lesbians 
from the Athemans. 

56. About the same time the Lacedaemonians who 
were besieging Plataea threw a wall about the city 
and kept a guard overitofmany soldiers. And as the 
siege dragged on and the Athenians still sent them 
no help, the besieged not only were suffering from 
lack of food but had also lost many of their fellow 
citizens in the assaults. While they were thus at à 
loss and were conferring together how they could be 
saved, the majority were of the opimon that they 
should make no move, but the rest, some two hundred 
in number, decided to force a passage through the 


that the Lesbians arranged to work the allotments as renters, 
paying the colonists a fixed rental. 


VOL. V cy 41 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vukrós PiácaoÜa. ro9s QAakas kai Ovemreaetv. eis 
rüs 'AÜXvas. Tn»pücavres ov ücoéAqvov vókra rovs 
pev GÀAovs émewav cis Üdrepa uépm mpooB4A- 
Aew TÓ epuvrewtopau, aD0rToQ 0. érouuacdpevot 
kAiuakas, kai TOv ToÀeuiov mapafonÜo/Dvrov àv 
TOÍs dGmeoTpapévows épeou TÓv TeuyÓv, airol 
Oià rÀv kAudkcv. érvyov àvafdvres émi TÓ cei- 
Xos, kai To)0s dUAakas ümokretvavres  Ouédwyov 
eis ràs 'AÜjvas. T$ O9 Dorepaígn AareBGauauóviot 
pév mapofuvÜévres émi vQ OpaouQ Tv dmeAn- 
AvÜorov ék Tfjs móÀecs, mpocéBaAov fj móAe Tv 
IAaraiécw xai wácav eioedépovro omovOww Ba 
Xe«pc)oaoÜa. rovs rroMopkouuévovs ot 86 IlAorai- 
eis karamAayévres kai Ouampeofevoduevow map- 
Oca éavroUs re kai Tv móAw rois moAepíots. oi 
0' Qyeuóves TÀv akeGoutoviov  kaÜ" dva cÀv 
Auraiéov mpookaAoójevo. émmpórov Tí áàyaÜóv 
memoi]ke Tots Aaxe8awuovíows, ékdorov 8é óuo- 
Aoyotüvros un8€v eÓnpyergkévai, máXv émmpdrov 
eL TL KükÓv éOpacav roUs Xwmapridras: ojBevóg 8' 
ávriÀéyovros, mávrov karéyvocav Üávarov.  8ió 
Kai ToUs éykaraAewbÜévras dmavrag dvetÀov kal 
karackdabavres épioUwaav T')v xdpav a9rGy.  TTAa- 
Tauéts pv obv cv mpós 'Afwvaiovs evpuayíav 
BeBasorárnv Tüpjeavres &OUkcs rais ueyioros ovjs- 
opats Trepiémeoo 

57. "Apa. 06 oírow mparrouévow éy 7$ Kepicipa. 
peydAr ovvéorr aráow kal diAorulo, 8i& rotaras 
abrias. év rà mepi "Emibapuvov TOÀÉéuq) TroÀAol 
Kepkvpatcw aiyudAerou yevónevow kal korapAn- 
évres. eis vv OBguooíav dvAakiy émyyetÀavr 
rois KopwÜ(ow mapaBdocew jv Képxvpav, éàv 
49 


BOOK XII. 56. 2——57. 1 


guards by night and make ther way to Athens. And «e &c 
so, on a moonless night for which they had waited, 
they persuaded the rest of the Plataeans to make an 
assault upon one sideof the encircling wall; they them- 
selves then made ready ladders, and when the enemy 
rushed to defend the opposite parts of the walls, 
they managed by means of the ladders to get up on 
the wall, and after slaying the guards they made their 
escape to Athens. The next day the Lacedaemonians, 
provoked at the fhght of the men who had got away 
from the eity, made an assault upon the city of the 
Plataeans and strained every nerve to subdue the 
besieged by storm ; and the Plataeans in dismay sent 
envoys to the enemy and surrendered to them both 
themselves and the city. "The commanders of the 
Lacedaemonians, summoning the Plataeans one by 
one, asked what good deed he had ever performed for 
the Lacedaemonians, and when each confessed that 
he had done them no good turn, they asked further if 
he had ever done the Spartans any harm ; and when 
not a man could deny that he had, they condemned 
all of them to death — Consequently they slew all 
who still remained, razed the city to the ground, and 
farmed out its territory. So the Plataeans, who had 
mamtained with the greatest constancy their alliance 
with the Athenmans, fell unjust victims to the most 
tragic fate. 

57. While these events were taking place, in 
Cercyra bitter cil strife and. contentiousness arose 
for the following reasons. In the fighting about 
Epidamnus many Cercyraeans had been taken 
prisoner and cast into the state prison, and these men 
promised the Corinthians that, 1f the Corinthians set 


! Cp. chap. 31. 
48 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 ajroU0s dmoAÀ/coocw. dGopuévos 06 rÀv KopwÜiov 
mpoo8efapévov Toüs Aóyovs, ot Keprvpatow mpoa- 
zowmÜévres Aórpa, Gi8óvou. 8vyyyviiüroav imo rÀv 

3 npo£évov ikavàv view TaÀávraov ddeÜévres. kat 
Tnpotvres 5v? TÀv poAÀoynguévov müorw, cs 
karzvTQOav cis TTv wmoTp(Oa, ToUs Onuayovyeiv 
eioÜóras kai puáAMora To0 mÀwWÜovs mpoioracÜat 
cvAAaflóvres àméoQafav.  xaraÀA)cavres O6 ^» 
ónnokpariav, ier. óÀMyov xpóvov 'AÜqvaicv Bon- 
Üncdvrowv vQ B"), ot uév Kepkvpatow rjv. éAev- 
Ücpíav àvaxrqgcápevo: koAübev émepáAovro co)s 
T?v émaváoraoiw Temowuévovs: oro. 86 dofn0év- 
T€g$ TT7V Tiucpiav kaTéóvyov émi vo)s TÓv Üedv 
fwpuo)s kai (kéra, rob O)uov kai rÀv Üedv éyé- 

4 vovro. oi 0é Kepkvpator 0uà, 71)v spós Ücoüs eioé- 
Beuav cs Wév Tquopias a$ro)s üzéAvaav, ék Tí 
vóÀews 86 éfémejujav. oórou 8€ máMv veorepitew 
émBaAóuevou kai Teuioavres év Tjj víjoq xcuptov 
óxvpóv ékakomo(ovv ro0s Kepkupatovs. 

laóüra pév oóv émpáxÜq xarà coÜrov TÓv éw- 
avTÓv. 

58. "Em dàpxyovros 9. 'A85vqow Ev0/vov* 'Po- 
pato. karéor]oav üvri TÓVv ÜÓmárov xiMápyovs 
Tpets, Mdpkov GOáfiov, Mápkov OaA/viov, Aeiktov 

epoviÀtov. | émi 0€ roUrcv 'AÜmvato, ypóvov viwá 
víjs vócov Tí]s Aouuukfjs àveuuévow wdÀw cis Tàs 

2 a0ràs' cvdopüs évémesov: obro yàp nó Tfj 
* So Rhodoman : ámó. 

Ómó after rjv deleted by Reiske. 

KaréAvody 7e T7» 8., ner" óMyov 86 xpóvov Reiske. 


* So Dindorf: Ej00v850v. * avràs added by Reiske. 
44 


2 
3 


BOOK XII. 57 23—58. 9 


them free, they would hand Cercyra over to them. 421 ».c. 
lhe Corinthians gladly agreed to the proposals, and 
the Cercyraeans, after going through the pretence of 
paying a ransom, were released on bail of a consider- 
able sum of talents furmshed by the proxeni! Faith- 
ful to their promises the Cercyraeans, as soon as they 
had returned to their native land, arrested and put to 
death the men who had always been popular leaders 
and had acted as champions of the people. They also 
put an end to the democracy ; but when, a little 
after this time, the Athenians came to the help of 
the popular party, the Cereyraeans, who had now 
recovered their liberty, undertook to mete out 
punishment to the men responsible for the revolt 
agamst the estabhshed government. These, in fear of 
the usual punishment, fled for refuge to the altars of 
the gods and became suppliants of the people and 
of the gods — And the Cercyraeans, out of reverence 
for the gods, absolved them from that punishment 
but expelled them from the city — But these exiles, 
undertaking à second revolution, fortified a strong 
position on the island, and continued to harass the 
Cercyraeans. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

58. When Euthynes was archon in Athens, the 426 s.c 
Romans elected in place of consuls three military 
tribunes, Mareus Fabius, Marcus Fahnius, and Lucius 
Servihus. In this year the Athenans, who had 
enjoyed a penod of rehef from the plague,? became 
involved agam in the same nmusfortunes ; for they 


| Proxeni were citizens of one city chosen by anothei city 
to look after the interests of its citizens who were residing, 
sojourning, or doing business there; they were a sort of 
consul in the modern sense. 
* Cp chap 45. 
45 


- 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vócou OLeréÜqcav, dore TÓv ovpuruorQv dso- 
BaAetv «eLoUs! uév ÜDmép Toe rerpakwayiAbovs, 
immetg 86 rerpakociovus, rÓv O GAÀcv éAevÜépov 
ve kal GojAnv $mép roOs pvpious.  émwiUmrovons 
8e Tfj loropias r1)v^ íjs mept c1)» vóoov OewórwT0s 
alríav, dva'ykatóv éorw. ékÜécÜa. rabra. 

[Lpoyeyevnuévow v 7 xeuivi ueyaAov OuBpcov 
cwvéf c» yfjv dvuOpov yevéaOa, vroAAoUs 8é xai 
TÀv kolÀov TóTOv Ocfauévovus wÀfjÜos vOaros 
Auuváoou kai oxetiv oraróv vOcp aposAmoius 
Tots éÀdBec. rÀv TÓm«w, Üeppawwogévev. 0 év 7Q 
Üépe, roírwv kai oxmouévov avvieraaÜat rraxeias 
Kai 8vodO«s drpuioas, ra?ras 0. àvaÜvpucouévas 
6.adÜeipeww TÓv TÀqoíov áépa: Ómwep OT) kai émi 
TOv éÀQv TrÓv vocoO9 OuiÜeow éxyóvrov Opároi 
ywópevov. ovveBáÀero 8é mpós Tv vócoov kai jj 
Tfjs "pooQeponévus Tpodfjs kaxía: éyévovro yàp 
oí KüpmOL Karü roÜUrov TÓV ÉviavTOÓV Évvypoi sav- 
TeÀÓs kai OtedÜappuévqv éyovres c?» QUow.  rpirqv 
84 airíav avvéBn yevéoÜOa« Tífjs vóoov rÓ uv) rrveboat 
roUe érqcías, Ov Gv dei karà TO Üépos ijyera: 
TO mo0À) ToÜ kayUparos: rrjs 9€ Ücppaciag émiraoiw 
AaBojoqs kai Tro dépos épmUpov vyevopuévov, TÀ 
ccp.ara. rv àvÜpcrov waoeuiüs iiUEeos yevopévns 
Avjaiveo0a, cvvéBaxve. 010 kal rà voovr)uora róre 
vávra kavparoOO0n cvvéBowev etvaw Oià T")v vmep- 
BoX"v Tfs Üepuaoías. O1à Bé raUrQv T")v air(av 
oí mÀeioro. TrÀv vocoóvrov éppurrov éavroUs eis 
Tà ójpéora kal ràs kpWüvas émivuob)vres a)DrÀv 
«arcta. rà ocuyra. ot 8. "AÜOmqvotoi Otà cv 

1 seboos added by Dindorf. 
* rv added by Fachstadt 

46 


BOOK XII. 58. 2—6 


were so seriously attacked by the disease that of their 12e s» c 
soldiers they lost more than four thousand infantry 

and four hundred cavalry, and of the rest of the 
population, both free and slave, more than ten thou- 
sand. And since history seeks to ascertain the cause 

of the malignancy of thus disease, it 1s our duty to 
explam these matters. 

As a result of heavy rains in the previous winter the 
ground had become soaked with water, and many 
low-lying regions, having received. a vast amount of 
water, turned into shallow pools and held stagnant 
water, very much as marshy regions do; and when 
these waters became warm in the summer and grew 
putnd, thick foul vapours were formed, which, rising 
up in fumes, corrupted the surrounding air, the very 
thing which may be seen taking place in marshy 
grounds which are by nature pestilentia] — Contr 
buting also to the disease was the bad character of the 
food available ; for the crops which were raised that 
year were altogether watery and their natural quahty 
was corrupted | Ànd a third cause of the disease 
proved to be the failure of the etesian! winds to blow, 
by which normally most of the heat in summer 1s 
cooled ; and when the heat intensified and the au 
grew fiery, the bodies of the inhabitants, being with- 
out anything to cool them, wasted away.  Conse- 
quently all the illnesses which prevailed at that time 
were found to be accompanied by fever, the cause of 
which was the excessive heat. And this was the 
reason why most of the sick threw themselves into the 
cisterns and springs in their craving to cool thew 
bodies The Athemans, however, because the disease 


1 "(That 1s, the ** annual" winds, blowing from the north- 
west in summer 


LT 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


UmepBoATyv Tíjs vócov TÓS aerias Tfs cvudopüs émi 
TO Üctov avémejumov. 90 xai kará rwa. xpnopóv 
exáBnpay v?v vfjoov AfjÀov, "AaróMeovos. pev o9cav 
iepáv, Dokofcav 96 pepuá&vÜa, Oi ró roUs rercAcv- 
T»)kóras ev avr) re0dda.. &vaokdyravres obv 
drácas Tràs €v vfj Avo Ü'jkas perteeykav eis 
TTV "Pyveuav «aAovuévgv viíjcov, mÀQotov Ümdp- 
xovcav Tis Adftov. éra a Oé kai vópov wire 
Tkrew ey TÍ Aseo wire Üdzrrew. émrocroay 9€ 
kai mavWyvpw Tov vOv NqÀiv, yeyevup.évmv uev 
"pórepov, OuaÀumotoav 9€ TroAv Xpóvov. 

59. Tov 9 " Abrvaiov vepi raÜUr üoyoAovpuévov 
AakeGatóviow Toós. ITeAomovvqotovs zrapaAaBóvres 
karearparoméOevoav mrepi rÓv ioÜuóv, Guvoovpevor 
TdÀw eis Tv "'AÀTruc»v eioBaAetv: oewopóv 0€ 
peyáAov ywopéve GevoiBausiovrjmavres àvékapalav 
eig Tüs vaTpibas. w«Àwo)Urovs O6 TOUS GeioQoUs 
cvvéBm yevéoÜa. korà voÀAà uépm Ts 'EAAá80s, 
dore Kai TÓÀets Twwüs émÜoAerrious émucXóoaaay 
TTV ÜdAarrav OradÜetpac, kai kar Tiv Aokpióa. 
Xeppovijaou kallearcóos pgé£ac pev TOv ioÜpóv, 
Trovfja au Oé vfjoov T"v óvop.abopévgv "AraA&vTwv. 

"Apa 8é coUroius Trpo; TojLévots Aakeóo4uóvtot 
TOv Toaxtva kaAovpévqv qiioav kal uerevóuacav 
HpákAeu ITO! frouras Twàs. abrias.  Tpaxiveot 
T'pOS Oéralovs Ouópovs Ovras €rx9 TOÀÀO, ÓveroAé- 
|tovv KQL TOUS TÀetovs TOv mroÀvrOv dmréflaAov. 
épjuov 9 oDovs 7fjs TróÀecs 75teocav Aake8at- 
poviovs óvras &moikous émuueAnÜfgvau rífjs móAews. 





! An ancient festival of the Toman puces held in 
honour of Apollo and Artemis, Cp. Thucydides, 3. 104 


48 


BOOK XII. 58. 6—59 4 


was so severe, ascribed the causes of their misfortune 426 5 c. 
to the deity. Consequently, acting upon the com- 
mand of a certain oracle, they purified the island of 
Delos, which was sacred to Apollo and had been 
defiled, as men thought, by the burial there of the 
dead  Digging up, therefore, all the graves on Delos, 
they transferred the remains to the island of Rheneia, 
as itis called, which hes near Delos. They also passed 
a law that neither birth nor bunal should be allowed 
on Delos And they also celebrated the festival 
assembly, the Delia, which had been held in former 
days but had not been observed for a long time 

50. While the Athenians were busied with these 
matters, the Lacedaemonians, talking with them the 
Peloponnesians, pitched camp at the Isthmus ? with 
the intention of invading Attica again; but when 
great earthquakes took place, they were filled with 
superstitious fear and returned to their native lands 
Ánd so severe 1n fact were the shocks in many parts 
of Greece that the sea actually swept away and 
destioyed some cites lying on the coast, whiue in 
Locris the strip of land forming a peninsula was torn 
through and the island known as Atalanté? was 
formed. : 

While these events were taking place. the Lacedae- 
monians colonized Trachis, as 1t was called, and 
renamed 1t Heracleia,* for the followingieasons The 
Trachimans had been at war with the neighbouring 
Oetaeans for many years and had lost the larger 
number of their citizens. Since the city was deserted, 
they thought it proper that the Lacedaemonians, who 
were colonists from Trachis, should assume the ca1e of 


? Of Connth. ? Opposite Opus in Opunhbian Lociis. 
* At the head of the Malian Gulf. 


40 


ca 


b 


c2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oí 0e kai Oià TV Gwyyéveux kal OÓi4 TÓ TOV 
'H paAéa, mpóyovoy cavrdv óvra., €'ykomqKakéva 
KüTrà TOUS Gpyatovs Xpóvovs é€v cf lpaytw, 
éyvo)oav peydAny aDTtv zrovijoau vÓÀWw.  Ó kai 
Aakeóautovicov ev KQL TÓV IH eAorrovvroicov Te- 
rpa«axuAMous ot)Topa.s écnegabávrov, kai "rapa 
TÓV GAÀcv "EAAWvov Tovs BovAopévovs peréxew 
Tf] drowas mpoocóé£avro: obrou O' .Ticav oUK 
éAdrTovs TÓV éakwa yi. 9uó kai Tv Tpaxtva 
Avpitavópov zovjoavres, kai TTV xcipav KQTaQ- 
KkAnpovynjaavres , cvópagav TTV TÓÀV "HodkAetav. 

60 Em Gpyovros o " Avo YrporokAéovs év 
'"Póug vri vÓv $mrárwov yuMapxol Tpéis kare- 
oTráÜncav, Aeüktos Gotptos, Zmópuos ILwáptos kai 
l'áàuos MéreAMos eni Oe ToUTov "AUnvato. uev 
AnpiooQévr mpoxeupuadqsevot oTpaTw»yÓv pueTà vedv 
TpváKovr o KQL OTpQTuUTÓV ikavQyv é£améoreiav. 
o)ros O6 mpocAaDóuevos vapà cv Kepkvpaiov 
Tpujpews "evreka(óexa kai mapà TÓÀv KedaA- 
Acvcv kai 'Akapvávov kai Meconqviov TÀv év 
NavmákTqQ orparuoras érÀevoev émi v)v Ievkdoa. 
0yecas O6 rv xcpav TrÓÀv Aecukaótcv dmémAev- 
cev ézi T)v Airc-Aav kai moÀÀAàs a)DrÓv kopuas 
énrópÜnoe. Tv Óé AireAav cvorpadévrav ém. a9- 
TOV éyévero udxn, ka 7v 'AOmnvatow AeidÜévres 
eis Nomrakrov aTeyopnoav. oí O6  Aircàol 
0i4  T)v vücqv  émapÜévres, koi mpocAaBóp.evo 
AakeOauuoviov TptoyuAMovs. oTparicras, orpaTeu- 
cavres émi Na/makrov, korowolvrowv év air 
Tóre Meoonviov, drexposc0qcav. uerà 986 rabTa 


s Té after zapà deleted by Vogel. 
xai l'àtosg MéreMos omitted PAT, 


50 


BOOK XII. 59. 4—60. 3 


it. And the Lacedaemonians, both because of their 
linship and because Heracles, their ancestor, in 
ancient times had made his home in Trachis, decided 
to make it a great aty. Consequently the Lacedae- 
monians and the Peloponnesmans sent forth four 
thousand colonists and accepted any other Greeks 
who wished to have à part in the colony ; the latter 
numbered not less than six thousand — The result 
was that they made Trachis a city of ten thousand in- 
habitants, and. after portioning out the territory im 
allotments they named the city Heracleia. 

60. When Stratocles was archon in Athens, in 
Rome in place of consuls three military tribunes were 
elected, Lucius Funus, Spunus Pinarius, and Gaius 
Metellus: This year the Athenians chose Demo- 
sthenes general and sent him forth with thirty ships 
and an adequate body of soldiers. He added to his 
force fifteen ships from the Cercyraeans and soldiers 
from the Cephallenians, Acarnanians, and the 
Messenians i Naupactus, and then sailed to Leucas 
After ravaging the terntory of the Leucadians he 
sailed to Aetoha and plundered many of 1ts villages 
But the Aetolians ralled to oppose him and there was 
a battle in which the Athenians were defeated, where- 
upon they withdrew to Naupactus. The Aetohans, 
elated by ther victory, after adding to ther army 
three thousand Lacedaemoman soldie:s, marched 
upon Naupactus, which was mhabited at the time by 
Messenians, but were beaten off. After this they 


! These names are badly confused. They should be 
L. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus, L, Furius Medullinus l'usus, 
and Sp. Postumius Albus Regillensis. 


31 


426 B« 


425 B C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


orpareUcavres émi T5v Ovouabouévqv MoAvkpéav 
eÀov r?v móAwv | ó 9é rÀv 'AÜUnvaiov oTpaTmqyOs 
AnuooÜévas e)AaBoUpevos ur) kat 77v Nabvmakrov 
ékmoMopkjaooi, xuMovs órAiras é£ "Axapvavías 
perazejabduevos dméoreiÀev eis Tv. Navmakrov 
AnnuocÜévns 86 mepi Trjv "Akapvavtav OwrpiBcv 
vrepiérvyev ' Aumpakvayraus xvAtous orparorreüevUovot, 
mpós o)s cvvdas pudáyqv oxeO0v mávras àvetAe. 
TOv Ó. ék Tíjs ÁApmpaktas émeteMIóvrow vravÓnpuet, 
náÀw ó AnuocÜévqs ro)s mÀe(ovs aDrÀv ümékTei- 
vev, dore TT TÓAÀw oxeoóv épyuov vyevéo0au. ó 
pv oóv AnuooÜévgs dero 9eiv écmoMopktfjoat TT)v 
"Apmpakiav, éAnilov 0u& Tiv épquiav TÀv üpuv- 
voj.évoov paoés a9T)v aipijcew. ot 0. Akapvüves 
dofo/pevow p) Tífjs vróAeos ' Anvatou kvpieicavres 
Bap)repow vápoukow yéveovras Tv. ' Aurpakwuoráv, 
oük édacav ákoAovÜetv. oracialóvrov O' abrÀv, 
oí pév '"Ákapváves Owvoáuevou Tois 'ÁAjwmpa- 
KwbTOis GcuvéÜevro T? cipüvqv eis évQ ékaróv, 
AnuocÜévns 8' éykaraAeubÜeis nO rÀv ' Axapvá- 
vcV QTémÀevoe a)v rais eikoct vavaiv eis " AÓrjvas. 
"Awnpaktórau 96 ueyáÀy) ovudopü mepvrremokóres 
vapà TrÀv AakeOauuoviov dpovpàv ueremépjilavro, 
doBo/vpuevou ro)s ' AÜnvatovs. 

61. AquooÜévqs 86 orpareócas émi ll)Aov éme- 
BáAero roÜro TÓ x«wpiov reuxtaau karà fs lleAo- 
ToVv)cov' éor. yàp Oxyvpóv re Oiadepóvros kai 


! So Reiske - 7j» TIeAomóvvgoov. 





! About five miles south-west of Naupactus. 
* The 1eader may refer to the detaied account of the 


59 


BOOK XII. 60. 3—9861. 1 


marched upon the city called Molycria * and captured 425 » c. 
it. But the Athenian general, Demosthenes, being 
concerned lest the Aetolians should reduce by siege 
Naupactus also, summoned a thousand hophtes from 
Acarnania and sent them to Naupactus. And Demo- 
sthenes, while tarrying in Acarnania, fell im. with a 
thousand Ambracotes, who were encamped there, 
and joining battle with them he destroyed nearly the 
entire force. And when the men of Ambracia came 
out against him enm masse, again Demosthenes slew 
the larger number of them, so that their city became 
almost uninhabited. Demosthenes then believed that 
he should take Ambracia by storm, hoping that he 
would have an easy conquest because the city had no 
one to defend it. But the Acarnanians, fearing lest, 
if the Athenians became masters of the city, they 
should be harder neighbours to deal with than the 
Ambraciotes, refused to follow him. And since they 
were thus 1n disagreement, the Acarnanians came to 
terms with the Ambraciotes and concluded with them 
a peace of one hundred years, while Demosthenes, 
being left in the lurch by the Acarnanians, sailed back 
with hus twenty ships to Athens The Ambraciotes, 
who had expenenced a great disaster, sent for a 
garrison of Lacedaemonians, since they stood 1n fear 
of the Athenians 

61. Demosthenes now led an expedition. against 
Pylos,? intending to fortify this stronghold as a threat 
to the Peloponnesus ; for1t 1s an exceptionally strong 


following campaign in Thucydides, 4. 3-93, 26-40. In the 
Bay of Navarnino, on which Pylos lies, occurred the famous 
naval Battle of Navarino between the alhed British, Russian, 
and French fleet and the Turkish. The victory of the alhed 
fleet, 20th October 1827, decided the 1ssue of the Greek war of 
independence. 


58 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


keievov éy cf; Mecoqvía, Tífjs óé 2urápro0s! dméxov 
gTaUiovs TerpaKoctous.  éycw 0€ TOTe kai vaüs 
ToÀÀÀs kai oTpamLOTas LkavoUs, év etkoow T)uépous 
éreiyuoe Tiv. llóAov. |. Aakeóauusóviou 06 srvÜOpevoi 
TÓv reuyiopóv Tífs IIAov eviiyyayov ó9vapuw a£ió- 
Aoyov o) pnóvov me(v àÀÀà. kai vavruc]v. Oo kai 
rpwjpeau uev émi Tv ILoÀov érAevoav rerrapákovra 
Tévre kaÀós koreokevaopuévais, mebois O6 éoTpá- 
vevucav qWupiou kai Ow Yxt.ALows, aioxpóv TyoUpe- 
vov ToUs Tf A-rucdj Ogovpuévm pw) ToÀuncavras 
Bon8etv év lleAomovvQoc  xcpiov Tewíilew kai 
xaraAauBáveo0a.. obro. uév ov ?)yovuévov Opa- 
cuujGovs cÀnotov Tfs IIUAov kaTeovparorébevcav. 
éumecojons Oé Opus TrQ mÀ0Üe. vávra kivOvvov 
omouévew kai Bie xeupocao0a, T)v lloAov, ràs 
uev vabs avrwurpopovs éorjoav TQ oTÓuaTw. ToD 
Ausévos, órres 8ià ToUTov éudpá£wor TÓv elomAovv 
TÓv ToÀeuimv, mel 0. éx OuuOoxfjs mrpooDdAMovres 
TQ Te(yeu kai duÀoruuiav Tv peyiorqv eioóepó- 
pevow Üavpaciovs dydvas ovveor?cavro. eig 0é 
TTjv víjcov Tv kaÀovupévqv 3ijakerQpíav, rapaorera- 
uévqv 9' éri ufjcos kat rovocav ebOiov TOV Auséva, 
O.eDiBacav rovs apiorovs TOv AakeOawuuoviov kai 
TOv ovuuycov.  ToÜro 9  émpafav d$Ü0dáco. fov- 
Aopevou ToUs "AÜmnvaiovs mpokaroÀaéoÜo, r1 
vicov, e0jvós oQó0pa xeuiévmv mpós vTv soAwop- 
kiav. Ovwuepevovres 0. é? rais rewopaytous kai 
karmarvrpe)okOpevov Ouà TT]v àró ToÜ Te(yovs Urrep- 
oy" oók éAmyov Tíjs Días: 810 voAAot pév a)TOv 


! So Palmer: Meooqvías. 
* $o Dindorf: xyópov. 
? 9 Wesseling : 8é. 
54 


BOOK XII. 61. 1-5 


place, situated 1n Messenia and four hundred stades 125 
distant from Sparta. Smce he had at the time both 
many ships and an adequate number of soldier;, 
in twenty days he threw a wall about Pylos The 
Lacedaemonians, when they learned that Pylos had 
been fortified, gatheed together a large force, both 
infantry and ships. Consequently, when they set sail 
for Pylos, they not only had a fleet of forty-five fully 
equipped triremes but also marched with an army of 
twelve thousand soldiers ; for they considered it to 
be a disgraceful thing that men who were not brave 
enough to defend Attica while 1t was being ravaged 
should fortify and hold a fortress 1n the Peloponnesus. 
Now these forces under the command of Thrasymede«s 
pitched their camp in the neighbourhood of Pylos. 
And since the troops were sexzzed by an eager desire 
to undergo any and every danger and to take Pylos 
by storm, the Lacedaemonians stationed the ships 
with ther prows facing the entrance to the harbour 
in order that they mught use them for blocking the 
enemy's attempt to enter, and assaulting the walls 
with the infantry in successive waves and displaying 
all possible rivalry, they put up contests of amazing 
valour Also to the 1sland called Sphacteria, which 
extends lengthwise to the harbour and protects it 
from the winds, they t1ansported the best troops of 
the Lacedaemonians and them allies. This they did 
in their desire to forestall the Athenians in getüng 
control of the island before them, simce 1ts situation 
was especially advantageous to the prosecution of the 
siege. And though they were engaged every day in 
the fighting before the fortficatuions and were suffer- 
ing wounds because of the superior height of the wall, 
they did not relax the violence of ther fighting ; as a 


55 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


áméBvnokov, oUK óAtyor 8€ karerpavpuoribovro TipÓs 
TÓTOV OxUpopévov Buatbópevot oL 0€ "AUnvaiot 
m pokareumpuévot xcptov «aL dUocer kaprepóv, kai 
BeAQv Te mAwxÜc kai vrÀv GAÀMeov TOv xpwyoüucv 
ToÀÀT)V eXovres àdUoviav, ékÜDpuos zjróvovro: 
TAmwbov yàp kparjoavres Tfjs émipoMjs sávra TÓv 
mÓÀepov mrepuoryaryety eis Tv HeAozóvvyaov KaL 
ónocew dvà pépos Trjv xopav TÓv TroAeputcoy 

62. Ts € moAtopktas &vvmépBÀt]rov TÜV OT'0U- 
ó7v éyovons rrap' Gpdorépois, Kai TOV Yaapruaüv 
Bíav mpocayóvrcv Tots TeUyeot, voÀÀol uév GAAoL 
kaürü Tàs dàvOpayaDias cÜavpác0ncav, Jieylorgs 
9c dmoboxis érvuye DpaoíOac. TÓÀv yàp Tpu)p- 
ápycv o) ToÀ|.vTcoV "poovyayetv Tf) yf TÓs 
Tpujpeus Oud Tov xaAenórra TÓYV TÓTOYV, TpUjp- 
apxos dv éfóa kai mapekeAevero TÀ kuBepyrn 
uy DeiBeoBa. To0 okádovs, aAAG «ai Bia 7poo- 
dye Tf vf Tv Tpvip: G£GXpÓv "yàp elvat TOlS 
7rapriraus Tüs Lév wvyfjs ad«8etv évexa Tfjs 
vikns, TÓÀv ÓOé ckaQóv  $eibec0a. kai Tep.opüv 
"ABnvatovs kparoüvras Tífs Aakwwucis. TéÀos S 
cvvavaykáoavros TOV kvBepvrirqv mpocaya»yeiy TT)V 
vatv, 7 uev rpujps emákceiiev, ó àé , Bpacióas 
ri füs eni T)v Ts veas Amifldfpay éK TOUT)S 
Tjcovorro TÓ mios TÓV ém a)rÓv gvvüpapióvrav 
"AUnvalov. kal TO pév "prov TOUS mpootóvras 
TroAAoUs &mékrewe, uerà Oé Tabra oA em 
abTÓv imidepouévom peAdv | roAAots mrepiémrumrev 
evayriots TpaUL.ucot. TéAÀos 86€ óu TÓV Tpavjdrav 
aiLaTOS ékxuÜévros rroAAoQ, kai 8u roUro Avro- 
jvx")cavros aDTo0, Ó uév Bpaylow "poémeoev éx 


96 


bOOK XII. 61 5—62 4 


consequence, many of them were slain and not a few 125 »«. 
were wounded as they pressed upon a position which 
had been fortified. The Athenians, who had secured 
beforehand a place which was also a natural strong- 
hold and possessed large supplies of missiles and a 
great abundance of everything else they nught need, 
kept defending their position with spirit ; for they 
hoped that, if they were successful 1n their design, 
they could carry the whole war to the Peloponnesus 
and ravage, bit by bit, the territory of the enemy. 
62. Both sides displayed unsurpassable energy in 
the siege, and as for the Spartans 1n their assaults 
upon the walls, while many others were objects of 
wonder for their deeds of valour, the greatest acclaim 
was won by Brasdas. For when the captains of the 
tnremes lacked the courage to bring the ships to land 
because of the rugged nature of the shore, he, being 
himself the commander of a trireme. called out in 
a loud voice to the pilot, ordering him not to spare 
the vessel but to drive the trireme at full speed to 
the land ; for 1t would be disgraceful, he ened, for 
Spartans to be unsparing of their lives as they fought 
for vietory, and yet to spare their vessels and to 
endure the sight of Athenians holding the soi of 
Laconia. And finally he succeeded in forcing the 
pilot io drive the ship forward and, when the trireme 
struck the shore, Brasidas, taking his stand on the 
gangway, fought off from there the multitude of 
Áthenians who converged upon him —Ánd at the 
outset he slew many as they came at him, but after 
a whie, as numerous missiles assailed him, he 
suffered many wounds on the front of his body In 
the end he suffered much loss of blood from the 
wounds, and as he lost consciousness his arm ex- 


n 


e 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tfje vec, 7) 9. dormis sepuppvetoa, xai mreaotoa. eis 
T»v ÜdAarrav Omoxeípios éyévero Tois moAeuiow. 
perà 8é cabra obros uév soAAoUs TÓÀv oÀeuitov 
vekpo)s O«peUcas a)TOs vjuÜav)s ék Tis veos 
U70 TOv iOiov dmmqvéyÜn, rocobrov To)s GÀAovs 
DmepfaAÀónevos àvÓpeiq, core TÓÀV QAÀÀwv ovs 
amoBaAóvras Tv àomióa Üaváro koAáteoÜa., roO- 
Tov 8' émi rfj abri] airig. aQurevéykaoÜa, Oó£av. 

Ot uév oóv AakeÓawuóvwow ovvexets. rrpoopoAas 
vovoUj,evou Tjj llóÀo, kai swoÀÀoDs àmoBaoAóvres 
cTpaTwDTOGs, €pevov kaprepüs év ois ÓOewois. 
Üavudácai. 8' Gv Tis Tífjs TÓy"s TO vapáOofov kai 
Tiv iOióTQqra. Tíjs TOV. srepi Tv llóAov Oua0écecs. 
"AOnvatow uév yàp ék rs Aarxovucfs àpvvóuevot 
ToUs 2Wraprudras ékpárovv, AakeOouuóvio, 86 Tv 
(iav ycopav ToÀeuiav" éyovres éx Tfj ÜaAárTQs 
cpocéDaAÀov Tois ToAÀeníow, kai Tois pév elf 
kparotco. ÜaAoTrrokparetv ovvéBawe, rois 86 xarà 
Ü&Aarrav pwTeUovsi. Tüs yíjs dreipyew  ToUs 
TroAentovs. 

63. XpoviGovons Gé Tí moAopkias, kai cTÓv 
'AOnvaiwv rais vavoiv émucparqoávrov xai otrov 
eig T)v yíjv eiokopilew Kc AÀvóvrov, éxwOvevov ot 
k«areWmupévoi év 7j vjow TQ Aud 9wdÜapfva. 


! ràv added by Capps 
? moAeuíav added by Hertlein from Thuc. 4. 12. 3. 





! Theinseciiption on a shield found in the Agora excavations 
states that 1t was taken by the Athenians from Lacedae- 
monians at Pylos (Shear 1n Zesperia, 6 (1931), 847-348). It 
must have originally belonged to the collection of shields taken 


98 


BOOK XII. 62. 4—963. 1 


tended over the side of the ship and his shucld,! shp- 225 «c 
ping off and falling mito the sea, came into the hands 

of the enemy. After this Brasidas, who had built up 

a heap of many corpses of the enemy, was himself 
carried off half-dead from the ship by his men, having 
surpassed to such a degree all other men in bravery 
that, whereas 1n the case of all other men those who 

lose their shields are punished with death, he for that 

very reason won for himself glory. 

Now the Lacedaemonins, although they kept 
making continuous assaults upon Pylos and had lost 
many soldiers, remained steadfast in the fierce 
struggles. And one may well be amazed at the 
strange perversity of Fortune and at the smgular 
character of her ordering of what happened at Pylos. 
For the Athenians, defending themselves from a base 
on Laeonian soil, were gaining the mastery ovei the 
Spartans, whereas the Lacedaemonians, regarding 
their own sod as the enemy's, were assaulüng the 
enemy from the sea as their base ; and, as 1t hap- 
pened, those who were masters of the land in this 
case controlled the sea, and those who held first place 
on the sea were beating off an attack on land which 
they held. 

68. Since the siege dragged on and the Athenians, 
after their victory ? with thexr ships, were preventing 
the conveyance of food to the land, the soldiers caught 
on the island ? were in danger of death from starva- 


at Pylos which Pausanmas (1. 15. 4) saw su-pended as trophies 
in the Stoa Poikilé, although the cistern in which it was 
found had been filed before the third century Bc. No 
doubt the captured shield of the Spartan captam occupied 
a central place 1n this collection. 

? Over the Spartan fleet ; cp. Thucydides, 4. 14. 

3 Sphacteria. 


89 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 OuÓmep ot AaeBauóvuoL QopsÜévres T€pi TÓV 
dmreiXnpuiévow €v TÓ vie, mpeopetías àméoreuAav 
eis ràs 'AÜvvas srepi Tíjs korraAóoecs ToU vroAéuov: 
oU gv'ykarariÜepévay o aordv z£iovv áAayv 
/ ^ ^ ^ 3 
movjcagUo TÓv avópáv kai AaBetv ToUs lgous 
TÓÀV 'AÜmvaiov rÀv éaAcKkÓórov &AÀAÀ' ov0€6 Toóro 
cwveycpncav oí 'AÜqvato.. | Quómep ot mpéopeiws 
mappnoiav Tyayov év rais 'ÁOvaus cos OpoAÀoyob- 
c. Aakeóauoviovus kpeirrovs etvau, iu?) DovÀóuevot 
Trjv Qvr(Oocw TOv aixpoaAorcov TowjoaoÜat. — oi 
9' 'AÜmvato: vj o"dveu rv àvaykaiov kaTaomov),- 
cavres ToUs év Tfj Ziakrwypie mapéAaBov aroUs 
«a ópoAoylav. Tjcav Ó. ot mapaOóvres abToUs 
2wrapriárau pév ékaróv eikoct, TOV O6 ovpuudyov 
ékaróv OyOo"kovra. o)ro. uév oiv Óxzó KAéovos 
ToU ónuayeyoU orparqyoüvros Tóre  OcÜévres 
7xX0ncav eis ràüs 'AÜWvas: 0 86 Ofjnos àlmdíoaro 
a)0TOUs d$vuAdTTrew, éàv BovAcvraw MakeOouuóviot 
Aüca, rÓv mrÓAepov, éàv 06 mpokpivooi TÓ moÀAeuetv, 
TÓT€ TÁvTAS TOUS GU Gyr OUS dmrokretvau. p.erá 
5e TaÜbTO TÓÀYV év Navmákre Kar Qkiwévav. Mecon- 
Viv peramepabáuevos TOUS &pioTOovs KaL TÓv GAAcV 
CUIJAÁ CV. TOUS ikavoOs vpooÜévres, ToUrOLS map- 
éOc)kav TTV HóAov $poupetv évópuLov 'yàp TOUS 
Meoonviovs Ou TO Trpós TOUS Mmaprwudras pios 
ékÜvp.órorro. Ka.corrouijaeu T)v Aakcovucjv, Oppo - 
Mévovs e óxvpoó Xeptov. 
ai rà Lév kar TÜV IHóÀov € €v Tobrois Tv. 


64 'Aprafép£qs 9' ó cv llepoOv aoie?s 





! The Lacedaemonians would get back the Spartans upon 
Sphacteri1a. 


60 


BOOK XII. 68. 2—964. 1 


tion. Consequently the Lacedaemonians, fearing for 425 sc. 
the men left on the island, sent an embassy to Athens 
to discuss the ending of the war. When no agree- 
ment was bemg reached, they asked for an exchange 
of men,! the Athenians to get back an equal number 
of their soldiers now held prisoner ; but not even to 
this would the Athenians agree. Whereupon the am- 
bassadors spoke out frankly in Athens, that by their 
unwillngness to effect an exchange of prisoners the 
Athenians acknowledged that Lacedaemonians were 
better men than they | Meanwhile the Athemans 
wore down the bodily strength of the Spartans on 
Sphacteria through their lack of provisions and ac- 
cepted their formal surrender. Ofthe men who gave 
themselves up one hundred and twenty were Spartans 
and one hundred and eighty were of thew alhes. 
These, then, were brought by Cleon the leader of the 
populace, since he held the office of general when this 
took place, in chains to Athens ; and the people voted 
to keep them in custody in case the Lacedaemonians 
should be willing to end the war, but to slay all the 
caphves 1f they should decxde to continue it. After 
this they sent for select troops from the Messenians 
who had been settled in Naupactus,? jomed to them 
an adequate force from ther other alhes, and turned 
over to them the garnsoning of Pylos; for they be- 
heved that the Messenians, by reason of their hatred 
of the Spartans, would show the greatest zeal in 
harrymg Laconia by forays, once they were operating 
from a strong position as their base. 

Such were the events about Pylos 1n this year. 

64. Artaxerxes, the king of the Persians, died? 


* Cp. Book 11. 84. 7-8. 
3 [n the spring of 424 5 c. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


, / » y / M o E M 

éreAeUrqaev dpfag érr rerrapákovra, c'jv 9 üpynv 
e » / 

O.aGeÉdpuevos Eépf£ns éBaoiAevoev éviavróv. 

Karà 9é rv 'lraMav AlkAwv àmoorávrov dnó 
'"Popaíov xarà TÓv sóAeuov avrokpáropa gév 
^ / v M / (To 
AiAov IlooroUptov, cmrmapyov àé AeUktov 'loóAuov 
T^ ^ / 
émoíoav. obTo. 8é perà moAÀMjs Ovvdápecs d£io- 

^ ? 
Aóyov orpareUcavres eis Tv TOV ddeorQukÓrov 
^ M $ / 
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perü Oé mraÜ0ra AikAov aàvrvrayÜévrov | éyévero 

/ 5 «^ *; / c *P ^ M À M 
péxn, ka0* cw évikqoav ot '"Pouato, xat sroAAoUs 
pév cÀv moÀeuív üàveiÀov, oók óMyovs O0 ' éLÓ- 
ypgcav, Aadópov 86 moÀÀQv ékvupíevcav.  perà 
06 rTv páxymv oi pv d$eorqkóres Ouà TT Prrav 
karaemAwypévou rots "Popatots vmeráynoav, ó 
96 IlooroUpuos Oófas kaAdQs Owuokngkévau 7à ard 

/ 

róv TóÓÀeuov, karTyaye TOv eio0óra ÜpiauBov. 
(Quov Oé vL kai rravreAGs ürioTóv act mpá£au rÓv 
ILooroópaov: xarà yàp Tiv páyqv TrÓv vióv abTo0 
Oui Tv mpoÜvuiav TpoekmT,0$oau Tfs ÜOmO! ToÜ 
vaTpOos 8e0ouévgs ráfeos TÓv 06 marépa ropobvra 
TÓ Türpiov éÜos TOv viov cs AcAovróra T)» Táfw 
GTrokTetva. 

65. Tovrov 8é roO érovs GwAÜóvros ' AÓrvnow uév 
Tw àpycv "leapyos, év 96 rj; Pour kaDewrr)kcoav 
e / ^ Ni / ? / & 
omarov lóros Kotrros kai. l'átos "IovAvos, mapá 
8c "HA / *OA A LÁ 0 * 7 95 e / 

€ HAetow 'OAvwniàs 7]y0n éváry kai óy8onkoory,, 
kaÜ' Tw éwia oráó.ov lupayos TO Oerepov. 
ér, 06 roUTcv " AÜqvato, orpamqyóv kacraorijcavres 
Nucav vóv Nuegpárov, kai sapaóóvres aDTÓ 
vpwjpews uev éf5?kovra, omA(ras 8é mpwoyuovs, 
"pocéra£av mopÜjoa. Toós akeDowuoviov | ovp- 


! cis oro added by Rhodoman. 
62 


BOOK XII. 64. 1—65. 1 


after a reign of forty years, and Xerxes succeeded to 425 & c 
the throne and ruled for a year. 

In Italy, when the Aequi revolted from the 
Romans, i the war which followed Aulus Postumius 
was made Dictator and Lucius Juhus was named 
Master of the Horse. And the Romans, havmg 
marched against the territory of the rebels with a 
large and strong army, first of all plundered their 
possessions, and when the Aequi later drew up against 
them, a battle ensued in which the Romans were vic- 
torious, slaying many of the enemy, taling not a 
few captive, and capturing great quantities of booty. 
After the battle the revolters, being broken in spirit 
because of the defeat, submutted themselves to the 
Romans, and Postumius, because he had conducted 
the war brilliantly, as the Romans thought, celebrated 
the customary triumph — And Postumius, we are told, 
did à pecuhar thing and altogether unbehevable ; 
for in the battle his own son in his eagerness leaped 
forward from the station assigned him by his father, 
and his father, preserving the ancient discipline, had 
his son executed as one who had left his station 

65. At the close of thus year, 1n Athens the archon 421 c 
was Isarchus and 1n Rome the consuls elected were 
Titus Qumetius and Gaius Juhus, and among the 
Eleians the Eighty-ninth Olympiad was celebrated, 
that in which Symmachus ! won the " stadion " for 
the second time. This year the Athenians chose as 
genera] Nicias, the son of Niceratus, and assigning to 
him sixty triremes and three thousand hoplites, they 
ordered him to plunder the alhes of the Lacedae- 


1 Of Messené ; cp. chap. 49. 1. 
63 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 p xous obros Ó' émi mpoyryv T)v MfAov mAeócas 
Tív Te xyopav éOójcoe kai TÜv TróAww e (Kavàs 
Tipos érroAcópkqoev: admo) yap uóvi TOv KvxAd- 
Ócv vijoav OwdUAnTTe. Tl)V TpOs Aarebaapioviovs 

3 cv XCaV , diroucos oda. Tís Xmdprys. 0o e 
Nucüas, yevvaias a,vvop.évcov TV Mtv ov Ov- 
vájuevog éAeiv T?|v mÓÀw, àmémÀevoev eig 'pcrróv 
Tís Boworías | évrabÜa Oé vàs vabüs dmoAwurow 
mapfÀÜev eig v)v TOv Tlavaypateov xcópav perà 
TÀÓv OmnÀvwÓv, kai karéAaDev évrabü0a  Bjvajuv 
érépay! 'AÜmvaiov, 9s éorparwyev 'lmmóvwos 0 

4 KaAMov. cvveMÜóvrowv 96 eig rTabrÓ TÓv oTparo- 
TéÓcv dGudjorépov, obrou. pév émemopevovro Tv 
ycpav TopÜobvres, TOv 6€ OvBaiwv éxBonÜBodvrov 
cvvdavres aDrots uáyvv ot " AÜnvato, kat rroÀAoUs 
àveAóvres évíkmoav. 

5. Merà 8é cw páyqv oi peO' 'Immovíkov ocpa- 
viÓTOUL TT|v eis "Alijvas érrávo8ov émoujcavro, 
Nutas 06 mapeAQov emi Tüs vaÜs mapézrAevaev 
émi T)v Aokpióa, kai TT mapafaAárriov Xopav 
vopÜcas mpoceAáfero TGpà TÓV gp xao rpufj- 
peus Terrapáxovra, cOTe Tüs Tácas éxyew abTóv 
va0s ékaTÓv: karaActas 0€ kai sreLoUs oTpomuras 
OUK oAtyovs,. ai Osvapuy &£tióAoyov cvorncápevos, 

6 émAevoev émi m^» ,KópwÜov. &moBiuBdcavros o 
aDTOÜ TOUS orporuras, KQL TÓV KopwOttov àvTL- 
TOxÜévrcwv, oí - AÓnvatoi Ovci yas evicoav 
kai ToÀÀoUs TÓv mroAegiaov aveAóvres Tpómauov 
corna. ereAeórnaav 9 év Tj páyn TÓV "A6n- 
Vat eis ókTG, rÀv Óé KopwOicv TrÀelous TÓV 

7 rpuakog(v. | ó 8é Niuas mAejcas eis Kpou- 

! So Eichstadt: érépov 
64 


BOOk XII 605. 9-7 


momans  MHesaied to Melos as the first place, where 22156 
he ravaged their territory and for a number of day« 
lad siege to the cty; for 14 was the only island 
of the Cyclades which was miintanung its alhance 
with the Lacedaemonians, being a Spartan colony. 
Nicias was unable to take the city, however, since the 
Mehans defended themselves gallantly, and he then 
sailed to Oropus? in Boeotia. Leaving his ships 
there, he advanced with his hoplites into the territory 
of the Tanagraeans, where he fell in with. another 
Athenian force which was commanded by Hipponicus, 
the son of Calhas. When the two armies had umted, 
the generals pressed forward, plundering the land; 
and when the Thebans salhed forth to the rescue, the 
Athenians offered them battle, in which they infhcted 
heavy casualties and were victorious 

After the battle the soldiers with Hipponieus made 
their way back to Athens, but Nicias, returning to his 
ships, sailed along the coast to Locris, and when he 
had laid waste the country on the coast, he added to 
his fleet forty triremes from the allies, so that he 
possessed 1n all one hundred ships — He also enrolled 
no small number of soldiers and. gathered together 
a strong armament, whereupon he sailed against 
Cormth. There he disembarked the soldiers, and 
when the Cormthians drew up their forces against 
them, the Athenians gamed the victory in two 
battles, slew many of the enemy, and set up a trophy. 
There perished 1n the fighüng eight Athenians and 
more than three hundred Corinthians * MMicias then 


1 Qropus was always debatable territory between Attica 
and Boeotia. 

? ''hucydides (4. 44. 6) states that two hundred and twelve 
Connthians died, and of the Athenians *' somewhat fewer 
than fifty " 


VOL. V D 65 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pvóyva, TÜV T€ Xeypav éOy0€ kat TO Ppospov 
exetpoioaTo. e000s 8' émavaleUtfas kai reUxtoas 
poUpuov év rjj Me0cw, $vAaiciy ka éAvmre T 
TO Xcoptov puo $vAátovcav KaL TTV €yyUs xdpav 
7covcav abrOs 0€ TI zapaDBaAdrrwov mopÜrcas 
émavfAÜev eis Tàs Af) vas. 

Mera 8é Tara. emi KUnpa vaós améoeiay 
éP&kovra kai Owcy.Movs oOwA/cras, Ov etxe mo" 
orparnytav Nucías per &GÀÀAew Twóv.  oóros 8€ 
oTpareUcas émi TTv víjoov kai mpoopoÀàs Tow- 
cáuevos capéAape Tv móÓMwv kaÜ' OpnoAoy(av.  év 
e Tfj vjoo karaAurov dpovpàv é£émÀevoev «ig 
T)v lleAomóvvqgoov kai Tv mapaÜaAdrTiv xyopav 
éOyw0€. kai COvpéas uév kewuévas év Tots ueO- 
opiow Tfs akewvues kai Tfs 'ÁApyetas érmoA- 
opk"jcas éf£mqvópasoOicaro kai karéokaje, ToUs 
O' év a)rf) kavo,kotvras Avywijras kai TÓv Opoóp- 
o.pXov TávraAov Laapruiay bo»yprjoas QT) y avy ev 
eis Tàs AÜvvas | oí 8€ "Alrvaito TOv uév TávraAov 
Ofcavres éQUAaTTOv nerd TÀV dAÀÀowv aiypnaAc rov 
«ai ro0s Ácywfras. 

66. "Aua O96 co/row  mparrouévow | Meyapets 
0liBónevou 7TÀ ToÀéuo TQ mpoós robs 'AÜOmvaíiovs 
Kai TÀ TpOs rovs QvydOas. . . . &uumpeoBevouévov 
Oé mpós GAMAous mrepi TOUTOYV, TÓV TrOÀvrTÓV TwWweS 
GAAoTpicos &Xovres Tpos TOUS d$wvydOas émmyyei- 
Aavro TpÓs ToUs " AUnvaicov OTpOriyos mpobcdoew 
vv TÓÀw. oi 86 ovparmyot, 'lmrokpáras Te kai 





! [n Megaris. 

? Strabo states that the correct name was Methana (in 
Argohis ; ep. Thucydides, 4. 45). 

? "The large island off the south-eastern tip of Laconia 


66 


BOOK XII. 65 7—68 2 


sailed to Crommyon,'! ravaged its territory, and iei s« 
seized its stronghold. Then he mmediately removed 

from there and built a stronghold near Methoné;? in 
which he left à garnson for the twofold purpose of 
protecting the place and ravagimg the neighbouring 
countryside ; then Nicias plundered the coast and 
returned to Áthens. 

After these events the Athenians sent sixty ships 
and two thousand hophtes to Cythera,? the expedi- 
tion being under the command of Nicias and certam 
other generals Nicias attacked the island, hurled 
assaults upon the city, and received its formal sur- 
render. And leaving a garrison behind on the island 
hesailedoff to the Peloponnesus and ravaged the tein- 
tory along the coast — And Thyreae, which lies on the 
border between Laconia and Argohs, he took by siege, 
malung slaves of its inhabitants, and razed it to the 
ground ; and the Aeginetans, who mhabited the city, 
together with the commander of the garnrison, Tan- 
talus the Spartan, he took captive and carned off to 
Athens. And the Athenians fetteied Tantalus and 
kept hm under guard together with the other 
prisoners, as well as the Aeginetans. 

66 While these events were takmg place the 
Meganans were findimg themselves in distress be- 
cause of their war with the Athenmans on the one 
hand and with their exiles on the other hand. Ánd 
while representatives * were exchanging opinions re- 
gaiding the exiles, certain citizens? who were hostile 
to the exiles approached the Athenian generals with 
the offer to dehver the city to them. The genet:als, 


* From the different parties in the eoity 
* "These represented the party of the masses ; ep. Thuev- 
dides, 4. 66. 


67 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


AmuocÜévus, ovvÜéuevor vepi Tís podooías, éÉ- 
émejujav vukrós omrparwóTras éfakootovs eis T7] 
gÓÀw, kai oi cwvÜéuevo, mapeüé£avro ros '"AOn- 
vaiovus évrós reiuyÀv.  karadavoüs O6 cíjs mpo- 
Oocías yevouévns xarà T7) móAw, kat ToU mAvÜovs 
cyiLopévovu karà Trjv aipesw, kai rÀv uev ovupa- 
xoUvrtv Tois '"AÜnvato:, rÀv àé BonÜovvrwv rots 
Aake8auuovíow, ékr)pu£é rus à$. éavroO rovs Dov- 
Aouévous T(üÜeoÜo,. và OÓwÀa pera 'AOwvaiov kai 
3 Meyapécv. Oiómep TÀv Aake8ouuoviov. éykara- 
AeimeoÜau pueAAOvrev. 0rÓ TOv Meyapécv, ovvéfm 
ToUs dpovpoüvras và pakpà Tren korawmetv, eis 
08 vr5v kaAÀovuévqv Níoouav, Tümrep éoTiv émivevov 
4 TOv Meyapécv, karadvyetv.  mepvradpeicavres 0€ 
a9r?|v ot AÜnvato, érroAópkovv: uerà 0é cabra ék 
rÀv 'AÁÜmvàv rexviras mpooÀaBóOjuevow Tepieretyc- 
cay v?v Nücauav. oi 0é lleAowovvrjoww óofoy/ue- 
vou ju?) kocrà. kpáros àAóvres avoupeÜdiot, sra pé8Goaav 
r)v Níoouav Tois 'AOmvatows kaD' óuoAoyíav. 
Kai rà uév xarà ro9s Meyapéas év rosrows jv. 
67. Bpacióas 8é Qvapuv tkavijy àvaAafov &x me 
Aaxeüatuovos kat zrapà rv dAXov YIleAosrovvqotov 
üvébev£ev émi Méyapa.  karamAmfdáguevos 86 co)g 
"AÜnvaious, roUrovs jév é£éBaAev ek ríe Nwaias, 
Tiv Oé mÓAv rv Meyapéwov éAevÜepóoas dmo- 
koméorn0ev ets 7r]y TÀv okeooquoviov ovpaytav: 
ü)TOs Óé uerà Tíjs Ovvduecs 0ià OerraAMas ml»v 
TOopeiav row]odáuevos Tikev eis tov ríss Make8o- 
2 vías. ékeiÜev 6€ mrapsAMUcov eis " AkavÜov ovveuáymnoe 
rois XaÀkióeÜow — kai mpeorqv uév cv "AkavÜiav 








! Thucydides (4 68 3) says he was the ,Athemian herald 
68 


BOOK XII 66. 9—67 2 


Hippocrates and. Demosthenes, agyeeing to this be- i215 
Gr ayal, sent by night sx hundred soldiers to the city, 
and the conspirators admitted the. Athemans within 
the wall. When the betayal became known 
throughout the city and while the multitude were 
divided according to party, some being m favour of 
fighting on the side of the Athemans and others of 
aiding the Lacedaemonians, a certain man,! acting 
on his own initiative, made the proclamation that any 
who so wished could take up arms on the side of the 
Athemans and Meganuans — Consequently, when the 
Lacedaemonians were on the point of bemg left m 
the lurch by the Megarians, 1t so happened that the 
Lacedaemonian gariion of the long walls? aban- 
doned them and sought safety in Nisaea, as1tis called, 
which is the sea-port of the Megarians. The Athe- 
nans thereupon dug a ditch about Nisaea and put it 
under siege, and then, bringing slalled woikmen from 
Athens,they threw a wallaboutit And the Pelopon- 
nesians,fearmg lest they should be taken by storm and 
put to death, surrendered Nisaea to the Athemans. 

Such, then, were the affaws of the Meganians at 
this time 

67. Brasidas, taking an adequate force from Lace- 
daemon and the other Peloponnesian states, advanced 
agamst Megara. And stnkimng terror into the 
Athemans he expelled them fom Nisaea, and then 
he set free the city of the Meganans and biought it 
back mto the alliance of the Lacedaemonians. After 
this he made his way with his army through Thessaly 
and came to Dium in Macedonma From there he 
advanced against Acanthus and associated himself 
with the cause of the Chaleidians. The oaty of the 


? 'hese connected Megara with its harbour. 


69 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


A 
zOÀw Tà uév karamAnfápevos, rà O6 kai Àóyows 
diÀavÜpomow  Teícas  émoüójgev amoorTijvau. TOv 
'AÜqvatmv: émevra. moÀAoUs kai vÓv dAÀÀcov TÓV 
14 ^ 

ézi Opdikus koroucovrov mpoerpéiioro kowcoveiv! 

^ ^ / 
Tfs TÓv AakeÓauuoviov cvppuaxius — querü  8é 

^ 7 / , 7 e 
Traóra Bpaoióas BovAópevos évepyórepov diaoÜa. 
ToU ToÀéuov, nereméumero orparwoTas ék TÉs 
7 P4 3 / /; 
Aake8a(povos, ome)0cov afióÀoyov ovorw5oaoÜa. 
OUvauuv oí 66 2wapri&ras BovAópevou rv. EtAcó- 
Tcv TOÜs xpariícrous dAmoAéoUaou, véumovow éÉ 
a)rÓv TOUS MÓAwoTG Trejpovyuarwouévous xiovs, 
vop.tLovres év rais páxyous ToUs svÀeiorovs aUDTOv 
14 »y / A Ld / 

«arakomQoeoÜa,.. éempa£av Oé rv. kai &AÀAo Díatov 
«ai ov, 0v o0 TaTewooew UmeAduavov ToUs 

E ? 4 M 2 / ^ e 4 
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ToUTovs kpivavres éAevÜepooew emyyeiAavro QzT0- 
ypoxbapiévcv Oé Oo iAMov, Torous pev mpooéra&av 
TOlS Kportaoug &TokTeliva. kar. oikov ékdoTov. 
o$ó0pa yàp e)AaBoOvro uwYjymore katpoU Opaf£dqe- 
voi Kai j.erà TOv sroÀepiv TayÜévres eis kivOvvov 
3 / M bx / bl b LA M ^ 
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68. Ai0 kai Üappücas Trà mA(Üe. TOv orparwo- 

^ 5 / De UN M / ? / 

TÓVv éoTpdrevoev émi rv kaÀovuévqv 'AudimoÀw. 
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TOv Baouéa TOv llepoGv: ékeivov 8é meAevri- 


! uerà after kowcvety deleted by Ithodoman. 
70 


BOOK XII. 67 2—68. 2 


Acanthians was the first which he brought, partly 22126 
through fear and partly through lindly and per- 
suasive arguments, to revolt P oni the Athenians ; 
and afterwards he induced many also of the other 
peoples of Thrace to Join the alliance of the Lacedae- 
monians. Afterthis Brasidas, wishing to prosecute thc 
war more vigorously, proceeded to summon soldiers 
from Lacedaemon, «nce he was eager to gather a 
strong aamy. And the Spaitans, wishing 10 destroy 
the most mfluential among the Helots, «ent him a 
thousand of the most hngh-spuited Helot-, thinking 
that the larger number of them would peiish in the 
fighting They also committed another violent and 
savage act whereby they thought to humble the pnde 
of the Helots They made pubhe proclamation that 
any Helots who had rendered some good service to 
Sparta should give in their names, and promised that 
after passing upon their claims they would set them 
free: and when two thousand had given im their 
names, they then commanded the most influential 
citizens to slay these Helots, each in. his own home 
Foi they were deeply concerned lest the Helots should 
seize an opportune moment to hne up with the enemy 
and bring Sparta mto penl. Neveitheless, «nce 
Brasidas had been joined by a thousand Helots and 
troops had been levied among the alhes, a satisfac- 
tory force was assembled. 

68 Brasdas, confidimg im the multitude. of his 
soldiers, now advanced with his army agamst the 
cty known as Amphipohs — This eity. Aristagotas of 
Maletus at an eailiei time had undeitaken to found 
as à colony,* when he was fleecing from Danus, the 
ling of the Peisians ; after hus death the coloniste 


! In 497 Bc ; ep Herodotus, 5. 126 
qu 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ 7 
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^ / * N ^ 
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dv ai uév 'EAAqvióes Toav, '"Avópicov dzrowot, at 
! So Wessehlng, from Thuc 4. 102. 3: 'Améovos. 
* So Valesius, from Thuc. 4. 107. 3. Eius. 
re 
[2 


BOOK XII. 68. 2-5 


were driven out by the Thracians who are called 424 5c 
Edones, and thwty-two years after this event the 
Athenmans dispatched ten thousand colonists to the 
place In hke manner these colomsts also were 
utterly destroyed by Thracians at Drabescus,! and 
two years later ? the Athemans again recovered the 
city, under the leadership of Hagnon. | Since the city 
had been the object of many a battle, Brasidas was 
eager to masterit. Consequently he set out against 
it with a strong force, and pitching his camp near the 
bridge,? he first of all seized the suburb of the city 
and then on the next day, having struck terror into 
the Amphipolitans, he received the formal suriender 
of the city on the condition that anyone who so wished 
could take his property and leave the city. 
Immediately after this Brasidas brought over to his 
side à number of the neighbouring cities, the most 
important of which were Oesymé and Galepsus, both 
colomes of the Thasians, and also Myrcinu-, a small 
Edonan city — He also set about building a numbe1 
of triremes on the Strymon Ruüvei and summoned 
soldiers from both Lacedaemon and the rest of the 
alies — Also he had many complete suits of armour 
made, which he distributed among the young men 
who possessed no arms, and he gathered supplies of 
missiles and gram and everything else And when 
all his preparations had been made, he set out from 
Amphipohls with his army and came to Acté,* as 1t 18 
called, where he pitched his camp — In this area there 
were five cities, of which some were Greek, being 


! Cp. Book 11 70 5 

? ''wenty-nine yeais later, according to "Thucydides, 
4. 102 38. 

3 Over the Strymon FPuver and not fa1 fiom the city 

* 'The region about Mt. Athos. 


VOL. V p2 73 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


àé elxov OyAov PapBápcov OvyAcorTcov BwoaArucóv. 
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v'|v Boworiav sróÀecv. uerasrepibáuevos orporwuras 
! karà vj» Bowríay deleted by Vogel. 


14 


BOOK XII. 68. 5—69 3 


colonies from Andros, and the others had a populace 42: sc 
of barbanans of Bisaltie ! origin, which were bi- 
hngual. After mastenrmng these cities Brasidas led his 
army against the city of Toroné, which was a colony 
of the Chaladians but was held by Athenians — Since 
certam men were ready to betray the city. Drasdas 
was by mght admutted by them and got Toroné 1n his 
power without a fight 

To such a height did the fortunes of Brasidas attain 
1n the course of this year 

69 While these events were happening, at Dehum 
in Boeotia a pitched battle took place between the 
Athenians and the Boeotians for the following reasons 
Certain Boeotians, who were restive under the form 
of government which obtained at the time and were 
eager to establish democraces in the cities, discussed 
ther pohey with the Athemian generals, Hippocrates 
and Demosthenes, and promised to dehver the cities 
of Boeotia mto ther hands The Athenians gladly 
accepted this offer and, having 1n view the arrange- 
ments for the attack, the generals diuded ther 
forces Demosthenes, taking the larger part of the 
army, mwaded Boeotia, but finding the Boeotians 
already informed of the betrayal he withdrew with- 
out accomphnshimg anything ; Hippocrates led the 
popular levy of the Athenians against Delum, seized 
the place, and threw a wall about it before the 
approach of the Boeotians The town hes near the 
terntory of Oropus and the boundary of Bocotia ? 
Pagondas, who eommanded the Boeotians, having 
summoned soldieis from all the cities of Boeotia, came 

| A Thracian tribe. 

? O1opus was the last city of Attica on the coast before the 


border of Boeotia. Delum lay near the coast 1n the teru- 
tory of Tanagra. 


15 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


?ke wpós TO Arov perà moÀMes Ovvápecs: etye 
yàp oTpariras TeLoUs puév o) moÀ) Aeímovrag 
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yàp kai cvwvróucos éfelgAU0ecav éx mfj$ mvóAews, 
KaL G.& T']|v oTovOTjv vTjxov drapáokevot. 

70 'Apndóorépov à€ mpoÜU|cs Oppuwauévov map- 
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rois Boworots éráxÜncav émi TÓ Gefióv képas Qm- 
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A M 4 * ^ / * / 
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$vyctv Tváykacav: émubavet 86 udym vucicavres 


C LU MCI E ML C cos Uu s RUE 

* This designation 1s probably derived from that of an 
onginally wealthy class who were able to provide their own 
chaiiots for warfare, like the Roman * Kmghts," who could 
furnish horses Ihe three hundred are what were known 
later as the " Sacred Band " of the Thebans which was drawn 
up, not as here before the w hole 'heban line, but many meri 


16 


BOOK XII. 69, 3—70. 3 


to Dehum with a great army, since he had httle less 422 s 
than twenty thousand mfaniry and about a thousand 
cavalry. The Athemans, although superi to the 
Boeotians in number, were not so well equipped as 
the enemy ; for they had left the city hurnedly and on 
short notice, and in such haste they were unprepared 
70. Both armies advanced to the fray in high 
spirits and the forces were disposed in the followimg 
manner. On the Boeotian side, the Thebans were 
drawn up on the right wing, the Orchomemans on 
the left, and the centre of the Ime was made up of 
the other Boeotians , the first hne of the whole a1my 
was formed of what they called '" chaiioteers and 
footmen," ! a select group of three hundred. The 
Athenians were forced to engage the enemy while 
still marshalhug their army. — À fierce conflict ensued 
and at first the Athenian cavalry, fighting bnilhantly, 
compelled the opposing cavalry to flee; but later, 
after the infantry had become engaged, the Athen1ans 
who were opposed to the Thebans were overpowered 
and put to fhght, although the remaining Athenians 
overcame the other Boeotians, slew great numbers of 
them, and pursued them for some distance — But the 
Thebans, whose bodily strength was superior, turned 
back from the pursuit, and falling on the pursuing 
Athenians forced them to flee ; and smce they had 
won a conspicuous victory, they gaimed for them- 


deep on one wing (cp. Plutaich, Pelopidas, 18 i£) — Thucy- 
dides (4. 93. 4) states that 1n this balitle " the Thebans were 
marshalled 1n ranks twenty-five shields deep," a statement 
which cannot have been true of the whole Theban contingent. 

? Dehum was the greatest battle of the Archidamian War, 
Socrates participated im it and. his hfe was saved by Alceibia- 
des (Plato, Symp. 991 4-c); Socrates had saved Alcibiades 
at Potidaea 1n 432 5 c. (Symp. 220 x) 


TA. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! (The Athenian losses were less than à thousand in addi- 


TS 


BOOK XII 70 4—"71 1! 


selves great fame for valour Of the Athemans some 424 »« 
fled for refuge to Oropus and otheis to Dehum ; 
certain of them made for the sea and the Athenian 
ships; still others scattered thus way and that, as 
chance dictated. When mght fell, the Boeotian dead 
were not in excess of five hundred, the Athenian many 
times that number! However, 1f mght had not inter- 
vened, most of the Athemans would have perished, 
for iL broke the drive of the pursuers and brought 
safety io those m fhght | Even so the multitude of 
the slaan was so great that from the proceeds of the 
booty the Thebans not only constructed the great 
colonnade in their market-place but also embelhshed 
it with bronze statues, and their temples and the 
colonnades in the market-place they covered with 
bronze by the armour from the booty which they 
nailed to them ; furthermore, 1t was with this money 
that they instituted the festival called Deha.* 

After the battle the Boeotians launched assaults 
upon Dehum and took the place by stoim ? ; of thc 
garnson of Dehum the larger number died fighting 
gallantly and two hundred we1e taken prisoner; the 
rest fled for safety to the ships and were transported 
with the other refugees to Attica Thus the 
Athenians. who devised a plot against the Boeotians, 
were involved in the disaster we have described. 

71. In Asia. King, Xerxes died after a reign of one 
year, or, as some record, two months ; and his brother 
Sogdianus succeeded to the thione and ruled for seven 
month. — He was skun by Danus, who reigned nine- 
teen yeas. 
tion to hght-aimed tioops and baggage carriers (Thucydidcs, 
&. 101). * Held at Dehum 


3 A * flame-thiower " was used in the assault upon the 
walls , cp. Thucydides, 4. 100. 


TO 


2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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OuBpcwv xarappayévrew, kai coU morapuoÜ0 [aov 


! $o Palmer (Thuc. 4. 75. 29): Káygra 
80 


BOOK XII. 71. 2—73. 4 


Of the historians Antiochus of Syracuse concluded 1:2: x«. 
with this year his history of Sicily, which began 
with Cocalus,! the ling of the Sicam, and embraced 
nine Books. 

729. When Ameinias was archon in Athens, the 43 »« 
Romans elected as consuls Gaius Papirius and Lucius 
Junius In this year the people of Scioné, holding 
the Athenians 1n contempt because of their defeat at 
Dehum, revolted to the Lacedaemonians and de- 
hvered their city 1nto the hands of Brasidas, who was 
in command of the Lacedaemonian forces in Thrace 

In Lesbos, after the Atheman seizure of Mytilené, 
the exiles, who had escaped the capture m large 
numbers, had for some time been trying to return to 
Lesbos, and they succeeded at this time in rallying 
and seizing Àntandrus,? from which as their base they 
then carrned on war with the Athenians who were 
1n possession of Mytilené.— Exasperated by this state 
of affairs the Athenian people sent agamst them as 
generals Arnsteides and Symmachus with an army. 
They put in at Lesbos and by means of sustained 
assaults took possession of Antandius, and of the 
eviles some they put to death and others they ex- 
pelled from the ety ; then they left à garnson to 
guard the place and sailed away from Lesbos. | After 
this Lamachus the general sailed with ten. triremes 
into the Pontus and anchored at Heraclea? on the 
river Cales, as it 1s called, but he lost all hus ships : 
for when heavy rais fell, the 11ver brought down «o 


1 Cp. Book 4. 78 f. 

* On the south eoast of the Troad, some fifteen miles from 
Lesbos 

3 More aecuirately, with Thucydides, 4 75. 9, ** 1n the 
territory of Heracleia," since the city lay on the Lycus, not 
the Cales, Ruver. 


81 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ / 
Tv karaQopàv ToO pevuaros vowcapévov, rà aká- 
^ / ^ 
d« karà Tias Tpaxeis TOTOoUS TpooTeoóvra rj 
^ / 
yf eddy 
' AUnvato, 68 mpós AakeOauuoviovs oovOàs évu- 
/ 3 
avgiovs émovjcavro kaT& Ta/TAaS TOS ÓuoAoyias, 
cT éxev ékarépovs Gv TÓre kÜpwow kaÜeworij- 
/ 
Kegcav. cuvióvres 0é voÀÀákis eig Aóyovs covro 
Oetv kovraAócau TrÓv sOÓÀeuov kai eig véAÀos mabca- 
cÜau Tfjs rpós àAMjÀAovs duXoruutas | . NauceBoupióviot 
M » 3 ^ A ? ^ NT / 
86 éomev8ov dmoAapetv rovs £v rjj MakTwp(q vye- 
^ i] ^ 
6 vouévovs aiypaMorovs | rÀv 96 omrovóOv TOv eipn- 
p.évov rpórrov owvreAecoÜewdv, epi |év TOv &ÀAov 
a)rots OuoAÀoyo)ueva müávra Ümfp£e, vepi 8é TÍíjs 
/ 
3kwvns Tjjwop9yrovv ágdórepow. — yevouévus 86 
peyáÀns duorwuas Tàs oTrovOas koreAUcavro, epi 
M ^^ E ^, à Aé M LÀA t 
O6 rfjg 2uwvqs OiemoAéuovv mpós &AAYAovs. 
7 Kara 86 voürov TOv xpóvov kai Mévóm móAs 
M 3 7 » / M M 
zpós roUs AakeGauuoviovs àmwéoro kai v»w duAo- 
ruLav TT]v Ümép Tífjs 3ikvovns ioxvporépav émoínoe. 
M M / M ? ^ / M ^ 
010 kai Bpaoíóas uév éx Tíájs Mévóms xai Tfj 
Zuudvys dmokouicas Tékva Kai yuvatkas kai 
y M 74 ^ 5 / * 
ràÀÀa rà xpucuuc rera $povpats à£ioAÓyows 7)0óa- 
8 Àicaro màs mÓÀew, 'AÜmvatou 8&6 sapofvvÜÉvres 
émi Tols yeyovóow él móicavro mávras rods Xauwco- 
/ [4 € ^ e M M / N 
vatovs, orav dÀóOow, mPq90v dOm-ooódfou, xol 
/ 
Ovvapuv é£émejiav ém  aDro)s vavruc)v Tpujpov 
/ 
TevVr)Kovra: ToUTQv Oé Tr)v oTpoTwWy(av  ctye 
7 N 7 ^ A 7 
9 Nucas kat Nikóorparos. | oOrou O6 mAevoavres 
9$ M ^ 
émi mporQqv Tv Mévóqv ékpárqcav Tf móAews 
82 


Ct 


BOOK XII. 72. 4-9 


violent à current that his vessels were duven on i5 
certam rocky places and broken to pieces on the 
bank 

The Athenans concluded a truce with the Lace- 
daemon1ans for a year, on the terms that both of them 
should remain in possession of the places of which 
they were masters at the time. They held many 
discussions and. were of the opimon that they should 
stop the war and put an end to their mutual nvalry ; 
and the Lacedaemonians were eager to recover their 
citizens who had been taken captive at Sphacteiia 
When the truce had been concluded on the terms hec 
mentioned, they were in entire agreement on all othei 
matters, but both of them laid elaum to Secj0néà *. And 
so bitte1 a controversy followed that they 1enounced 
the truce and continued their war against each other 
over ihe 1ssue of Scioné 

At this time the ety of Mendé ? also revolted to the 
Lacedaemonians and made the quarrel over Scioné 
the more bitter. Consequently B1acidas removed the 
children and women and all the most valuable pio- 
perty from Mendé and Scvné and safeguarded the 
cities with strong garnsons, whereupon ihe Athe- 
nans, bemg incensed at what had taken place, 
voted to put to the swoid all the Scionaeans from 
the youth upward, when they should take the caty, 
and sent a naval fo1ce of fifty trreines agaimst them. 
the command of which was held by Nicias and 
NMicostratus — They saided to Mendé first and con- 
quered 1t with the aid of certain men who betrayed 


tCThis city, on the proniuntoiv of Pallené, revolted to 
D1asidas before it had leained of the signing of the tiuce, 
but 1n fact two days, as was later reckoned, aftei its signing 
(Thucydides, 4 190 ff) 

? On the Thermaie Gulf west of Scioné. 


10 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


: " -— 1 Xeon "E 
"poBóvrcwv rwv abrjv T» 8e Miwóviv nepuerct- 
xisav, kai mpookabijjuevow TÍ] mroAuopkior cureycis 
mpoc[oÀàs émowbvro. ot à év fj Mawovg ipov- 
poi, moÀÀoi pév vÓv apiuóv Óvres, eimopíav Ó 
éyovres DeAGv xai ocírov xoi vífjs QÀÀ«s mapa- 
cKevíjs, pa8íus Tju/vovro ToUs 'AÜmvatovs, kai 
oráotv Dmepüé£uov &yovres moÀAoUs karerirpovoiov 

Tabüra uév oóv émpáyOn karà ToÜrov TOv &w- 

/ 
avróv. ne m 

73. Merà 94 rara. ' AOYjvnow uev f)pyev  AAkotos, 
&y 'Pepm 86 omiüjpxov omacoc "Omirepos Aovkpijrios 
kai. Aeüxios Xiépyvos GiOqvidrQs.  éri O06 robDrcv 
'Aüqvato, vrots «Ato: éykaAotvres Or. ÀóOpa 
"vpós ÁAakeOauuoviovus ovvriÜcvra,. ovpupaxiav, é£- 
éBaAov aDro)0s ék Tíjs v.joov kai ryv mÓÀw ajDroi 
karéoyov. Trois 9. ékmecoücu. AmAtow GDapvumns 
ó carpámws €Ockev oiketv TOv 'AOpapuriov. 

Ot 9' ' AÜmvatou vpoxeupwápevo, orpovrmyov KAé- 
cya, rov Ónpuayco'yóv, kat 6óvres G£ióAoyov OUvaquv 
mex, é£émejijav eis ros éri Opákqs róvovs — o- 
Tos O6 mAeUoas eig Zikuovwv, kákeiÜev srpooAafóue- 
vos orparuDTas ék TÓv sroÀuopko)vrov T? rÓAw, 
üTémÀevoe kai karíjpev eis TlopowvQv: éyivooxe 
yàp TOv pév Bpao(óav ék cToUrcv TÓv cÓTOv 
àmeAnÀvÜÓTa, mwpós O6 c$ lopovmg To)s dmoàÀe- 
Aeuujiévous oTparuworas ok Ovras détopáyovs 
mÀnoiov 8é Trífjs lopdovwqs karaoTporomeOeUcas kal 
cvoÀv.opkccas da karà yfv kai xarà ÜdAarrav, 
€tÀe koarQà, kpdros TT?]v TÓAw, KkQi TOUS péV TrüiOas 
Kai Tàs yvvaltkas vvópazoOicaro, abToDs Oé kai 
ToUs TV TOÀ $povpoüvras aiyuaATovs AÀapow, 
Ófcas dméoTeev eis ràs '" AÜjvas- Tfj 08 móAews 
84 


BOOK XII 73. 9—73. 3 


15; then they threw a wall about Secjné, settled 423 ».c. 
down to à siege, and launched unceasmg assaults 
uponit. Butthe garrison of Saone, which was strong 
in numbers and abundantly provided with mussiles 
and food and all other supplies, had no difficulty in 
repulang the Athenians and, because they held a 
higher position, in wounding many of their men. 

Such, then, were the events of this year 

78. 'The next year Álcaeus was archon in. Áthens 422» c 
and in Rome the consuls were Opiter Lucretius and 
Lucus Sergius Pideniates — Duung this year the 
Athenians, accusing the Dehans of secretly conclud- 
ing an alliance with the Lacedaemomans, expelled 
them from the island and took their city for their 
own. 'To the Delians who had been expelled the 
satrap Pharniaces gave the city of Adramytium ! to 
dwell m 

The Athenians elected as general Cleon, the leader 
of the popular party, and supplying him with a strong 
body of infantry sent him to the regions lying off 
Thraee He saded to Seoné, where he added to 
hus force soldiers from the besiegers of the city, and 
then sailed away and put 1n at Toroné; for he knew 
that Brasidas had gone from these parts and that the 
soldiers who were left 1n. Toroné were not strong 
enough to offer battle. After encamping near Toroné 
and besiegimg the city both by land and by sea, he took 
it by storm, and the children and women he sold into 
slavery, but the men who garrisoned the city he took 
capüve, fettered them, and sent them to Athens 


1 On the eoast of Asa Minor north« ast of Lesbos 


55 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


droÀwmrov Tv ókav]y $povpàv e&émAevae Mera Tíjs 
Swváp.eos, xai karfpe Tíjs Opdkns émi Xmpvuóva 
mrorajóv korra.orpororeeU as 0€ srÀqotov sróAews 
' Hióvos, à &7eyoUons dO Tfjs "ApqwróAecs oTaOLovs 
m hou mpooBoAas émoietro TÓÀ rroAtapart. 
TIvOopuevos 06 TOv Dpaoióav uerà Duvdquecos 
arbe» Tepi TÓÀW "ApéiroÀw, dvéLev£ev ém 
a)rTOv | O0 0é Bpao(bas os TiKovoe ,"pociuóvras 
ToUs moAeu(ovrs, éxrá£as Tv Ovvagav dm/vra. Tolg 
"Anvaiois yevopévgs 96 sapard£eos eydAms, 
kal TOV orpororréóav dycvuajuévcoy ,Apiporépcov 
Aaqumrpós, TO pév "póyrov icópporos 7v jJ náxn, 
perü O6 cabra map ékarépois TÓV Tyyepóvao 
diloru&ovuévov OU. éavriv kpivau TT páxnv, 
cvvéBm moÀÀo)s TÓw  GévoAóyav avOpQv Gva4pe- 
Ofvau, TÀy erpormyóv adroUs karaorQoávrav 
eig TTV ux KQ Umép TÍS viens avvmrépBXrrov 
Quioruitav elaeveykajiéveov Ó pév oov. Bpacióas 
Gpworeicas al mAelarovs QVeAov f)pcoucdós Kar- 
éorpeye TOV Btov Opoicos Oé kal ToO KAécvos éy 
Tfj ux) mT€ecóvrTOs, ajudóTepaL iv oT) Dvvápuets 
Ou& TT]v ávapxiav érapáxOnoav, TÓ TéAos 0. éyi- 
Kroav oL Aakebauuióvuot kai TpÓmOGLOv éoT"GCQV. 
ot O "Arvaot TOÜS vekpouUs ÓrroomÓvOovs dveAó- 
pevou kai Üdibavres àmémAevoav eis vás '"AÜvvas. 
eis 06 Tr?v Aaxe0atuova. srapayevouévov Twv ék 
Tfs páxyns kai rtv Bpaotóov vikqv àpa ka TeAev- 
TV Gmayyeivrov, 7 wrnp To9 BpaciSov mruvÜa- 
vopévm Tepi TÓV mpaxÜévraw kaTá TV  LdXxmqv 
émmpormoe, motós TuS yéyovev év Tf mroporátet 
pacíóas: TÓv O  Gmokpwauévev ÓTrwi qávrov 
! oov added by Dindorf. 
86 


BOOK XII. 73. 3—4 3 


Then, leaving an adequate garnson for the aty, he 422 & 
saMded away wath hus army and put in at the Stvy- 
mon Riverin Thrace — Pitching camp neai the aity of 
E1on, which 15 about thirty stades distant from Ampli- 
pohs, he launched successive assaults upon the town. 
74. Cleon, learning that Brasidas and his army were 
tarrying at the city of Amphipohs, broke camp and 
marched agamst him — And when Brasmdas heard of 
the approach of the enemy, he formed his army in 
battle-order and went out to meet the Athenmans. 
À. fierce battle ensued, in which both armies engaged 
brilliantly, and at first the fight was evenly balanced, 
but later, as the leaders on both ades strove to decade 
the battle through their own efforts, 1t was the lot of 
many important men to be slam, the generale inject- 
ing themselves into the battle and bringing into it 
a nvalry for victory that could not be suipassed 
Brandas, after fighting with the greatest distinction 
and slaymg a very large number, ended his hfe 
hero:eally , and when Cleon also, after displaymg 
like valou:, fell im the battle, both armies were thrown 
into confusion because they had no leaders, but in 
the end the Lacedaemonians were victorious and set 
up à &iophy. The Athenians got back their dead 
under a truce, gave them bunal, and sailed away to 
Athens And when certain men from the scene of 
the battle armved at Lacedaemon and brought the 
news of Brasidas' victory as well as of his death, 
the mother of Bragidas, on learning of the course of 
the battle, inquired what sort of a man Brasidas had 
shown bimself to be 1n the confhct. And when she 
was told that of all the Lacedaemomans he was the 


87 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


AarceBaupoviav GpLOTOS, etrrev 1 piyrmp ToD TeTc- 
Aevrkóros ÓTL Bpacióas Ó vios avri "v àyaÜO0s 
vip, ToÀAÀGv pvo ye érépcav karaeéarepos. 
TV 0€ Aóyov TOUTCOV Ó.aBolévraov Kara. TV zóÀw 
oí édopo, O9jootq. TT)v yvvaika ériuncav, Órt vrpo- 
ékpive TÓv Tfj waTpiOos égaiwov Tíjs ToÜ TÉkvov 
9ó£ns. 

Mera 8é rv eipnuévgv páyqv é0o£av oi 'A0m- 
vaioi TOlS AaxeOduovious cvvÜéca, o7OvÓGs Tev- 
TyKOovraere(s émi ToloÓe: ToUs gév aiyuaAdrovs 
TOp' duóorépow üdmoAÀvÜTfjva,, ràs O6 mÓÀes áro- 
Ooüvat. ràs kaTrà mÓAeuov AngdÜeicas.  Ó uév oiv 
I[eAomovvgotakós vróAeuos, Otape(vas péypt Tv 
Drrokeuuéva Küupóv éry Oéxa, TÓv «ipmuévov 
TpÓTOV kareAUOn 

75. "Ear dpxovros 8 Affjvqow " Ápwoicvos ' Po- 
pato! karéorncav Ümárovs Térov Kotvriov kai 
A dAov Kopwijuov Kóocov. émi 8é coórov dpm 
ToÜ moÀéuov Tob HeAosrovvnowakoo kara AeAvgué- 
vou Tw Tapaxoi Kai kiv/joces mroAepucat guv- 
éBncav karà TT-v EAMBa Oi TOLODTOS Twás 
arias. "A8nvoto, KaL Aaiebaunóviot kowf) perá 
TÓ)V up memowpévot ovrovOàs kat Ou ADOeLs, 
Xxopis TOv conjayiouv móÀeov cvvéÜevro ovp- 
paxtay ToÜTo Oé mrpáavres eis Umóvouav vAUov 
Os éni karaBovAdoet TÓV dÀÀcv EAMjvov Big! 
memowuévo. ovppaXtav. OLÓmep ac peyioraa TÓYV 
TÓÀecov OLempeopevovro "rpos GAMjAas kat q'vvote- 
Aéyovro Trepi ópiovotas Kat cuppaxtas KQTÓ TÓYV 
"A8nvalov kai AaxeBautoviv. 7jcav 9e Trpo- 
eoTÓ oou, TÓÀew TaUTQs a6 OvvarO TOTO, TéTTOpes, 
"Apyos, GaBoi, KópwÜOos, *Hus. 

88 


BOOK XII. 74 3—75. 3 


best, the mother of the dead man said, " My son 42 sc. 
Brasidas was a brave man, and yet he was inferior to 
many others." When this reply passed throughout 

the city, the ephors accorded the woman pubhe 
honours, because she placed the fair name of her 
country above the fame of her son. 

After the battle we have described the Athenians 
decided to make a truce of fifty years with the 
Lacedaemonians, upon the following terms: The 
prisoners with both sides were to be released and each 
side should give back the cites which had been taken 
in the course of the war Thus the Peloponnesian 
War, which had continued up to that time for ten 
years, came to an end in the manner we have 
desenibed. 

75 When Axrnstion was archon in Athens, the :215« 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Quinctius and Aulus 
Cornehus Cossus  Durnmg this year, although the 
Peloponnesian War had just come to an end, agam 
tumults and military movements occurred throughout 
Greece, for the following reasons Although the 
Áthemans and Lacedaemonmans had concluded a truce 
and cessation of hostihtes in company with thew 
allies, they had formed an alhance without consulta- 
tion with the allied cities. By this act they fell under 
suspicion of having formed an alhance for their private 
ends, with the purpose of enslaving the rest of the 
Greeks. s a consequence the most important of 
the ecitics maintamed a mutual exchange of embassies 
and conversations regarding a union of policy and an 
alhance against the Athemans and. Lacedaemonians 
The leading states in this undertaking were the four 
most powerful ones, Argos, Thebes, Corinth, and Elis 


1 So Dindorf, omitted J K, iàiíav other MSS 
89 


4 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


EiAóycs 8' ómomrre0noav ai szóAew ovpudpovetv 
karà Tífs 'EAÀAdóos Oià TO mpooyeypádÜai mais 
«owais cvvÜYkous: éfetvau. 'AÜnvatow xat Xake- 
OauLoviows, Orep àv Ooxjj TaUTaus Talis TÓAeoL, 
mpooypádoew rats ovvÜvrjkous kat üdaupetv arro rÀv 
cuvÜm«Gv — ycpts O6 roUTov 'AÜ«vatow uév Oi 
jmdiopjaros éOckav Oéxa. àvópáotww é£ovoiav éyew 
BovAesecÜa, sept TÀv Tfj móÀev ovudepóvrowv TO 
zGpamAWoiov O6 kai rÀv AakeOawuovicv rerown- 
Kórov $avepàv ovvéfw yevéoÜau rÀv O)vo móAewcv 
TV mrÀeove&av. TOAÀÀÓv O€ TróAecov Ürrakovovadv 
"pos T?) kow"]v éAevÜepiav, kai TÀv uev " AOnvatcov 
karadporovp.évav Ou& TT]v epi TO AxjAcov cup.- 
dopáv, TOv 66 AakeOawuusoviv reramewtwpévov Tf 
6ófm Oià cv dÀcocw TÓÀv Éév rfj Makrupig vfq, 
ToÀÀaL TÓAes cuvíoravro, kai Tpoí|yov T TÓW 
'"Apyetcv TóAuv émi T?v Tyyeuovíav.  eixe' yàp 
TÓÀws aUTY) uéya. a£ioia. Ou& Tàs vraÀouas mpá£ews: 
vpo yàp Tís '"HpakxAeióQv xaTrÀ/oecs! éx Tí 
'Apye(as omfjpíav axyeOóO0v &zavres ot péyioTou rÓv 
aciÀémv  mpós O6 TobTow oÀ)v xpóvov eipüvmuv 
éyovca Tpocó00vs peyioras éAdpBave, kai mAf- 
Üos o) puóvov xpupárcov ebyev, GÀÀA& xat àvOpów. 
ot 0. 'Apyetou vopíLovres a)rots ovyxcpnÜrjae- 
cÜa. rv ÓÀqv Tyeuovíav, éméAefav vOv moMráv 
xiAovs ToUs vecrépovs kai uáAwoTa Tols T€ OQ- 
Lacu LioxyUovras Kai TOts oU0(íQus: OToÀUcavTes O6 
avroUs kai Tís dGAÀAÀms Aevovpyías kai TpoQüs 
OÓnuocias xopmyoüvres mpooérafav yvuváleoÜat 


! So Dindoif- éye. ? $o Wesseling : karaA aeos 


* See chap. 63 ? See Book 4. 57 ff 
900 


BOOK XII. 75 4-7 


lhere was good 1eason io suspect that Athens à2015« 
and Lacedaemon had common desigus against the 
resl of Greece, since a clause had been added to 
the compact which the two had made, namely, that 
the Athemans and Lacedaemomans had the night, 
accordmg as these states may deem 1t best, to add to 
or subtract from the agreements Moreover, the 
Áthenians by decree had lodged 1n ten men the power 
to take counsel regarding what would be of advantage 
to the city ; and since much the same thing had also 
been done by the Lacedaemomans, the selfish am- 
biàons of the two states were open for all to see. 
Many cities answered to the call of their common 
freedom, and since the Athenians were disdained by 
reason of the defeat they had suffered at Delium and 
the Lacedaemonans had had ther fame reduced 
because of the capture of their citizens on the island 
of Sphactena, a large number of cities joined to- 
gether and selected the ety of the Aàgives to 
hold the position of leader. Vor this city enjoyed 
a hgh posiion by 1eason of its achievements in 
the past, since until the return of the Heracleidae ? 
practically all the most maportant kings had come 
from the Argohs, and furthermore, since the city 
had enjoyed peace for a long time, :t had received 
revenues of the greatest size and had a great store 
not only of money but also of men The Arvgives, 
beheving that the entire leadership was to be con- 
ceded to them, picked out one thousand of their 
younger citizens who were at the same time the most 
vigorous 1n body and the most wealthy, and freemg 
them also from every other service to the state and 
supplying them with sustenance at public expense. 
they had them undergo continuous trang and exer- 


91 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


c'wveyeis jeAeras oÜTOL CV obw à v")v yopmyiev 
kai v»)v Guveyij peÀérv Tay0 TÓv  moÀepucóv 
épycv aAnral kareorá8nca. 

76. Aaebaunóviot 8é OpOvres ém aroUs cuv- 
.oTa M évnv TÜv I eAonóvvgaov kai mpoopdpuevot TÓ 
|eyeÜos ToU moÀénov, Trà karàü TTV Tyeuovíav 
es v Bvvorróv zjooACovro. KaL mrpárov pev 
TOUS perà Bpaoíba xarà T)v Opdákmqv corparev- 
[vous EiAcras óvras xtÀtovs TAevÜcpocav, peTà 
06 rara Tro)s 6v v$j Makrwnpia víow ÀndÜOévras 
abyj.oAdyrovs 2wapruras dTUiLQ mepuBeBAnkóres, 
cos Tv Xmáprqv d9oforépav «ewoujkóras, üm- 
éAvcav Tíjs drwa(as. | dkoÀoUÜws O6 roUrow cols 
Karü TOv síÓAeuov ématvow kai Tuuats poerpé- 
TOVTO TÓSs TpoyeyevQuévas avOpoyaÜ(as év Tots 
péAAovoww ydow $mepDáAAecÜau Tolg Te ocup- 
MÓxous  émiewkéoTepov  Tpooedépovro, ai cos 
duÀavÜpwmrious rovs àAAoTpuoráTovs abrOv éÜepá- 
vevov. '"AÜmnvatow 96 roovavriov TQ $óDBwo ovAóÓ- 
pevow karamAv£aoÜa, roUs év Doa dmocoTáceos 
Ovras, mapdóevyua máow àvéóeifav c)v ék cv 
3kuovaüov ruucptav: ék«rroMopkYjcavres yàp avToUs 
«a, mávras "Pw«90v karaoQád£avres, motOas pev kai 
yvvatkas é£mvópamoOUcavro, v)v O6 víjov oüxetv 
vrapé8ocav Trois lAorawbow, écmemroóovw 89V. éxet- 
vous éK TÍíjs maTpiOos 

IIept 8é ro)s a)To)Us ypóvovus karà T?v 'lra- 
Ailav Kapmravoi peyáÀn 8vvápev orpoceicavres éni 
Kiumv évikxqcav uáxyn Tro)s Kuuaiovs kai roUs 

! ros added by Dindorf. 
! Scioné was a cherso-nesos (* nea1-14land ?). 
? ce chap. 56. 
02 


BOOK XII. 75. 7—16. 4 


cise. These young men, therefore, by reason of the «21 »c. 
expense incurred for them and their continuous train- 

ing, quickly formed a body of athletes trained to 
deeds of war. 

76. The Lacedaemonians, seemg the Pelopon- 
nesus uniüng agamst them and foreseemg the 
magnitude of the impending war, began exerting 
every possible effort to make sure their position of 
leadership. And first of all the Helots who had 
served with Braesidas in Thrace, a thousand imn all, 
were given their freedom ; then the Spartans, who 
had been taken prisoner on the island of Sphacteria 
and had been disgraced on the ground that they had 
diminished the glory of Sparta, were freed from them 
state of disgrace. Also, ;mn pursuance of the same 
pohcy, by means of the commendations and honours 
accorded 1n the course of the war they were incited 
to surpass 1n the struggles which lay before them the 
deeds of valour they had already performed ; and 
towaid then alhes they conducted themselves more 
equitably and eoneiliated the most unfavourably dis- 
posed of them with kindly treatment. "he Athemans, 
on the contrary, desirmmg to strike with fear those 
whom they suspected of plannmg secession, displayed 
an example for all to see 1n the punishment they 
infhcted on the inhabitants of Scioné ; for after re- 
ducing them by siege, they put to the sword all of 
them from the youth upwards, sold 1nto slavery the 
children and women, and gave the island! to the 
Plataeans to dwell in, since they had been expelled 
from their native land on account of the Athenians.? 

In the course of this year in Italy the Campanians 
advanced agamst Cymé with a strong army, defeated 
the Cymaeans m battle, and destroyed the larger part 


03 


4 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mÀetovus rÀv àvrvraxÜévrow karékoiav — zpookaB- 
eLópevou 86 Tfj moMopkig kai mÀetovs mpoofoAds 
mowmgcápuevou karà kpáros etÀov T? mOÓAw. Oiap- 
cdácavres 9' aór?v kai ro)s karaAnóÜévras éÉfav- 
OpazroO0,cdjLevou ToUs L«avoUs oic" Topas é£ aborÓV 
àTré8e.£av 

7T. "Ear .Apxovros O^ " A6vaow ' Aorvoiàov 'Po- 
pato! karéoTQcav TTOUS Aektov Koivriov xai 
AóAov Xeyurpowov, 'HAetov 9 zyyayov "OAvpriáBa 
évevnkooTóV, kaB Tv evika OTÓOLOV YmépBuos 
Xwpakóotos. émi Óé ToUrcV "A8mvatot Lev kard 
TwaG xpqopuoóv AmAtow amréGocav TT vfjoov, kai 
karfAÜov «eis Tv maTpióa oi TÓ 'AOpau)ruov 
oikotvres Ar. TOv 8é 'AOmvaitv o)k dmo- 
Oóvrov | Aake8ouuoviows rv  YllóÀov, máÀw ai 
zÓÀews abra, "pos aàÀAWAas Oveépovro kai rroÀe- 
pukGs etyov.  & O75 mvÜóuevos óÓ Of8uos có 
'"Apyeicv érewvoe roUs ' AOnvotovs QuALav c'vvOéoOo. 
TpÓS TOUS '" Apyetovs. ad&opiévus óé Tfjs O.aopás, 
oL Lev AakeBaupióvuot Tobs Kopw60i (ovs émeLca 
éykaraÀwretv T)» kowmv oUvoóov kai cvuuaxe 
TOlS AaxeBaupioviois. TouaUTT)S oé Tapaxfis ye€vo- 
pévms kai dvapxías oDens, T&À kar& T?v lleAo- 
móvvycov éy TOUTOLS jv. 

"Ev 8é rots ékrÓs TómvOis AÁivtGves kai NÓAorres 
«a, MyAiets cvudpovijcavres óvvápeowv. á£voAóyow 
éorpárevcav émi rv '"HpákAeav r)v év Tpayuu 
avrvTaXÜévrowv 86 rÀv 'HpakAecoróv kai uáymns 
yevopévis itoxvpás, $r109cav ot ctv 'HpáxAewa 


! $o Dindorf: Tpaxwio. 


! Cp chap 73. 1. ? See chap. 75 at end. 
04 


BOOK XII 76. 4—77 4 


ofthe opposing forces. Ánd settling down to a siege, 
they launched a numbei of assaults upon the aity and 
tookit by storm. "They then plundered the city, sold 
into slaveiy the captured prisoners, and selected 
an adequate number of their own citizens to settle 
there 

77 When Astyphilus was archon in. Athens, the 
Romans elected as consule Lucius Quinctius and 
Aulus Sempronus, and the Eleians celebrated the 
Nineteth Olympiad, that mà which Hyperbius of 
Syracuse won the " stadion " Thus year the Athe- 
mans, i] obedience to aà certam oracle, returned 
their island to the Dehans, and the Dehans who 
were dwelhng in Adramytum' returned to then 
native land. And since the Athemans had not re- 
turned the city of Pylos to the Lacedaemonians, these 
cities were again at odds with each other and hostile. 
When this was known to the Assembly of the Argives, 
that body persuaded the Atheniaans to close a treaty 
of fnendship with the Argives. | Ánd since the quarrel 
kept growing, the Lacedaemonians persuaded the 
Corinthians to desert the league of states ? and ally 
themselves with the Lacedaemomans — Such bemg 
the confuson that had ansen together with a lack 
of leadership, the situation throughout the Pelopon- 
nesus was as has been described 

In the regions outside? the Aenianians, Dolopians. 
and Mehans, havimg come to an understanding, 
advanced with strong armaments agaimst Heraclea 
i Traechis. The Heracleians drew up to oppose them 
and a great battle took place, 1n which the people of 


3 Since the following three tiibes are of southern Thessaly, 
apparently Diodorus does not consider that area to be à part 
of Greece proper. 

05 


429i B« 


4920 B « 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


xarowkoÜüvres. | moÀÀovs O' amofaÀóvres orpa- 
TLÓTAS  KQi  GOUjjvyOvres évróg TOv  rewÓw, 
peremémbavro BorÜs.av mapà. rv Bowordv. | àmo- 
/ ? 5 ^ ^ (9 / AL Ld / 
aTreiAávre 9' a)rots TOv OnBatev xyuMovs ómAcras 
émiÀékTovs, per  aDTÓv T)u)vovro TOUS émeorpa- 
TE€UKÓTAS 
"Apa Oé ToUrow Tparronévous  "OAUvOi uev 
orpareücavres émi mólv Mw«ipepvav, dópovpov- 
/ (790052 / A M] X 55/1 
pévqv im 'AÜnvabiov, rfjv uév dpovpàv é£éBaAov, 
a)Toi Oé T?]v mÓÀw karécyov. 
78. 'E« &pyovros 9. ' A0sjvgcow ' Apxiov 'Pepatot 
/ € / Pd / M 
karéorqoav ovárovs A«Ukuov ILamüpviov MovyiAavóv 
M I4 2: /À M NR 5 s oé / 
xai. l'ívov XepoviMov £poükrov. émi 86 rovrov 
'Apyetou jév éykaAécavres Tois | XakeBauovious 
114 A / b) E / ^^ P] 7 ^ 
óru Trà ÜUnora oUk Q&né0ocav rQ 'ÁAsóAAwcw TÓ 
IIvOaet," cóAeuov a)Tois kaoTTyyeuav: kaÜ' óv 81) 
/ 'AÀ 1o e M ^ ' AQ / 
ypóvov KuBuáóms 0 orparQyós TÓv 1VO.UCOV 
» 7 ? M » / » 7 / 
évéfBaAev eis T)v 'Apyeiav éycwv OUvapuv.  TroUTovs 
86 oí 'Apyetou mapaÀaBóvres  éorpárevoav émi 
Tooib5va, vóÀw ocópnpayov AakeOauuoviov, kaL 
T)v pév xopav AenAarcavres, ràs Oé éma/Aews 
éumpücavres, àmnpAAdymoav cis TTv oike(av. oi 
86 Aakeüauuóvvo, crapo£vvÜévres éni mois eis ToUs 
Tpowtqviovs mapavouruacuw éyvocav OuroAepetv 
/ 
mpós '"Apyeiovus 0ió0 kai O/vapuv  aÜpoicavres 
éméorQoav vyepuóva ^Àyw c0v BaoiAéa. | oÓros 86 
perà Tíjs óvvápveos éorpárevoev éri Tos ' Apyelovs 
Kai TT]v iév xcpav é0jjooe, vÀqotov 96 rfjs móAeos 
áyaycv Tiv OUvauuv TpoekaÀe?ro ToUs ToÀeuiovs 


! So Oldfather (Paus. 9. 35, 36): IIv6io. 
906 


BOOK XII. 77. 4—8. 3 


Heacleia were defeated — Since they had lost many 42os« 
soldiers and had sought refuge within their walls, they 
sent for :id from the Bocotians The Thebans dis- 
patched to their help a thousand picked hophtes, with 
whose aid they held off the adversanes. 

While these events were taking place, the Olyn- 
thians dispatched an army against the «cty of 
Mecyberna ! which had an Athenian garnson, drove 
out the garrison, and themselves took possession of 
the city 

78 When Archias was archon in Athens, the nonc 
Romans elected as consuls Lucius Papirius Mugilanus 
and Gaius Servihus Struetus. In this year the 
Argives, charging the Lacedaemonians? wath not 
paying the sacenfices to Apollo Pythaeus,? declared 
war on them; and it was at this very time that 
Alcibiades, the Atheman general, entered Argolhs 
with an army.  Áddmg these troops to their forces, 
the Árgives advanced agamst Troezen, a city which 
was an ally of the Lacedaemonians, and after plunder- 
ing its territory and burning its farm-buildings they 
returned home. The Lacedaemonians, bemg imn- 
censed at the lawless acts commutted against the 
Troezemans, resolved to go to war against the 
Argives; consequently they mustered an army and 
put their king AÁgis 1n command — With this force 
Agis advanced against the Argwes and ravaged then 
terntory, and leading hus army to the vicinity of the 


1 Situated a short distance east of Olynthus. 

? 'The Epidaurians, not the Lacedaemonians (see Thucy- 
dides, 5 53); but Diodorus frequently uses the term '* Lace- 
daemonaan "' 1n a wide sense to refer to any ally of Sparta. 

3 The temple 1s likely the one 1n Ásiné, which was the only 
building spared by the Argives when they 1azed that cy 
(cp. Pausanias, 2. 36. 5; Thucydides, 5. 53. 1) 


VOL. V E O07 


4 


C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eis" püxyqv. oL 0 - Apyetor vpocÀafópevot oTpa- 
TLOT &.S TODO. nuév '"HÀeiov TpioyiMovs, map, Oe 
Mavrwéov o) voÀv Aevrouévovus Tobrcv, mpofiyov 
ék Tí mÓÀeos TÓ orparómeOov.  ueÀÀovons 8€ 
vzapará£ecs vyivecÜa., ot orparqQyoi map! üudo- 
Tépows Owmpeopevoápevow Trerpaumwatovs àvoyàs 
cwvéÜevro | émaveMÜóvrov 8€ TÀYy oTporomébov 
ümpákrov eig TTV oiketay, oU opyfis etyov ai 
TrÓAets aj dórepau TOUS owepévovs TÓS OTo0vOQs 
oTpoTm'yojs. Diómrep oL pev "Apyeto roís Aifows 
BáAovres TOUS T)yepóvas Gmokreitvetw emexetpn- 
cav, ka, póyts pera£o" mroAMjs Derjoeds TO Lv cwv- 
eyopnoav, T)v O9. o)cíav aürÓOv Onue)vcavres 
kaTréckaibav Tàs oik(as. ot 06 AaxeOouuóvio, TÓV 


Ayw éneBdAovro pev koAáGew, emrayyeiaqiévou 


o oXro0 Ou& TÓv kaÀÓv épycv OtopÜcóoa0a. TÜV 
&p.apriav, LÓóyis cvveyopnoav, eis 0€ TÓV Aoumóv 
xypóvov éAópevot 8Géxa àvOpas ToUg ovverorárovs, 
mapaKaréart)oay ovjBosAovs kai v pocéra£av wnaév 
&vev Tfj ToUTOV yvy TrDdTTeLV 

79. Mera 8e rabra '" AÜnvaicv Gmooreuvrav 
kaTrà ÜdÀarrav eis "Apyos? ómÀéras uév xiMovs 
émiAékrovs, Ummets 0€ Ouukootous, v éorpamí,yovv 
Adáxyns kal Nucóoparos: cwvfjv 0€ ToÓTOLS kal 
ANaBdbs iO.coT)S Ov Oi T)» duAGav TV TpÓs 
-HAeiovs ka Mavrweis* cuveópevaávr v 96 mávrav, 
é0ofe Tüs | oTOvOds €v yaipeiw, spóg Oe TÓv 
TróÀep.ov  óppfjoau. OO kai TOUS LOlovs ékaoTos 
oTpaTT«yOs vrapoppuroe ps TOV aya, KaL müv- 
Tov TpoÜUncos makovcávrov, ékrOÓs Tíjs mÓAews 
KüTeoTparoméOcucav.  €Oofev o)v a)rois mávrow 


I mv after eis deleted by Heitlein. 
08 


BOOK XII 78 4—79 2 


city hechallenged the enemy tobattle. The Argives, «5c 
adding to their army three thousand soldiers from the 
Eleians and almost as many from the Mantineians, 
led out their forces from the city. When a pitched 
battle was imminent, the generals conducted negotia- 
tons with each other and agreed upon a cessation 
of hostiles for four months. But when the armes 
returned to their homes without accomplhshimg 
anythmg, both cities were angry with the generals 
who had agreed upon the truce. Consequently the 
Argives hurled stones at their commanders and began 
to menace them with death; only reluctantly and 
after much supplication their hves were spared, but 
their property was confiscated and their homes razed 
to the ground. The Lacedaemomians took steps to 
punsh Agis, but when he promised to atone for his 
error by worthy deeds, they reluctantly let him off, 
and for the future they chose ten of thexr wisest men, 
whom they appointed his advisers, and they ordered 
him to do nothing without learning their opinion. 

79. After this the Athenians dispatched to Argos 
by sea a thousand picked hophtes and two hundred 
cavalry, under the command of Laches and Nico- 
stratus; and Alcibiades also accompanied them, 
although in a private capacity, because of the fnendly 
relaünons he enjoyed with the Eleians and Manti- 
neians ; and when they were all gathered 1n council, 
they decided to pay no attention to the truce but to 
set about making war. Consequently each general 
urged on his own troops to the conflict, and when they 
all responded eagerly, they pitched. camp. outade 
the city | Now they agreed that they should march 

? So Capps  perá 
3 So Reiske a)rojs 


99 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mpórrov arpareUew ém Opxopevóv Tfjs '"Apkaó(as. 
0.0 kai mapeAÜóvres eis 'AÁpkaOiav, mpookaÜeLó- 
Levou Tfj ztóÀe, kaÜ' vjuépav émowotivro vpooDoAas 
TOÍS Teiyeoi.  xeupoocápevoi Oé TT)v mÓÀw kar- 
eorparoméóevcav qÀmotov 'leyéas, kekpucóres xai 
raUTQv moÀwpkíjoau.. TOv 0€ leyearóv à£iobvrov 
ro)s AakeOauioviovs DowuÜgcau. xarà Táyos, oí 
Mmapriürau vzapaAaBóvres ToU)s iOiovs müvras kai 
roós cvppdxovs Tfkov émi r3v Mavriüveuav, vopgi- 
Lovres ravTrQs voÀeuovuévgs àpÜroeo0o. c^» TÍíjs 
Teyéas voAwopitíav. ot 866 Mavrwets robs ovpg- 
Máxovus mapaAaBóvres, kai a)roi vavOnuei oTpa- 
TeUoavres, àvreráxÜnaay rois AaeDaupiovtois. 
yevop.évns óé náxns iO Xvpás, oL pév émiAekrot TÓY 
" Apyetov, Xo TÓV &puUpov € ÓvTes, yeyvpvaapiévot 
O6 kaÀds và karà TOv mÓAeuov, érpéavro ToUs 
ávrirerayp.évovs mpóyro1, Kai Ovwbkovres TroADv 
érroiovv dóvov. oi Oé AakeBauóviot TÓÀÀÀO Hépn 
ToÜ orpareUparos vpejápevo: kai mroMos àv- 
eAóvres OméoTpeiav ém' a)ToUvs ékeivovs, kai TÓ 
moet kvKAdoavres TAmuGov karraKóew dravras. 
TÓv 0€ Aoyáócv' rQ uév mÀrÜev sroÀo. Aevrrosévow, 
rais 0' àvOpayaÜLcus mpoexóvrov, ó |ev BocuAebs 
TÀv AakeBausovicv mpooycovibópievos. € évekapréprae 
TOlS Oewots, kai vvTas üy àvetÀev: comevoe yàp 
TOS mroAcr aus. àzroOoÜva, ràs emayyeAtas, KaL péya 
TL karepyaaápevos OtopÜccaoÜa. TV yeyevnuévnv 
aóo£íav: o9 av eid ye Tov erpoaipeaw émrvTeAé- 
cQ. COápaf yàp ó Zaapriárus, eis Ov rÓV Ovug- 
BovAÀcv, à£iopua O6 uéyvorov éxov ày vá 3mráprm, 


1 oj aftei éketvovs deleted by Reiske. 
? So Rhodoman (Thuc. 5. 67. 2) : Aoyayáw 


100 


BOOK XII 79. 2-6 


first of all agamst Orchomenus in Arcadia; and iu95c 
s0, advancing mto Arcadia, they settled down to the 
«ege of the aty and made daily assaults upon its 
walls. And after they had taken the cty, they 
encamped near Tegea, having decided to besege 
it also. But when the Tegeatans called upon the 
Lacedaemonians for mnmediate aid, the Spartans 
gathered all their own soldiers and those of their alhes 
and moved on Mantüneia, beheving that, once Man- 
tineia was attacked m the war, the enemy would raise 
thesiege of Tegea.* 'Fhe Mantmeians gathered their 
alhes, and marching forth themselves em masse, 
formed ther hnes oppogite the Lacedaemonians. À 
sharp battle followed, and the picked troops of the 
Argives, onc thousand mn number, who had received 
excellent traamng 1n warfaie, were the first to put to 
fhght their opponents and made great slaughter of 
them in their pursut. But the Lacedaemonians, 
after putting to flight the other parts of the aimy 
and slaymg many, wheeled about to oppose the 
Aigives and by their superior numbers surrounded 
them, hoping to destroy them to a man. Now 
although the picked troops of the Argives, though 
in numbers far inferior, were supeiror in feats of 
courage, the ling of the Lacedaemonians led the 
fight and held out firmly agamst the perils he en- 
countered ; and he would have slam all the Argives 
—for he was resolved to fulfil the promises he had 
made to his fellow eitzens and wipe oui, by a great 
deed, hus former ill 1epute—but he was not allowed 
to consummate that purpose. For Pharax the 
Spartan, who was one of the advisers of Agis and 
enjoyed the highest reputation in Sparta, directed 


! Presumably in ordei to biing aid to the Mantineians. 
101 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


OLekeAeUero To(s Aoyáov Oofva. OtoOov, kai qu) 
TpOs dzeyvokóras TÓ Lv OwucvOvveUovras meipav 
AoBetv dàrvxyodoqs àperijs — O0ev vjvaykdoÓn karà 
T?)v üpricos pxÜctocav énvrayzv 6oüvas Gié£oO0v xarà 
Tiv ToU GO ápakos yvopjmqv. ot uév o)v xütot TOv 
? / / 5 / ^ / 
eipm4évov Tpómov dóeÜévres Ove ety Bieocóboav, 
oí 8€ AakeBouióvuos peyáAq Hx vuci]oavres KaL 
TpÓTGLOV eTijaavres aarfjABov eig TTV Ooiketav. 
80. ToO 9' éwavoiov ypóvov QwAqAvOóTos ' AO5,- 
i 5 ? ^ * Li / * » M ^ 
yQoi. pév Tpxyev '"Àvripóv, év "Pong 9' àvrt. rv 
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Ooípios xat Tíros Kotvrios, er. 86 Mápkos Ilo- 
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oroóuios kai AdAÀos KopwjAws.  émi O6 rovrov 
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dÀMjÀovs eipYjvqw émovwjcavro kai ovupaxiav ovv- 
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Tois AakeÓauuoviows. srepi Gé ToUs aUTOUS ypóvous 
év Tfj vÓÀe. TÀv "Apyeicv ot kar. ékAoyT)v kekpi- 
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ToUs Onuaycvyetv eioÜóras amékrewav, rovs O. àÀ- 
Aovs karoamAmE£djuevou karéÀAucav To)s vópovs kal 
Ov éavrOv rà Onuóoia Owpkovv. Owakaraoxóvres 
0€ raUTwv T)]v mo Te(av uias óxro kareAvOnoav, 


| So Reiske: dpkdot. 
1029 


BOOK XII. 79. 6—80. 3 


him to leave a way of escape for the picked men and 49 s.c. 
not, by hazarding the issue agaimst men who had 
given up all hope of hfe, to learn what valour 1s when 
abandoned by Fortune — So the king was compelled, 
in obedience to the command recently given him! to 
leave a way of escape even as Pharax advised. So 
the Thousand, having been allowed to pass through 
in the manner described, made their way to safety, 
and the Lacedaemonians, having won the victory in 
a g1eat battle, erected a trophy and returned home 
80 When this year had come to an end, in Athens 48 5« 
the archon was Antiphon, and 1m. Rome in place of 
consuls four mihtary trubunes were elected, Gaius 
Iunus, Titus Quinetius, Marcus Postumius, and 
Aulus Cornehus | Dunng this year the Argives and 
Lacedaemonians, after negotiations with each other, 
concluded a peace and formed an alhance | Conse- 
quently the Mantineians, now that they had lost the 
help of the Aigives, were compelled to subject them- 
selves to the Lacedaemonians. And about the same 
time 1n the eity of the Argives the Thousand who had 
been selected out of the total muster of citizens came 
to an agreement among themselves and decided to 
dissolve the democracy and estabhsh an anstocracy 
from ther own number. And having as they did 
many to aid them, because of the prominent position 
their wealth and brave exploits gave them, they first 
of all seized the men who had been accustomed to 
be the leaders of the people and put them to death, 
and then, by terrouzang the 1est of the citizens, they 
abohshed the laws and were proceeding to take the 
management of the state into their own hands. They 
mamtamed this government for eight months and 


| Cp. chap. 78. 6. 
108 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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yàp GO «ets àveAóvres Mokpáv vÀetovs xiAtoov. 

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móÀe:s, KUÜnpa. kai Níoouav: Tcv 7e MtfjAov érrro- 

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émi pakpa(s ajríaus àvetÀov roUrovs.  é$' ots oi 
*P ^ 0é » / À e^ M 
cyuatou zapo£vvÜévres élmdicavro voAeuetv, kat 
mpoyeupu.oduuevou OUvapav à£ióAoyov eiAovro Óurá- 

» 3 A M / N M 
TOpQG "Awov Aiu(Àvov kai perà ToUTov karà TO 
éQos A$Aov Kopvüov Wrrapyov. 0 90. AiuAwos 
s packevagdj,.evos rà TpOs TOv TóÓAÀeuov, àvétevée 
perà Tfjs 8vvdpewcs évi ro0s GiOqváras. vrwra- 
£auévov O06 TrÀv QOiOóqvarOv éyévero uáym émi 
ToÀ)v xpóvov ioyvpá, kai voÀAQv map' àporépots 
veOÓvrov icóppomos Ó àyov éyévero. 

81. 'Ec' &pyovros 9. 'AOWvqow E)Qw5uov év 
'"Póumo kareoráÜncav àvrt TOv ÜÓnárov yiapyot 
Aeíkios GoUpuos, AeUkvos Kotvrios, AóAos Xeg- 
vpeowvios. émi 06 rovrov AakeÓauuóvtoL jierà TÓv 
ovMjAxcv orporeUcavres eis Tv  Apyeiav "Yotàs 

! sávras suggested by Vogel (ch. 76. 3). 
104 


BOOK XII. 80. 3—81. 1 


then were overthrown, the people havmg umted us :c 
agamst them ; and so these men were put to death 
and the people got back the democracy 

Ánothei movement also took place m Greece The 
Phocans also, having quarrelled with the Locrians, 
settled the 1ssue 1n pitched. battle by virtue of ther 
own valour For the victory lay with the Phocans, 
who slew more than one thousand Locrians. 

The Athenians under the command of Nicias seized 
two cites, Cythera and Nisaea! ; and they reduced 
Melos by siege, slew all the males from the youth 
upward, and sold into slavery the children and 
women ? 

Such were the affairs of the Gueeks in this year. 
In Italy the Fidenates, when ambassadors came to 
their city from Rome, put them to death for tiifing 
reasons  Íncensed at such an act, the Romans voted 
to go to war, and mobihzng a strong army they 
appointed Anus Aemihus Dictator and with him, 
following their custom, Áulus Cornehnus Master of 
Horse. Aemuhus, after malang all the preparations 
for the war, marched with his army against the 
I1denates | And when the Fidenates drew up theu 
forces to oppose the Romans, a fierce battle ensued 
which continued a long time, heavy losses were 
incurred on both sdes and the conflict was indecisive 

81 When REuphemus was archon m Athens, in ui x« 
Rome in place of consuls mihtairy tiibunes were 
elected, Lucius Furius, Lucius Quinctius, and. Aulus 
Sempronius In this year the Lacedaemonians and 
their allies took the field against Argohs and captured 


! 'The loss of Cythera was a blow to the Spartans, that of 
Ni1saea to the Megarians 
? Melos was destroyed in 416 8 c 


VOL. V E 105 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ycpiov etÀov, «ai TroUs évowcoÜvras dokretvavres 
TO pev djpo)piov kaTéokaipav, a)roi 0€ svÜOÓyuevoi 
ToUs 'Ápyeious «oooukévat rà papà Teiyv) ué- 
yp. Tfjs ÜaAdrTqs, émeMPOvres rà kareokcvaogéva 
Teiy karréaicaulav, kai T1)v eis T?)v oucetav érráüvo8ov 
émovjcavro. 

2  'Aüqvato: 89' éAópevou ovparqyóv 'AXxfu&8mnv, 
kai Góvres a0TQ vaUs eikoct, mpooéra£av ovykuora- 
ckeváca, Tois '"Apyeiow TOY karà TT)v ToÀvreiav 
ér, yàp Tjoav év rapaxais Ouà TO troAAoUs DroAcAet- 

3 dÜa. vOv. rfv àpwrokparíav aipovuévov — ó 8 
ov '"AAkugiáOns karavrycas eis 7T|v TOv ' Apyeicv 
mÓAÀw, kal cvveOpeócas perà TrÓv Tv Om«uokpa- 
Tiay rrpokpwóvrov, érréAe£e vv '" Apyeicw roOs ud- 
Avora. GokoÜvras rà TOv ake8ouuovicv atpetoÜau: 
ueraorncduevos Óé ToUrous é« Tfs vÓÀews, kai 
ovykarackevdcas BeBaios Tr)v Onuokpar(av, dm- 
érÀevoev eis ràs 'AtWvas. 

4  Toórov 86 ToÜ érovs AwWyovros Aakeóouuówwot 
perà moÀM$js Ovvápeos éuDaÀóvres eis T?v 'Ap- 
yeiav, kai soÀArv -Tíjs xepas Omcavres, roUs 
$vyd8as vÀÓv 'Apyeitov kardkwav eis "Opveás 
émvreuicavres 06 roÜro TO xwepiov émi rijs " Apye(as, 
Kai dpovpo)Us ToUs ikQvoUs üoAwTÓVTEeS, Tpoo- 

5 éra£av kakomowiv ToUs 'Apyeious.  dmeABóvraw 
86 rv Aakeóauutoviov ék Tfjs 'Apyeías, ' AÓnvatoi 
pév ovpaxtav é&émejuijav Tols "Apyetow Tpvpeis 
Terrapákovra, OmAiras O6 yuMovs kai Ovakootovus 
oí 9. 'Apyeto, uerà TOv ' AÜnvalov orparejcavres 


| ràv added by Reiske. 
106 


BOOK XII. 81. 1-5 


the stronghold of Hysiae,! and slaying the inhabitants 4i »«. 
they razed the fortress to the ground ; and when they 
learned that the Argives had completed the con- 
struction of the long walls clear to the sea, thev 
advanced there, razed the walls that had been 
finished, and then made their way back home. 

The Athenians chose Alcibiades general, and giving 
him twenty ships commanded hun to assst the 
Árgives in estabhshimng the affars of them govern- 
ment ; for conditions were still unsettled among them 
because many still remained of those who preferred 
the aristocracy. So when Alcibiades had arrived at the 
city of the Argives and had consulted with the sup- 
porters of the democracy, he selected those AÁrgives 
who were considered to be the strongest adherents of 
the Lacedaemonian cause ; these he removed from 
the city? and when he had assisted in estabhshing the 
democracy on a firm basis, he sailed back to Athens 

Toward the end of the year the Lacedaemonians 
invaded Argohs with a strong force, and after ravag- 
ng a large part of the country they settled the exiles 
from Árgos 1n Orneae *; this place they fortified as 
a stronghold against Argohs, and leaving mit a strong 
garrison, they ordered it to harass the Argives. But 
when the Lacedaemonmans had withdrawn from 
Argolis, the Athenians dispatched to the Argives a 
supporüng force of forty tnremes and twelve hundred 
hophtes — The Argives then advanced against Orneae 


! [n Argohlis near the Laconian border. 

? 'The walls were to connect A1gos and the sea. This was 
an enormous undertaking and the walls were certainly not 
yet completed (cp. below and Thucydides, 5. 82. 5). 

? They were distributed among the islands of the Athenian 
Empire. 

* [n north-west .àgolis on the boider of Phhius. 


1077 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 5 END Y ; / Y / PS 
émi ràs '"Üpveàs Táv Te mÓAw karà kpáros etÀov 
kai rÀv dpoupóv kai dvyaOov os uév árékrewav, 
e« 5 3 / ? ^ ? e^ 
oüs 0. é£éBaAov ék rÀv 'Opveów. 
Taro. Lév o8v émpáyÜn karà vÓ mevrekouoé- 
kaTov éros Tob IeAorrovvyatako0 moÀépov. 

89. To à éracauDek dre) zapá uev -A8nvatous 7j jv 
&pycv ' Apluvnoros, & "Pág 9" dvri vàv ónárov 
7 / 7 ; 
xiMapyou kareordÜmoav rérra pes, léros KAavOtos 

M 7 / L4 M] 7 7 M 
ka, 2wrópios Narios, éru 86. Aovkios. 2iévrios. kai 
XMéf£ros 'loAws. émi 8é ToUTQV mopà uu) '"HAec- 
oLS 71x87 "Oups Trpo mpóg rais évevfkovra, 
ka0' fv évwika a'Tábuov '"E£aiveros '"Axpayavrivos. 
Bvbávrios 86 kat. XaAieóówov mapaAaBóvres OpG- 

E / ? 1 / ^ 7 
kas éorpárevcav eis 77v BuBviav moAAots sAvÜeot, 
kai T/v T€ xoOpav émópÜncav kai voÀAà cÓv 
pikpáv. zoAwaparicv | éxroMopkjcavres | émereAé- 
cavro mpd£ew cpuórwqr. Oadepoócas: moAÀAQv yàp 
aixpaAdTOV kparücavres àvüpóv re kai yvvaucàv 
kai vraiócv dravras améoQa£av. 

TI M 8é * , b! / A b N AL 

epi 8é roUs a)ToUs ypóvovs xaT T?)v MuceAiav 
'Eyeorato: wpós £eAvovvríovs émoAÀéumoav srepi 
yópas àudioDargoiuov, morauoÜU T?)v xopav TÓV 
ÓLaepopuévcov TÓÀecv óptbovros. 2ieÀwvoivriow O6 
SLoávres TO peiÜpov TO pev mpOrov Tíjs wapa- 
morauias Dig karéoXov, pero, Oc rara kai TÍs 
TpockeuLévms xcopas qoÀXMv amoreuópevou kare- 
$póvqcav rÀv "Ówumuévov | ot O0. " Eyeoratoi sap- 
o£uvÜévres 7Ó uév mpóvov Oià TÀv Aóycv meiÜDew 
E / M ? 7 ^ 5 / ^ e A 
émeBáAovro ur) émuatvew mfjs àAAorpias vyíjs: cos 8€ 
oU0eis aUTOts 7rpooetyev, éorpárevaav éri TOUS kar- 
éyovras T?v yopav, kai mrávras ékBaAóvres ék cv 
üypiOv a)Toi 77V xopav kaTécxyov. 'yevouévms óé 
108 


BOOK XII. 81. 5—82. 6 


together with the Athenians and took the city by a7 5c 
stoim, and of the ganison and exiles some they put 
to death and otheis they expelled from Orneae 

These, then, were the events of the fifteenth year 
of the Peloponneszian War. 

82 In the sixteenth year of the War Ánmnestus 16sc 
was archon among the Athenians, and m Rome in 
place of consuls four mihtary tribunes were elected, 
Titus Claudius, Spurius Nautius, Lucius Sentius, and 
Sexius Juhus — Ánd in thus year among the Eleians 
the Ninety-first Olympiad was celebrated, that im 
which Exaenetus of Acragas won the '" stadion " 
The Byzantines and. Chalcedomans, accompanied by 
Thracians, made war in great fo1ce against Dithyma, 
plundered the land, reduced by «ege many of the 
small settlements, and performed deeds of exceeding 
cruelty ; for of the many prisoners they took, both 
men and women and chidren, they put all to the 
sword 

About the same time 1n S1aily war bioke out be- 
tween the Egestaeans and the Selinuntians from a 
difference over teintory, where a nver divided the 
lands of the quarrelhng cies. The Selinuntians, 
crosemg the stream, at first seized by force the land 
along the nver, but later they cut off for their own a 
lage piece of the adjomung terntoiy, utterly di-- 
regarding the nights of the imjured parties The 
people of Egesta, a1oused to anger, at first endea- 
voured to persuade them by verbal arguments not to 
thiespass on the teiritoiy of another aty ; however, 
when no one paid any attention to them, they 
advanced with an army against those who held the 
territory, expelled them all from their fields, and 
themselves seized the land — Since the quarrel be- 


1009 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


O.adopás peyáAms üpiorépoas rate móAeot, oparuo- 
Tas áÜpoicavres Gu rév ÓrÀcv émovobvro 7T]v. pt- 
ow.  Owmep apdorépow mapara£auévov éyévero 
páxyy kaprepá, xaÜ' Tv 2eMvoUvrto, vucoavres 

7 ümékrewav 7Àv 'Eyeoratov oók oMyovs ot 8 
'"Eyeoratow razewcwÜévres kat ka0'  éavroüs ok 
óvres àéiópaxyo:, TrÓ pév mpórov 'Akpayavrivovs 
«ai 2:upakocíovus émeufov ovupuaxfoa drorvxóv- 
Tés O6 ToUrov éfémegbav mpeofevràs «eis TT 
Kapyq9óva, Oeóuevou: BowÜr5caw o0 mpooexóvrov 
O' arÀv, ébiyrovv Twà Owróvrvov evuayiav: ots 
cwvüpynce ra)rópaTov. 

88. A«ovríwcv yàp mo £vpakociov ék Tíjs mó- 
Àeos nuergkuopévev kai Tiv TÓÀw kai T)v xyopav 
amoBeDAnkórov, ot óvyd8es aü0rQv ovorpadévres 
ékpivav 7rájuv roOs^ ' AÜnvatovs mpooÀaBéoÜa. cvj- 

2 páyovs, Óvras ovyyeveis. epi 06 roUrav kowwo- 
Aoyqgoápuevow Tots 'Eyeoraiow? ovvedpóvqcav kai 
«owf; mpéoBes é£émepav mpós 'AÜnvaiovs, a£i- 
oüvres uév BonÜfcau rats mróAcow aDràv dGwovué- 
vais, émoyyeiAápevou Óé ovykaraokeudoew airots 

3 rà karà T)v 3ukeMav mpáypara. | mapayevouévcov 
ov eis ràs 'AÜWvas rÀv mpéopeov, kai rÓv gév 
Aeovrivov TT)v avyyéveuav srpodepouévov kaitT?))vTrpo- 
vmrápyovcav cvuaxiav, TOv O0. "Eyeoratov éray- 
yeAouévow | ypnpdrov Te sAfjÜos Ococew eig TOv 
7ÓÀeuov kat cvppaxroew karà TOv Xwpakootov, 
€0ote rots 'AÜmvatows émrépaibas rwáàs rv dpiorov 

! oos Dindoif: aj7obs. 


? "Eyeoratow o. kai Post: éüvqow ots c. 


110 


BOOK XII. 82. 6—83. 3 


tween the two cities had become senous, the two 416 »« 
partes, having mustered soldiers, sought to bring 
about the decison by recourse to arms.  Conse- 
quently, when both forces were drawn up imn 
battle-order, a fierce battle took place in which the 
Sehnuntians were the victors, having slain not a few 
Egestaeans  Sincethe Egestaeans had been humbled 
and were not strong enough of themselves to offer 
battle, they at first tried to 1mduce the Acragantim 
and the Syracusans to enter mto an alhance with 
them. Faimng in this, they sent ambassadors io 
Carthage to beseech 1ts aid — And when the Cartha- 
gim1ians would not hsten to them, they looked about 
for some alliance overseas ; and in this, chance came 
to their aid. 

88. Now since the Leonünes had been forced by 
the Syracusans to leave their city for another place 
and had thus lost their city and theii territory,! those 
of them who were lwing m ewvile got together and 
decided once more to take the Athenians, who weie 
ther Àkinsmen, as alhes.| When they had conferred 
with the Egesiaeans on the matter and come to 
an agreement, the two cities jointly dispatched am- 
bassadors to Athens, asking the Athenians to come 
to the aid of their cies, which were victims of ill 
treatment, and promusing to assist the Athemans m 
establishing order imn the affars of Siícly | When, 
now, the ambassadors had arrived 1n Athens, and the 
Leontines stressed ther kinship and the former 
alhanee and the Egestaeans promised to contnbute 
a large sum of money for the war and also to fight as 
an ally agamst the Syracusans, the Athenians voted 
to send some of their foremost men and to investigate 


! See chaps. 53 f. 
111 


Ot 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dvópdv kai OuuckéjacÜa. rà karà T'v víjoov kat 
To)Us "Eyeoraíous  sapayevopéveov oüv rovrov eis 
T1)v "Eyeorav, oi uév " Eyeoratow ypnuarcv vAfjdos 
éméóeicav, và  uév otkoÜev, rà 06 mapà mÓv 
doTvyevróvov xypwqoápevou $avraotas évekev.  àv- 
eAÜóvra 86 rv mpécBecv kai T? eUmopiav rv 
"Eyeoraícov | àmoyyeiAávrov,  ovvfjMev 0 fuos 
wepi rovrov — mporeÜetons 86 Tíjs DovAfjs Trepi ToO 
orpaTedew ésgi XuceAMav, Nuktas uév 0. Nuenpá&rov, 
Ünvuatópevos éw' àperij mapà Tois moÀ/rous, ovv- 
eBoUÀeve uu) orporesew éri 2Z4eAMav: ud) yàp óvva- 
TOv Ümápyew üàpa ve AakeOauuwovtows OtosroAepety 
kai Ovvdápew peyáAas ékméumew Otamovr(ovs, kai 
TOv 'EAMjvov p) óvvapévovs kr0a00at 7?) f)ye- 
poviay éXrtLew c1|v. ueyiarQv TÓv karà Tiv oikov- 
pévqv v6iowov mepwrovjcac0ou, «ai Kapyn8oviovs 
Lév, éxovras geyíorQv Tyeuoviav xai voAÀAÀdkus 
omép vfs £ueMas memoÀeumkóras, uw) 8e8vvfjotat 
«pafjca, rf;is vijoov, ToUs 06 ' AÓnvaiovs, roA0 Àe- 
zopnévovs Tjj 9uvàjeu TOv KapynSovicv, 8opikrnTov 
mowvjcacÜa. T) kpariorqv rÀv vrjocv. 

84. I[IoAAa. 86 kai &ÀÀa. OvoAeyÜcvros aDrob? cfc 
vpokewuuévns vroÜécews oiketa, Tíjs évavr(as *yvopwns 
cpoeory)kas "'AAxuiáOns, émubavéoraros 'AQn- 
vaiv, erewe Tóv Ofjuov émaveAéota, TÓv mróAeuov: 
7v yàp O av/p obTos OewóraTos uev eümetv TÓV 
zoÀwTÓV, eyeveia O6 kat mÀoUro kai orparmyia. 
OLcvopacpévos. «000s oóv O Ofjuos cTÓÀov à£ó- 

! 50 Dindoif: dmeMóvrov; "Vogel suggests éwaveA0óv- 


TO)V 


? mepi after ajTo0 deleted by Reiske. 
119 


BOOK XII. s3. 3—84. 2 


the situation on the island and among the Egestaeans 4116»c 
When these men arrived at Egesta, the Egestaeans 
showed them a great sum of money which they had 
borrowed partly from ther own crüzens and paitly 
from neighbounng peoples for the sake of malang a 
good show.! And when the envoys had returned and 
reported on the wealth of the Egestacans, a meeting 
of the people was convened to con«der the matter. 
When the proposal was introduced to dispatch an 
expedition to Sicily, Nicias the son of Niceratus, a 
man who enjoyed the respect of his fellow citizens 
for his uprightness, counselled against the expedi 
tontoSy. They werein no position, he declared, 
at the same time both to carry on à war against 
the Lacedaemonians and to send great armaments 
overseas ; and so long as they were unable to secure 
ther supremacy over the Caieeks, how could they 
hope to subdue the greatest island in the inhabited 
world? even the Carthagimans, he added, who pos- 
sessed a most extensive empire and had waged war 
many times to gam Sicily, had not been able to subdue 
the 1sland, and the Athenians, whose mihtary power 
was far less than that of the Carthaginmans, could not 
possibly win by the spear and acquire the most 
powerful of the 1slands 

84. After Nicias had set forth these and many other 
considerations appropriate to the proposal before the 
people, Alabiades, who was the principal ads ocate of 
the opposite view and a most prominent. Atheman, 
persuaded the people to enter upon the war ; for this 
man was the ablest orator among the citizens and was 
widely known for his high birth, wealth, and slall as 
a general  Át once, then, the people got ready a 


! For this display see Thucydides, 6. 46. 
113 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Xpeov kareoke/ace, Tpuükovra pév Tpvw)peus Trapa 
^ 7 / 20 / 3 € A L4 

rÓv cváxcv ÀAaBov, i6ias Ó. ékaróv karapricas. 

^ ^ 5 
raU10s Oé koojcas TOL TOUS eis zróÀeuov ypnoi- 
pois KkaréAe£ev ómAMras eis srevrakvoxLALovs , orpa- 
^ d 
TQyo)üs O6 Tpeis ÉxeiporóvQgoev émi raUrqv Tv 
/ 

aTparmytar, '"AÀAciáóqv kat. Nuctav kat. Aáuayov. 

'Aümvaio. uév o$v mepi raÜra Toav. vuets 0€ 
3o 08 N A ^ ^ 

zapóvres émi r)v üpyv]v ToU sroAéuov ToU avordvros 

, / ND / ' j , S e 
ÁA0w«vaío:ws a, Zvpakociow, karà TT)V £v dpyf 

cpóÜeow Tàs éwopévas mpáfews eis TTv éxyonévqv 
L4 / 

BiBAov karard£opuev. 


114 


BOOK XII. 84 9—4 


strong fleet, takan 
and equippiug oue hundred of the own. Aud when 
they had fitted these ships out with every kind of 
equipment that 1s useful 1n war, they enrolled some 
five thousand hoplites and elected three generals, 
Alcibiades, Nicias, and Lamachus, to be in charge of 
the campaign. 

Such were the matteis with which the Athemans 
were occupied.  Ánd as for us, unce we are now at 
the begmning of the war between the Athenians and 
the Syracusans, pursuant to the plan we announced 
at the beginning of this Book ! we shall assign to the 
next Book the events which follow. 


1 Cp. chap. 2. 3. 


115 


g thirby triremes from their alhes 4166€ 


BOOK XIII 


C5 * ^ l4 ^ 
T&9' éveorw év vf rpuokatÓekáTy TOV 
/ / 
Auo8cpov BifAov 
Zrpare(a ' AÜnvatov éxi Xvpakoatovs peyáAais Ovvá- 
pec Te(ukals T€ kal vavrukats. 
KarámAovs ' AÓnvatov eis EwuceAtav. 
KarákAggis 'AAkuBidóov ToU cTpaTQ]yoU kal vy) 
eis Yos eoatpuova. 
Qs ' A8nvato: Oz Xevoavres eis Tüv uéyav Auiéva Tv 
Zvpakooiov kareAáGovro roUs epi TO OXOjuartov rómovs 
"Ks " AUnvato, ràs "EarvroAàs koraXaBópevot kal ux 
, * » / ^ ^ 3 , x 
viccavres e£ üpdorépov TOv. pepüv éroMiópkiaav às 
Xvpakovcas 
"Qs AXae&auuortiov kai KopwOtov wepiávrov [oye 
: () / € NN Ld 
éÜáppucav ot Supakóotot 
Méx» Zvpakociov kai '"AOyvaior kal víky ' AOnvatav 
/ 
peyd Ay. 
Máx rois avTois kat vix Xvpakoc iov 
"Os Xvpa«ómto: Tv ' EarcmroAdv kpamíáoo vres 1)vá-ykooav 
rovs "ÁÜnvatovs eis píav éXOetv mapen[JoAsr T)v mpüs 
Ti Olvpríqg. 
"Os ^ ÁZ e NS /, Á, 
s vavTuci)v OUvapuvr ot. Svpakóctou kara kevágavres 


VALUJLU X € V OL€y voa i 


118 


CONTENTS OF THE THIRTEENTH BOOK 
OF DIODORUS 


The campaign of the Athenians against the 
Syracusans, with great armaments both land and 
naval(chaps 1-8) 

The arnvalof the Athemans m Sicily (chap. £). 

The recall of Alabiades the general and his fhght 
io Lacedaemon (chap. 5). 

How the Athenians sailed through into the Great 
Harbour of the Syracusans and seized the regions 
about the Olympieum (chap 6). 

How the Athenans seized Epipolae and, after 
victories n battle 1n both areas, laid siege to Syracuse 
(chap. 7) 

How, after the Lacedaemonians and Cornnthians 
had sent them aid, the Syracusans took courage 
(chap 8) 

The battle between the Athenians and the Syra- 
cusans and the great victory of the Athenians 
(chap. 9) 

The battle between the same opponents and the 
victory of the Syracusans (chap. 10). 

How the Syracusans, having gamed control of Epi- 
polae, compelled the Athenians to withdraw to the 
single camp before the Olympieum (chaps. 8, 11-12). 

How the Syracusans prepared à naval force and 
decided to offer battle at sea (chap 13) 


119 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


"Os 'AÓ8gvato. Aapá) ov ToU arpamiyyoU reAevz muros 

s 5 ) 4/3 , 3 08 " N 
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, "n3 !o M / » /, 
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KG Y pipa Ta. 

AugÀveus aorÓov (mro XakeOuuuorieov. kal TÓAÀe0s 
mpos ' AOnvatovs ó IeAorzovviaakós Aeyópevos 

Novpaxía Xopaukogieov kai 'AOwvaiov kal víkv ' AOn- 

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kal víky) Xvupakooiov 

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* ON / 56 / 
perà Gvvdjueos Gu Aóyov 

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Koc. 

^ b 

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j.eo8. 
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í fyOevres Aóyot mpós ékdTepov pnépos Tis vrroOéceos 

Ts 0é PN NS / M e^ 5 

là VmwOÜévra rois ZLopakooíows epi TOv aiypa- 
AóTov 

"Os "AOnvatov mrauávTov epi NXuccA(av ToÀÀoi TOv 
cup xoVv üzéoT1 Gy 

^ ^ 4 

"Qs ó 0fjkos TOv '"AOnvatov àOvjsjcas capexdpsoe Tíjs 
Oynokparías kal Terpakogío.s àvOpác. TY?)v ToÀvreiav 
érérpeyav 

"Os Aakeboikóvio, vais vavjsoxtaus rovs "AOnvoíovs 
&ViK1)c av, 


190 


CONTENTS OF THE THIRTEENTH BOOK 


How the Athenians, after the death of their general 
Lamachus and the recall of Alcibiades, dispatched in 
their place as generals Eurymedon and Demosthenes 
with reinforcements and money (chap 8). 

The termination of the truce by the Lacedae- 
monians, and the Peloponnesian War, as 1t 1s called, 
against the Athenians (chap. 8) 

The sea-battle between the Syracusans and the 
Athenians and the victory of the Athenians ; the 
capture of the fortresses by the Syraeusans and their 
victory on land (chap 9) 

The sea-battle of all the ships im the Great Harbour 
and the victory of the Syracusans (chaps. 11-17). 

The arrival from Athens of Demosthenes and 
Eurymedon with a strong force (chap. 11). 

The great battle about Epipolae and the victory 
of the Syracusans (chap. 8). 

The flight of the Athemans and the capture of the 
entire host (chaps. 18-19) 

How the Syracusans gathered in assembly and con- 
sidered the question what disposition should be made 
of the captives (chap. 19) 

The speeches which were delivered on both sides 
of the proposal (chaps 920-32). 

The decrees which the Syracusans passed regarding 
the captives (chap. 33). 

How, after the failure of the Athenians in Sicil;, 
many of their alhes revolted (chap. 34). 

How the eitizen-body of the Athenians, having lost 
heart, turned their back upon the democracy and put 
the government into the hands of four hundred men 
(chaps 34, 36) 

How the Lacedaemonians defeated the Athenians 
in sea-battles (chap. 34) 

121 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


"Qs Xvpakóotor rovs ávOópayaOjmavras kar TOv mÓAc- 
pov á£toAóyots Óopeats érípam av. 

"Os AwokAdQgs vopoÜOérgs aipeÜcis éypoi/e Tovs vópovs 
Zvpakoc tous 

"Qs Svupakógtot rots XakeOauuovtow OCvapuy ü£ióXoyov 
érepal/a v. 

"fs "A0nvoto: rüv TOv AakeOatuoviov vaxapxov kara- 
vavjuuymavrTes Ko(wov é£eroAcópkyoav. 

às Aakebnusovíov é£ Eofdotas sevrükovro. vaUs dmo- 
creÀAávrov émi BojÜOcav Tos »TTQguévow, &raca, Tepl 
rüv "ÀÁOo perà TOv àvópav OwÜ0ápgrav vmÓ ToU x«- 
j.vos 

"A Aki uá8ov &áDoDos kai a rparyyío. 

IlóAeuos  Aiyecraíow kai ZeAivovvrious «epi cíjs 
ápdu Durovpévys xópas 

Navuaxia 'AOgvatev koi Aakeóniuoviov epi TO 
Síyewvov kai vins)  AO0nvatev 

"Qs Xakebutguóvio, rTüv Ecpurov xócavres T?)v Esflowv 
TT€uov éroóiaav 

Ilepi 75js €v Kopkopa. yevopévis aáoeos kai aayijs 

"Qs 'AXxuBuiOgs. koi Oupapévus. évisoav | Aake8a- 
povtovs opa. me(j kai karà, ÜdAXorTov éripaveoroa 

"Qs Kapxuóóviov peyáXas Óvváueis Ow Bu9áaavres év 
NukeAtg, XeAvvoUvra. kal 'Tuépav korà kpóros etAov 

"Qs eis Tv llewpauéa koramAeóvas perà moAAQv 
Aadópov ueyáAxs érvxev dmoGoy1js  AXkifoiá8ns 
122 


CONTENTS OF THE THIRTEENTH BOOK 


How the Syracusans honoured with notable gifts the 
men who had played a brave part in the wai (chap 34). 

How D1ocles was chosen law-giver and wrote their 
laws for the Syracusans (chaps 84-35) 

How the Syracusans sent a notable force to the aid 
of the Lacedaemomans (chap. 34). 

How the Athenians overcame the Lacedaemonian 
admiral in a sea-fight and captured Cyzicus (chaps. 
39-40). 

How, when the Lacedaemomans dispatched fifty 
ships from Euboea to the aid of the defeated, Lhey 
together with their crews were all lost 1n à storm 
off Athos (chap. 41). 

The return of Alcibiades and his election as a 
general (chaps. 41-42). 

The war between the Aegestaeaus and the Seh- 
nuntians over the land 1n dispute (chaps. 43-44) 

The sea-battle between the Athenians and Lace- 
daemonians off Sigeium and the victory of the 
Athemans (chaps 38-410) 

How the Lacedaemomans filled up Eunripus with 
earth and made Euboea a part of the mamland 
(chap. 47) 

On the cil discord and massacre im Corcyra 
(chap 48) 

How Alcibiades and Theramenes won most notable 
vietones over the Lacedaemonians on. both land and 
sea (chaps. 49-51). 

How the Carthagmians tiansported great arma- 
ments to Seily and took by storm Selinus and Himera 
(chaps. 54-62) 

How Alcibiades sailed into the Peiraeus with much 
booty and was the object of great acclaimm (chaps 
68-69). 

193 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Qs "Ayis 6. BasiAeis peyéXy Qvrduer TÓs. "AOivas 
To Àtopketv émuDaAXópevos éfereocv 
" AAkuBud Gov vy: kal krícws Ocppor év XukeAtg 
N / NS / * EN K Ó / * 
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Yvpakogiov 
4 ^» 3 / » L * ^ 3 3 0^ 
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KOTOO Kevad uáTOV, 
€ ho / / / / » 
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NY AL 3 À / » TA » / 
NukeA(av emoAMiópkqo av " Akpáyavro 
"Qs Xvpakóatoc mapa AaDóvres Tovs cvidáxovs uvpíows 
crparuóTaus éoxOovv rots  Akpayavr(vous 
€ / ld 5 / M ; 
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6 ON / N 7 ^ € / 
AijO'Uv ot 2vvpuKOg'LOL KG TrÀAetovs TOV éfa ku0 XLÀLQV KQT- 
ek oa 
€ tai 4 N 3 * / €5 
Qs Kapynóoviov Tàs dyopós vaputpovuévov ot ÀAkpa- 
yavrivo, Oià vT)v aáviv Tijs Tpods sjveyxdáaOouv. ék- 
Auretv T1)v a7 (8a. 
€ ^ N € N » / ^ 
Qs ALovócios oTpaTiyOs aipeÜeis érupóvvgce Tv 
Zvpakoatov. 
"Qs" A8yvatot év '" Apywotaats éxiuveovóTy;) vavpaxío 
vukjmu vTes Tovs oTpoTyyovs áOtkos éÜovórocuv 
"Qs 'A8n9vato, peyáAy vavpaxia AewbÜévres  "vay- 
/ 3 5 y N "m z ^ 3 ^ N 
kégOnaav éd ois GvvarOv 1]v ovvvOéoÜac T1)v. eiprjvuv, kal 
oUvTos ó [IeAorovvyoiakós móAepos kareAiQn 
€ T d ^ / / » 
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7 £f M 5 "d V ^ * 
kácÜncev cvvÜéoOa. Tü)v etpáwvijv mpós JMovÓowov TOv 
TÜpavvov 


1294 


CONTENTS OF THE THIRTEENTH BOOK 


How King Agis with à great army undertook to lay 
siege to Athens and was unsuccessful (chaps. 72-73). 

The banishment of Alcibiades and the founding of 
Thermae in S1c1ly (chaps. 74, 79) 

The sea-battle between the Syracusans and the Car- 
thaginians and the victory of the Syracusans(chap 80). 

On the fehoty of life in Acragas and the city's 
buildings (chaps. 81-84). 

How the Carthaginians made war upon Sialy with 
three hundred thousand soldiers and laid siege to 
Acragas (chaps. 85-86) 

How the Syracusans gathered their alhes and went 
to the aid of the people of Acragas with ten thousand 
soldiers (chap. 86). 

How, when forty thousand Carthaginians opposed 
them, the Syracusans gained the victory and slew 
more than six thousand of them (chap. 87). 

How, when the Carthaginians cut off their supplies, 
the Acragantini were compelled, because of the lack 
of provisions, to leave their native city (chaps. 88-89) 

How Dionysius, after he was elected general, se- 
cured the tyranny over the Syracusans (chaps 92-96). 

How the Athenians, after winning a most famous 
sea-battle at Arginusae, unjustly condemned their 
generals to death (chaps. 97-103). 

How the Athenians, aftei suffering defeat in a great 
sea-battle, were forced to conclude peace on the best 
terms they could secure, and in this manner the Pelo- 
ponnesian War came to an end (chaps. 104-107). 

How the Carthaginians were struck by a pesti- 
lential disease and were compelled to conclude peace 
with Dionysius the tyrant (chap 114). 


BIBAOX TPIXSKAIAEKATH 


1. Ei pév OÓpoua Tots dÀAows (oTopíav émpayua- 
revópeÜa, oxyeüov Tfjv év vd mpoowuicp mepi rwv 
OiaAeyÜcvras éd! Óócov Tv eUkaupov, oUrcs éni ràs 
cwvexets T pá£eus uerapiBácew TOV Aóyov: oÀCyov 
yàp Xpóvov arroAofióvres TÍ ypodf), TV &vaoTpodqv 
dv etyop.ev TÓv dmo TÓv TrpoouAicov Kapmóv Tpoc- 
AapBáveo0au émei 06 év oAiyous BipAow émmyyei- 
AápeÜa ut) uóvov Tüs Tpá£ews éd. Ócov av Ovveo.eOa. 
ypdajew, aAA kai mrepuvreaQau Xpóvov mAetova 
TÀV' yiÀUv kai ékaróv éráv, ávaykatóv éoTL TÓV 
zoÀUv Aóyov TÓv mpoowicv sapaméubavras ém 
a)0Tràüs épyeoÜau. Tàs mpá£ew, ToÜro góvov mpo- 
evróvrag, OTt KQTÀ uev Tàs 7T poyovp.évas é£ 
BiBAovs &veypáijajuev. Tüs dmÓó TOV  Tpouwdv 
Trpá e eus €«s eis TÓV )"70 TV "A8mvaiov Amo évra. 
TÓÀeu oV eni Zvpakootovs, eis Ov dO Tpotas 
dAÀcoecs éoriv érr émrakóowa, éckovra. ókrd) éy 
raUTo 9é mpocavamAnpoÜvres TOv ovvexyij xpóvov 
&pfópneÜa pév àmo Tf émi Xvpakoo(ovs oTpaTe(as 
x«araX/E£onev O' émi TT»  dpy"v Tob Oevrépov 
ToÀéuov Kapyvy8oviow mpós Awoviotov TÓv 3ivpaxo- 

L 7/ 
civ TÜpavvov. 


l ypddew .  . rv omitted by PFKM. 
? ókrc) added by Wessehng. 


126 


BOOK XIII 


1. If we were composing a history after the manner 
of the other historians, we should, I suppose, dis- 
course upon certam topies at appropriate length in 
the introduction to each Book and by this means turn 
our discussion to the events which follow , surely, if 
we were picking out a brief peiiod of history for our 
treatise, we should have the time to enjoy the fruit 
such introductions yield — But since we engaged our- 
selves in a few Books not only to set forth, to the best 
of our abihty, the events but also to embrace a period 
of more than eleven hundred years, we must forgo 
the long discussion whieh such introductions would 
involve and come to the events themselves, with only 
this word by way of preface, namely, that 1n the pre- 
ceding six Books we have set down a record of events 
from the Trojan War to the war which the Athenians 
by deeree of the people declared agaimst the Syra- 
cusans, the period to this war from the capture of 
Troy embraemng seven hundied and sixty-eight years ; 
and m this Book, as we add to our narrative the period 
next succeeding, we shall commence with the expedi- 
tion agamst the Syracusans and stop with the 
beginning of the second war between the Catha- 
ginians and Dionysius the tyrant of the Syracusans ? 


l 4.6. from 1184 s.c. to 415 x.c. 
? (The Book covers the years 415-404 s.c. 


1277 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 "Em dpxovros yàp "Afhjvmot XaBpí(ov 'I'o- 
poto uev üyri TÓv Üvmárov karéorgoav xuápyovs 
Tpeis, Aceicov 2épytov, Mápxov ILazípvov, Mápkov 
ZepovtAtov. emi 0é ToUTOV "Arator Vmeuodpevor 
TOV mpós Zvpakoatovs TÓÀeuov Tás T€ vas ém- 
eakeUacav KL xpipora. cvvoryaryóvres per ToÀMfs 
oTr0vÓ']S Gara. Tü TpÓs Tv orpareiay 7ap- 
egkeváLovro  Tp"puévou oe Tpets ovparnyoss, "AÀKt- 
Piden, Nuctav, Adpua xov, ajrokp&ropas QÜTOUS 
karéoTQcav üxávrov rÀv karà rÓv zóÀeuov. TÓÀv 
Oé iOuoTÓOv oi Talis o)DO0íQus cUmopolvres Tfj "po- 
Üvp.tq. ToU ór)uov xaptbeota, BovAóuevot Twés pév 
TY rpujpeus Kkareckeóacav, Tivég O06 xprüuara 
Ocócew els Tós TpoQüs TÍs Doy dlieus ez myyéAAovro* 
ToÀÀoL 86 kai rÀv Óquuorukdv sroAvrÓv kai Éévov, 
éru 06 ovpuuAyov, éxovois pocióvres Tois oTpa- 
Tc«yois OiekeAeUovro karaypddoew éavroüg eig ToUs 
OTDQTLOTAS ortos GTQVres Weperecptojuévot rods 
éAmtow é£ éroiuov karakAmpovyetv TjAmwLov v 
YukeAiav. 

"Hó« 9é -To0 oróAov srapeokevaopévov, cobs 
épuG8s ToU)s karà Tv mÓÀw majmrÀmÜets Ovras 
cuvéDu év paG vukri wepukomijvau.. | OÓ ev ov 
OfjLos, ovy DvO TOv rvyÓvrov vopícas vyeyevíota. 
TY mp&ew, GQAAÀ' bro. rÓv mpoexóvrcv TOÁS óóaus 
eni Th karaAjoe,. Tríjs Onuokparías, éuucormovijpe 
kaL TroUs mpátavras éLXyeu. ueyáAas 8cpeàs mpo- 


! 8o Scháfer- àmó. 





! The principal sources fo: this famous incident aie 
Tues 6. 97-29, 53, 60-61; Plutarch, lewades, 
18-21, and especially Andocides, On. the Mysteries. The 
198 


BOOK XIII. ?. 1-3 


2 When Chabrnas was arechon im Athens, the us 
liomans elected im place of consuls thluee mihtary 
inbunes, Lucius Sergimus, Marcus Papnius, and 
Mareus Servihus — This year the Athemans, pursuant 
to their vote of the war against the Syracusans, got 
ready the ships, collected the money, and pioceeded 
with great zeal to make every preparation for the 
campaign — They elected three generals, Alcibiades, 
N1c1as, and Lamachus, and gave them full powers over 
all matters pertamung to the war Of the pnvate 
citizens those who had the means, wishing to indulge 
the enthusiasm of the populace, in. some instances 
fitted out trn emes at then own expense and m others 
engaged to donate money for the maintenance of the 
forces ; and many, not only from among the citizens 
and ahens of Athens who favoured the democracy but 
also from among the alhes, voluntanly went to the 
generals and urged that they be enrolled among the 
soldias To such a degree were they all buoyed 
up in ther hopes and looking forward foithwath to 
porbioung out Sialy 1n allotments 

And the expedibon was already fully prepared 
when it came to pass that in a sngle mght the statues 
of Hermes which stood everywhere throughout the 
cty were mutlated * At thus the people, believing 
that the deed had not been done by ordinary persons 
but by men who stood in hugh repute and we1e bent 
upon the overthrow of the democracy, were mcensed 
at the saenlege and undertook a seaich foi the 
perpetrators, offering large rewards to anyone who 


faces of the statues were mutilated, and perhaps also và 
ai8gota (Aristophanes, Lysistrata, 1094) — Andocides gives 
the names of those whose goods were confiscated and sold 
after the mutilation of the Hermae, and many of these are 
confirmed on a fragmentary inscription (7.G. 1?. 327, 339). 


VOL V F 129 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 eis TÓ pqvvoavru. — mpoaeAÜcw 8é mis T3 DowMj 
zv iOwrOv é$wuocv ets oUctav perotkov TLVS 
écopacévat Tí voupa]vía T€pu. pécag vokTas cioióv- 
4as, €v ots kai TOv 'AAkwpiáOqv. | àvaxpwópevos 
GS ovo rfe Dove wós vukrós ovows émeyivooke 
4üs óJes, éjuoe mpos TO Tífjs oeAxjvs dós éopa- 
xévüi. obros uév oüv abTOv éfeAéyfas korejev- 
cévos 1jmor0n, rv 0 dv. o90* txvos ojOcis 

/ e ^ E / 
4s wpáfeos eópetv vDvviom. 

5s . Toujpov uv écaróv Teocapákovra érouuaouévov, 
cGÀkáóov 86 kai rÀv UmrmayovyyGv, ér. O6 vÀv TOV 
oov Kai rv dAAqv mwapackevv kopuLóvrov mo- 
Aus Tis üpiÜpos Xv: ÓmA?rau 86 kai odevOovíra, 
1pós 9c robTois Wrmets" kai TÓv ov uáxcv mÀetovs 
v émrakw yi ov. ékrós TOV év Tolg mrÀnpopao:. 

& —óre pév oÜv oi orparmQyoi uerà Tíjs DBovAMfs év 
dmroppjTo evve8Opevovres éBovAevovro vràs xpt) Ou- 
owfjoa. Tà karà rr» 2ukeAiav, éàv ríjs vrjoov kpa- 
-rüjoccw.  éOofev obv abrois IliAwovvriovs uév 
rai àwpakogiovs avOparroOitcacÜa,, rots O. &AAows 
dinÀàs vráfa. $ópovs o)Us kar! évwavróv otcovow 
x: A8nvatois. 

3 Tgó Sorepaia Ko;réBouvov oL o'rparmyoi per 
-—óv crpar«orüv «eis TOv llewaiéa, koi ovvm- 
s«oÀoUUe. mG&s Ó xarà TrtV mÓMv ÓyAos dvajié 
«orüv Te Kai févwv, ékáorov ro)s üOovs ocvy- 

9 -yevéis T€ kai ,QiAovs erporréparovros. aL pLév ov 
-rpvipeis ap! oov rÓv Autéva, srapcópuovv kekooyum- 

* $o Dindorf: émorest PAF?, eópióz other MSS. 
? Dandorf suggests cív 7e voMróv after Gets. 

? Probably the Diocleides mentioned by Andocides (i.c. 
1 ff), who gives the story in considerable detail. 

1.30 


BOOK XIII. 2 4—3. 2 


would furnish information against them. | And a cer- 415 »c 
Lain private ciüzen,' appearmg before the Council, 
stated that he had seen certam men enter the house 
of an ahen about the middle of the night on the first 
day of the new moon and that one of them was 
Alcibiades | When he was questioned by the Council 
and asked how he could recognize the faces at night, 
he replied that he had seen them by the light of the 
moon. Since, then, the man had convicted himself 
of lying, no credence was given to his story, and 
of other investigators not a man was able to dis- 
cover a single clue to the deed 

One hundred and forty tnremes were equipped. 
and of transports and ships to carry horses as well as 
ships to convey food and all other equipment there 
was a huge number ; and there were also hophtes and 
slngers as well as cavalry, and in addition more than 
seven thousand men from the allies,? not mcluding 
thecrews | Atthus time the generals, sitting im secret 
session with the Council, discussed what disposibhion 
they should make of Sicihan affairs, if they should get 
conirocl of the 1sland | AÀnd :rt was agreed by them 
that they would enslave the Sehnuntians and Syra- 
cusans, but upon the other peoples they would merely 
lay a tribute severally which they would pay annually 
to the Athenians 

3 On the next day the generals together with the 
soldiers went down to the Peiraeus, and the entire 
populace of the city, eiüzens and aliens thronging 
together, accompanied them, everyone bidding god- 
speed to his own lunsmen and fnends — The triremes 
lay at anchor over the whole harbour, embellished 


* Or" singers as well as more than seven thousand cavalry 
from both the citizens and alhes " ; see eriical note. 


13] 


e 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Méva, Tolg émi Taís mpeopous émwoYuacU kai Tjj 
Aaumpórqr. TÓÀV OÓmÀcv: 0 O6 kókÀos Gas ToO 
Ausévos éyepue ÜvpuoTTpiov kat kpary)pev àpyvpiv, 
é£ Gv ékmopaoci ypvools éomevàov ot ruuvres TÓ 
Üctov kai vrpooevxop.evoi kararvyeiv Tfs oTpare(as. 
&vüxÜévres oiv ék ToU llewauéws mepiénAevoav 
T)|v ILeAomóvvgoov kat karqvéy8noav eis Kópkvpav: 
évraüÜa yàp mapapévew apyyyeXro kai mpoc- 
avaAapdvew  ToUs apoíkous TÓV  ovuudycv. 
émeL O. amavres vÜpoicÜmcav, O.wmAeUcavres TOV 
'lówov mópov mpos àkpav 'lamvyiav karqvéyÜncav, 
kakeiÜev Tóm vapeAéyovro rov 'lraMav.  $mó uév 
otv lapavriüvww o) mpoocóéyÜncav, Merarovr(vovs 
0€ xat '"HpakAeworas mapémAevaav: eis 8€ Govpíovs 
karevexÜévres vávrov érvxov rÀv davÜporro. 
éketÜev Bé karamÀevcavres «eis Kpórwva, kai 
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kovpuióo, koÀouuévqv àkpav DmepéÜevro ^ uerà 8e 
ra)ra TÓ kaÀoUuevóv re ZikvAMriov? kal Aokpogs 
vaprAAaGav, kai ToU 'Pmyíov kaÜopuuoÜévres éy- 
yUs émeiov! roUs "Pyyivovs cvupayetv ot 86 dme- 
kpivavro BovÀeVocoÜat uerà vÀv dAAov "IraAwróv. 

4. àupakóoto, Ó' àxoócavres émi ToU mopÜuo0 
rás Owvépew ctvaw TOv "AÜnvaiov, oTparwQyobs 
Karéorycav a)rokpáropas pets, '"Eppnokpdrmv, 
Zuxavóv, 'HoakAeióqv, oi ro)s orpaTwoTas kaTé- 
vpadov kat vrpéoBew érri ràs avrà XuceAMav eóAeis 
dTéareAAov, Oeópvo, Tfj kowíjs owT9p(as dvzi- 
AapBávea0au roós yàp 'AÜmvaiovs rà uv Àóye 
! $o Hertlein* ézoráuaoct à YavAMnwOv] XxkvMjrtov PA. 

$ $0 Schafer: éreoa. 


139 


BOOK XIII 3. 2—4. 1 


with their inzigmaa on the bows and the gleam of ther 45 5c 
armour ; and the whole circumference of the harbour 
was filled with censers and silver mixing-bowls, from 
which the people poured hbations with gold cups, 
paying honour to the gods and beseeching them to 
grant success to the expedition. Now after leaving 
the Peiraeus they sailed ayound the Peloponnesus and 
put 1n at Coreyra, since they were under orders to 
wait at that place and add to their forces the alhes 
inthatiegion. Ándwhenthey had all been assembled, 
they sailed across the Ioman Strait and came to land 
on the tip of Iapygia, from where they skirted along 
the coast of Italy. 'lThey were not received by the 
Tarantini, and they also sailed on past the Meta- 
ponünes and Heracleians ; but when they put in at 
Thurii they were accorded every lind of courtesy 
From there they sailed on to Cioton, from whose 
mhabitants they got a market, and then they sailed 
on past the temple of Hera Lacma * and doubled the 
promontoiy known as Dioscunas. After this they 
passed by Seylletium, as 1t 1s called, and. Locri, and 
dropping anchor near Rhegium they endeavoured to 
persuade the Rhegians to become their allies ; but 
the Rhegians rephed that they would consult with 
the other Greek cities of Italy 

4 When the Syracusans heard thai the Athenian 
armaments were at the Strait,? they appointed three 
generals with supreme power, Hermocrates, S1canus, 
and Heracleides, who enrolled soldiers and dispatched 
ambassadors to the cities of Sicily, urging them to 
do their share in the cause of their common hberty ; 


* Cape Lacinium i18 at the extreme western end of the 
Tarantine Gul£ 
2 Of Messana. 


133 


2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


zpós Xvpakoctous évíoraoÜo, TÓv móÀeuov, Tfj O' 
àAQÜeia  koroorpéliao0a. BovAouévovs oÀqv "vw 
vioov. "Axpayavrivo. pév oüv kai Ndéww cup- 
paynoev éincav "AUqvatow, Kapapwato, 86 koi 
lecovjtot T'jv pev. eiprjvyv d£ew cpoAóynoav, ràs 
9' ómép Tfs ovppaxías amokpiocew  àvepaÀovro 
'[uepatou 8€ kai ZXeAwoUvriow mpós O6 TovUmois 


l'eàQo: xat Karavatowi, cvvaycwvweicÜ0a. Toig XMv- 
paKocioug émmqyyeiÀavro. | a6 O6 TOv 2ukeAQv 


TÓÀews Tj pev e)voíg mpos Iwpakooiovs éppemov, 
Oucs 0? év Wfovyiía pévovoa. TO ocvpuDyoóuevov 
ékapaóókovv. 

Tàv 8' Aiyeoraicv o$y OpoAoyovvrov Gooe«w 
vÀéov TÀv Tpuákovra raÀávTov, oi aTpaTQyot TÓV 
'AÜnvaiov éykaAécavres a)rots üàvüxÜqcav ék 
"Payíov uer& Tfjs Óvvduecs, kat karémÀevcav Tíjs 
£ueAiag eis Ná£ov. Oefauévov 9' abroUs rÀv év 
vf) mÓÀe. QiÀodpóvcos, mapémAevoav éketÜev eis 

arávyv. TOv óé Karavaiov eig uév T?» móÓÀw 
oU Oexyouévov To)s orparicTas, Tro)s O6 orpa- 
vyyo)s éacávrov «tceAMÜetv xai mapaoxouévov 
ékkAnotay, ob orparryol rÀv '" AÜnvaiwv mepi avp- 
paxéas GueAéyovro. Onuwyopotvros 86 roO ' AXa- 
BuáBov TÓÀv orparuorüv wes OwAóvres mvA(Ga 
mapeugémecov eis Tv Ow: Ov Tv airíav Tvay- 
KkácÜccav oí Karavatou. koiwwcevetv ToU kaorà TÓw 
Xvpakocitv ToÀéuov. 

5. ToUrwv 86 mparrouévow oi karà ri iBíav 
exÜpav pucoÜvres vróv 'AXfhdoqv év 'Afvoaus, 
TpóQacw éxovres Tiv TÀv dyaAudmeov epucomrijv, 
óéBaAov abróv àv rais 8uuqyopicus às avveuocíav 

1 P added by Fichstadt. 
134 


BOOK XIII 4 1—5 1 


for the Athenians, they pointed out, while beginning 415 » c. 
the war, as they alleged, upon the Syracusans, were 
in fact intent upon subdumg the entire 1sland. Now 
the AÁcragantini and Naxians declared that they 
would ally themselves with the Athenians; the 
Camarinaeans and Messemans gave assurances that 
they would maintain the peace, while postponing 
a reply to the request for an alhance ; but the Hi- 
meraeans, Sehnnuntians, Geloans, and Catanaeans 
promised that they would fight at the side of the 
Syracusans. "The cities of the Siceh, while tending 
to be favourably inclined toward the Syracusans, 
nevertheless remained neutral, awaiting the out- 
come 

After the Aegestaeans had refused to give more 
than thirty talents, the Atheman generals, having 
remonstrated with them, put out to sea from Rhegium 
with their force and saded to Naxos in Sicily. They 
were landly received by the inhabitants of thus city 
and sailed on from there to Catané — Although the 
Catanaeans would not recewe the soldiers into the 
citv, they allowed the generals to enter and sum- 
moned an assembly of the extizens, and the Athenman 
generals presented their proposal for an alhanoe. 
But while Aleibiades was addressing the assembly, 
some of the soldiers burst open a postern-gate and 
broke ito the city. It was by this cause that the 
Catanaeans were forced to join imn the war against 
the Syracusans. 

5 While these events we1e takimg place, those imn 
Aihens who hated Alcibiades with a personal enmity, 
possessing now an excuse in the mutilation of the 
statues? accused him in speeches before the Assembly 


! Cp Dook 12. 83. * Cp. chap. 2 
1385 


[e 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


karà ToU OQ)pov memovjuévov. | cvveAáBero! Ó' 
a)rQv rais OwloAats TO vpaxÜév wapà rois 'Ap- 
^^ ^ 
yeioig oL yàp iOuó£evou ovvÜépevo: karaA0oat Trjv 
év "Apyeu Onuokparíav mávres vmOÓ TÓv TOoÀvr|v 
àvnpéÜgcav ^ miorevoas oDv O Ojos rais kar- 
Qyopiaus kaí Oewás DwO0 rÀv Onuayoyóv map- 
of£vvÜeis, dméoree Tv ZaAapavíav vaÜv ets 
ZukeAMaw, KeAeUcov TÜv TOX(oTYV Tjiceu AXBuiony 
eni TÜV pia. mrapayevopiévis oOv fjs Vec)s eis 
rv Karávq, ' AMaidons, àxovcas rÀv mpéoDeov 
M 8ó — on U o À / 
rà 6ófavra TQ O9, rovs owOwpeBAnuévovs 
? N ? M OL / M ^ NS À 
àvaAafeov eig r)v iOiav vpvjpy uer& Tfüs 2:2Àa- 
putas éfémAevoev.  émei O eig QCovpiovus xar- 
émAeugev, eire kai acuveióos abTQ TTv GcéDeuav 
'Alkuiáóns eire. kai doBnÜcis 70 uéyeÜos co0 
kwOjvov, per&ü TÀv cuvOuaBeBAnuévow | Oua8pas 
? N ? / e ? H ^ / M 
ékmoO0Qv éyopicÜUg | oi à' év vfjj XMaAapuwig vy 
mapayevóuevou TÓ jiév mwpóvov éb5rovv ro)s mepi 
M ? / e ? , e 3 / 
róv 'AA«iBiáóqv: cs 8' oy eOpuiokov, AmomAeU- 
cavres eig "AÜrjvas amüyyeuav 7 OT) Tà me- 
cpaypéva — ot pév o)v 'AÜmvatou mapa8óvres 
O.kaoTypio TOÜ Te 'AAkipudBov kal TÓv dÀAav 
TüV cuuovyóvrov T& .ovópara Obkqv epriemv 
/ / 

kare0ikacav Üavdrov. ó 9' 'AX«idoóns ék Tís 
'IraAMas OLamAeUcas éri lleAozóvvnoov édvyev eis 
XmáprQv, kai ToUs AakeOauuovious mapoévvev 
émiÜécÜ0a,. rois ' AÓnvalow. 

6 Oc 8 3 NS At D A ^ ^ 

.. Oi év XukeAiq ovpaTqyoi perà Tí TÓÀV 


! Vogel suggests oavvefáAero 





| Cp. Thueydides, 6. 61. 
136 


BOOK XIII. 5 1—6 1 


o£ having foimed a couspiracy against the democracy. 415 5« 
Their chaiges gamed colour fom an incident that 
had taken place amoug ihe Aigives; for piirvate 
fuends * of his in that ety had agiecd together to 
destioy the democracy 1n Argos, but tliey had all been 
put to death by thecitizens— Accordingly the people, 
having given credeuce to the accusations and having 
had ther fcehngs deeply aioused by ther dema- 
gogues, dispatched their ship, the Salamima,? to 
Sicdly with ordeis foi Alerbiades to return with all 
speed 1o face tnual When the ship anunved at 
Catané and Alcibiades leained of the decision of the 
people from the ambassadors, he took the others who 
had been accused together with hum aboard hus own 
tnreme and sailed away in company with the Sala- 
mmia. But when he had put in at Thurn, Alcibiades, 
either because he was privy to the deed of 1mpiety 
or because he was alarmed at the seniousness of the 
dangei which threatened him, made his escape to- 
gether with the other accused men and got away 
[he ambassadois who had eome on the Salamuua 
at first set up a hunt for Alaibiades, but when they 
could not find him, they sailed back to Athens and 
reported to the people what had taken place | Accoi- 
dingly the Athenians brought the names of Alcibiades 
and the other fugitives with him befoie a court of 
justice and condemned them in default? to death 
And Alcibiades made hus way across from Italy to 
the Peloponnesus, wheie he took refuge in Sparta 
and spurred on the Lacedaemomans to attack the 
Athenians. 

6. The generals in Saly sailed on with the arma- 


*? 'This was one of the two dispatch boats of the ,Athenian 
navy, the other being the Paralus. — ? i.e. in their absence. 


VOL. V gp D57 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


'AÜ8nvaiv Ovváuews TapamrAeUcavres eis Alye- 
orav, "Yxkapa uév 2ukeAwcóv moAoudTwov éAóvres 
éK rÀv AÀa$Upov cwyayov ékaróv ráÀavTG: ko- 
pécdjevoy Oé kai Tpidkovra TáÀavra srapà TOv 
Átyeorattov  karémAevcav eig Karárgv. | BovÀó- 
pevou Óé róv pos TQ ueyáAc Aiévi Tómov. Xpa- 
koci" ükwoUvos karaAaBécÜat, mréumrovow àvàpa 
Karavatov, éavrots uév srtoTÓv rois 86 2wpaootov 
orpoT"yois TiÜavóv, SukeAevodpevou Aéyew | rots 
"yeuóow TÓv 2ivpakooiov, Ór. mwég Karavaiwv 
cvorávres fovÀovra, ovxvoUs «àv ' AÓnvaicv adÀ- 
Louévovs àmó TÓv ÓmvÀwov év mj mólev vvkrós 
&$vo cvAaBóvres ràs év r Auéw vabs éumpfjoos: 
"pós 0€ T7|v ToUrcw cvvréÀeuav üfioüv? ro)s orpa- 
T»yoUs émwbaviva. perà Ovvápecs, pümore Tíjs 
émigoAfjs àmoTÓycoiw — éAMÜóvros 86 ro0 Koravatov 
7pOs TOUS ?)yejLóvas rv Zwpakooaiov kai 8nÀccav- 
TOS TÓ Tpoewpmuéva, mioTeUcavres epi ToUTOYV 
oi orpormyoi ovverd£avro vókra. ka" jv é£á£ovoi! 
T?» OUvapw, kai rÓv ávÜpwmov éfaméoreav elg 
Tyv Korávm. 

Ot uév obv Zpakóctot karáà rv rerayuévqv vá- 
KrQ, ?yov TÓ orparómeOov émi m?v Kardvmv, oi 8€ 
"AÜnvato. vapamAevoavres eig róv uéyav Auuéva 
rv lwvpakociov perà moÀXM$gs Tjovyías ToU ce 
"OÀuwmtov Kptot koaréorqcav kal sávra óv 
TepukeQuevov  Tózov — karaAaóuevoi vapeufoÀnv 
emovjcavro. oL 86 orparmyol TÓv 2;vpakocicv 
cs yo0ovro r?v ümárqv, rayéws avaorTpébavres 
"pocépaÀov Tfj vrapeuBoMj Táwv 'AOnvalov.  ém- 

! Zupakooíwv] Xvpaxovadv Dindoif. 

? So Wurm: 9£ov. ? So Heitlen.— àerá£ovai 

158 


DOOK XIII. 6 1-5 


ment of the Áthenians to Aegesta and captured 415»c 
Hyceara, a small town of the S1ceh, from the booty of 
which they realhzed one hundred talents ; and after 
receiving thirty talents in addition from the Aeges- 
taeans they continued their voyage to Catané. And 
wishmg to seuze, without rnsk to themselves, the 
position * on the Great Harbour of the Syracusans, 
they sent a man of Catané, who was loyal to them- 
selves and was also trusted by the Syracusan generals, 
with instructions to say to the Syracusan commanders 
that a group of Catanaeans had banded together and 
were ready to seize unawares a large number of 
Áthenians, who made it them practice to pass the 
night in the cty away from their arms, and set fire 
to the ships in the harbour; and he was to ask the 
generals that, in order to effect this, they should 
appear at the place with troops so that they mught 
not fai in thex design. When the Catanaean went 
to the commanders of the Syracusans and told them 
what we have stated, the generals, beheving his story, 
decided on the night on which they would lead out 
their troops and sent the man back to Catané. 

Now on the appointed night the Syracusans brought 
the army to Catané, whereupon the Athenians, sailing 
down into the Great Harbour of the Syracusans in 
dead silence, not only became masters of the Olym- 
pieum but also, after seizing the entire area about it, 
constructed a camp — The generals of the Syracusans, 
however, when they learned of the deceit which had 
been practised on them, returned speedily and as- 
saulted the Atheman camp. When the enemy came 


! 'IThis was near the Olympieum (Thucydides, 6. 64. 2). 
The reader 1s referred to the map at the back of the book, 
which 15 based on the account of Thucvdides. 


139 


c 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


e£eMévram oUv TÓV moAejtcov gwvéomm páxn, ka" 
Tv oi "A8nvatou rerpakogtovs TÓV Évavricv iv- 
eAóvres Quyciv T|va-yka.cav TOUS 3pakoociovs. ot 
O6 cvÓv "Afnvatov orporyoi Üccpoüvres Tro)s 
mroAeguious imrmokparotvras, xai BovAópevou BéXrvov 
Tà TpÓg T^v mroAtoprctay karaokevácaoÜa, mTáÀw 
dmémAevcav eis TT]V Kar&vqv.. méyalavrec O eis 
: A8rvas TLVAS eypaxjav TpOs TOV Ofjpuov emorroàds, 
év ais z&tovv. UT els &moaetÀat Kai xprara: 
TrOÀUXpOVLOV yàp éceoÜa. Tv TroAtopKLav UreAáp- 
Bavov ot zl " AOqvaioi TpuaKóaua TáAavra. KaL TOV 
tmmréov mwàs éimdicavro méumew eis T?)v 2ukeAtav 

Toireov 8é mparrouévov ayópas O kAÀmÜeis 
&eos, O.a Bois TUXOV ém. Gocefeta kai dofOeis 
TOv Ofjuov, éQvyev ék Tfjs "Arrucfjs: oLO. "Afrvotou 
TQ dvelóvri Aiuayópav &pyvpiov váÀavrov émer- 
pv£av 

Kará 9 T)v 'lraMav 'Pepuatot vpós Aikovs 
zÓÀeuov exovres. Aapucovs e&emoAiópimoav 

Taóra. pév ov émpáxyÜn xarà ToÜ-ov rÓv &w- 
GUTÓV. 

SCET &pyovros 90 'A0fvooi Twadvpov 'Po- 
pato. pév &yri TÀv Drrürcv XtAápxous kaTéoTq0av 
Térrapas, IIómAtov Aovkpyjrvov,! V'ávov XiepoviÀov, 

Aypirmrav Mewijwtov, 2:0)piov. OseroUpiov. eni 
Óé ToUrcv Zvpakóatot vpéofeiw amooreiAavres eis 
T€ RópwÜov KG AaxeBaipuova. mrapekáAouv Bon85- 
ga KQL 7) mrepuopáy QUTOUS Trepi. TÓV ÓÀcV kwóv- 
vedovras c'wryyopnjoavros O. a)rots AAriBidBov 
AakeBauióvuot pev Umorodquevot BonÜetv Tots Xv- 
pa.ogious i etÀovro léÀvmrmov, KoptvOtoi 


| Aouxpüriov] Nokpzyriov PA. 
140 


DOOR XII T-5-7,.29 


out to meet them, there ensued a battle, in which the a5 s. 
Athenians slew four hundied of their opponents and 
compelled the Syraeusans to take to fhght But 
the Athenian generals, seeing that the enemy were 
supenor in eavalry and washing to improve their 
equipment for the sege of the city, sailed back to 
Catané. And they dispatched men to Athens and 
addressed letters to the people in which they asked 
them to send cavalry and funds; fo: they believed 
that the sege would be a long affa, and the 
Athenians voted to send three hundied talents and 
a conüngent of cavalry to Sjaly 

Whie these events were taking place. D1iagoras, 
who was dubbed "the Atheint,"! was accused of 
impiety and, feanng the people, fled from Attica ; 
and the Athemans announced a reward of a talent of 
silver to the man who should slay D1agoras 

In Italy the Romans went to war with the Aequi 
and reduced Labia by aege? 

These, then, were the events of this yea 

7 When Tisandrus was archon in Athens, tho 445c 
Romans elected in place of consuls four mühtaiy 
tiibunes, Pubhus Lucretius, Gaius Servihus. Agenppa 
Menenius, and Spunus Vetunus In thi yea: the 
Syracusans, dispateching ambassadors to both Connth 
and Lacedaemon,uiged these citiesto come tothen aid 
and not to stand 1idly by when total 1uin thieatened 
the Syracusans Since Alaibiades supported then 
request, the Lacedaemonians voted to «end aid to 
the Syracusans and chose Gylippus to be general, and 

! He 1s said to have bcen a dithyrambic poet of Mclos who 
was apparently aceu«.d. of making blasphemous 1emaiks 
es Athenian divimities (cp. Ly«s1as, .[gainst. -1ndocides, 
1 

? Cp. Lavy, 4. 47. 

111 


- 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/ / 
€ sAÀeicovag Lev TpUiljpeus rapeokevuáLorro TTÉMTTELUV, 
Pre ó€ ; LuX Il/ünv uerà 890 Tpovipcv 
TOT€ Ó€ [ueTG il vUAUTTOU "nV HL pvp 
7 5 X ^ / 
mpouméoTciAav els XuceAav.  év O6 vf Karávm 
^ 5 ; / 
Nucias kai Adpaxos ot TOv AOqvatcv orpaTwyyot, 
^ ? ? ^ e / N 
mapayevouévov a)rots é£ 'AÜqvàv (mrméov uév 
5 / N / 
Oakocicv  mevr/kovra, dapyvpiov 06 raÀávrow 
A / » 5 
rpuucoctov, dvaAaBóvres Tov OUvajuv émAevcav eis 
/ ^ / A 
Xvupakoícas kai mpoceveyÜévres Tjj m0ÀeL vukrTOS 
/ M , 
cAaÜov ros Zwpakoactovs koraAaBópevo, ras ' Em- 
c / M / 
moÀds. aioÜópevor 0. ot Zwpakóotot karü Tdyos 
égor)Üovv, kai àmoDaAóvres rv ovparu TOv Tpua- 
M N 
Koctous eis TTv TÓAw ovvcOuoyÜgcav.  perà 8é 
^ / ^. "AQ / ? Ai / 
TaÜTaG vapayevouévov Tos qvatows é£ Aiyéorns 
A M ^ ^ 
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M 
TOUS TüvraüS ÓkTGKoc(oUS.  kaTaokKkeudoavres O6 
? M / ^ 
vep, TÓó AáfoaAov Oyjpwpa, T)v zÓAw TrÀv Xwpa- 
/ » / M Aj / ^ p? 
Kooitv dGmere(xyubov. kai. moÀ)v dófov Toig Xv- 
/ ? ^ 
pakociowg éméoTrycav. Owmep émet£eMlóvres ek. míjs 
EH LA 
zóÀews émeyetonoav OuarcAdew roUs otkoGouoÜvras 
^ € 1 M 
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BaÀóvres érpdmqoav — ot 9 ' AÜnvato, TQ uépei Tíjs 
^ / 
Ovvápvecos TOv Dmrepkei(uevov ToO Ausévos vómrov kare- 
AáBovro, kat rrjv kaAovuévqv lYoAGvqv rewyioavres 
; ^ N e N / X ? 3 
TO re TrOÜ /MOs (epoóv mepweBáAovro kai éÉ àpdo- 
réptv TÓÀV jepÀv Tàs Iwpakojcas érmoApkovv. 
rovrov 06 éAarroárov epi To)s Xwpako- 
ciovs yevouévov TÜÓuouv oí karà T?)v mÓAw- cs 
? » 
9' zkovcav TAurmov eis "Inépav xaramemAevkévat 
1419 


BOOK XIII. 7. 2-6 


the Corinthians made preparations to send a number 41 &c 
of triremes, but at the moment they sent 1n advance 
to Sicily, accompanyimg Gyhppus, Pythes with two 
truaremes. And in Catané Nicias and Lamachus, the 
Áthenian generals, after two hundred and fifty cavalry 
and three hundred talents of alver had come to them 
from Athens, took their army aboard and saied to 
Syracuse They arnved at the city by night and 
unobserved by the Syracusans took possession of 
Epipolae. When the Syracusans learned of this, they 
speedily came to 1ts defence, but were chased back 
into the city with the loss of three hundred soldiers 
After this, with the arrival for the Athenians of three 
hundred horsemen from Aegesta and two hundred 
and fifty from the Siceli, they mustered 1n all eight 
hundred cavalry Then, having built a fort at 
Labdalum, they began constructing a wall about the 
city of the Syracusans and aroused g1eat fear among 
the populace? "Therefore they advanced out of the 
eity and. endeavoured to hinder the buildeis of the 
wall; but a cavalry battle followed 1n which they 
suffered heavy losses and were forced to flee. The 
Athenans winth a part of their troops now seized the 
region lying above the harbour and by fortifying 
Polichné,? as it 1s called, they not only enclosed the 
temple of Zeus? but were also besieging Syracuse 
from both ades | Now that such reverses as these had 
befallen the Syracusans, the inhabitants of the city 
were disheartened ; but when they learned that 
Gylippus had put in at. Himera and. was gathenng 

! This wall of eneumvallaton. was to run from near 
T1ogilus southwaid to the Great Harbour ; see map. 

* "Thucydides (7. £. 6) speaks of a polichné (/* hamlet ") 


near the Olympieum, which lay west of the centre of the 
Great Hai1bour. 3 "The Olympieum 


143 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


1 / i / LA :Ü / e 
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lik 


BOOK XIII 7 7—8. 4 


soldiers, they agam took heart For Gylippus, having 44 8« 
put in at Ihmera with four triremes, had hauled his 
ships up on shore, persuaded the Himeraeans to ally 
themselves with the Syracusans, and was gatheumng 
soldiers from them and the Geloans, as well as from 
the Sehnuntians and the Sicam— And after he had 
assembled three thousand infantry in all and two 
hundred cavalry, he led them through the interior of 
the island to Syracuse 

8 After a few days Gyhppus led forth his troops 
together with the Syracusans agamst the Athenians 
A fierce battle took place and Lamachus, the 
Athenian general, died in the fighting ; and although 
many were slam on both aides, victory lay with the 
Athenians. After the battle, when thiiteen triremes 
had arrived from Corinth, Gylippus, after taking the 
crews of the ships, with them and the Syracusans 
attacked the camp of the enemy and sought to storm 
Epipolae. When the Athenians came out, they 
jomed battle and the Syracusans, after slaying many 
ÁAihenians, were victorious and they razed the wall 
throughout the length of Epipolé; at this the 
Athenans abandoned the area of Epipolae and with- 
drew their entire force to the other camp 

After these events the Syracusans dispatched am- 
bassadors to Corinth and Lacedaemon to get help ; 
and the Connthians together with the Boeotians and 
Sicyonmans sent them one thousand men and the 
Spartans sx hundred And Gyhlppus went about 
the etes of Sicily and. peisuaded many peoples to 
jon ihe alhance, and after gathering three thou- 


145 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! So Wesseling, cp. 'Thuc. 7. 16 2. 6epwás 
146 


BOOK XIII. 8 4—9 1 


sand soldiers from the Hhmneiaeans and Secani he led 
them throusn the interior of the island. When the 
ÁAthenans learned that these iroops weie nea at 
hand, they attacked and slew half of them ; the 
survivois, however, got safely to Syracuse 

Upon the arnval of the alhes the Syracusans, wish- 
ig to ty their hand also in battles at sea, launched 
the ships they already possessed and fitted out addi- 
tonal ones, giving them them trials in the small 
harbour. And Nieas, the Athenman general, dis- 
patched letters to Athens m which he made known 
that many alhes were now with the Sy1acusans and 
that they had fitted out no small number of ships and 
had resolved upon offenng battle at sea ; he there- 
fore asked them io send speedily both triremes and 
money and generals to assist him in the conduct of 
the war, explaining that with the flight of Alcibiades 
and the death of Lamachus he was the only general 
left and at that was notin good health. The Athenians 
dispatched to S1edy ten ships with. Eurymedon the 
general and one hundred and forty talents of silver, 
at the time of the winter solstice ! ; meantime they 
busied themselves with preparations to dispatch a 
great fleet 1n the spring. Consequently they were 
enrolhng soldiers everywhere from thew alhes and 
gathenng together money 

In the Peloponnesus the Lacedaemomians, being 
spurred on by Alcibiades, broke the truce with the 
Athenians, and the war which followed continued for 
twelve years ? 

9 At the close of this year Cleoeritus was archon 
of the Athemans, and 1n. Rome 1n place of consuls 


: 99nd Deccmbei 
? "Ten years, 413-101 8 c. 1nclusre. 


Ili B« 


4iliBe 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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éjvyov vOv 86 Xpakooíov drákrw$ Owuokóvrov 
148 


BOOK XIII. 9 1-5 


there were four mihtary tribunes, Aulus Sempronius, 113 s.c 
Mareus Papinus, Quintus Fabius. and Spunus 
Nautus This year the Lacedaemomans together 
with their allies 1nvaded Attica, under the leadership 
of Agis and Alcibiades the Athenian And seuzing 
the stronghold of Deceleia they made it into a fortress 
for attacks upon Atüca, and this, as 1t turned out, 
was why this war came to be called the Deceleian 
War. The Athenians dispatched thirty triremes to 
lie off Laconia under Chanicles as general and voted 
to send eighty triremes and five thousand hoplites to 
Sicily — And the Syracusans, having made up them 
minds to Join battle at sea, fitted out eighty triremes 
and sailed against the enemy. The Athemans put 
out against them with sixty ships, and when the 
battle was at its height, all the Athenians in the 
fortresses went down to the sea; for some were 
desirous of watching the battle, while others hoped 
that, 1n case of some reverse m the sea-battle, they 
could be of help to thosein fhght — But the Syracusan 
generals, foreseemg what really happened, had dis- 
patched the troops m the city agamst the strongholds 
of the Athenians, whnich were filled with money and 
naval supphes as well as every other lind of equip- 
ment: when the Syracusans found the strongholds 
guarded by a totally inadequate number, they seized 
them, and slew many of those who came up from the 
sea to their defence. And since a great uproar arose 
about the forts and the camp, the Athemans who 
were engaged m the sea-battle turned about in dismay 
and fled toward the last remaming fort. The Syra- 


—— 





1 "Ayieos 9e P. 
* karaAauBávovres P.4JL, Vogel, xaraAaBóvres cet 
3 raréoxyov added by Post, 8jpracav by Dindorf. 


149 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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ramewóv, kor& Tàs TOv éufoAGv Oócew Qu 


150 


BOOK XIII. 9 5—10. 3 


eusans puusued them without order, but the Athemans, 220 
when they saw themselves unable to find safely on 
land because the $y1acusans conti olled two foits, were 
forced to tuin about and renew the sea-battle. And 
since the Syracusans had broken their battle order 
and had become scattered in the puisuxt, the. Athe- 
nians, attacking with their ships 1n a body, sank eleven 
trremes and pursued the rest as far as the 1sland.! 
When the fight was ended, each aide set up a trophy, 
the Áthemans for the sea-battle and the Syracusans 
for their successes on land. 

10 After the sea-battle had ended 1n the manner 
we have described, the Athenians, leaning that the 
fleet under Demosthenes would arnve within a few 
days, decided to run no more risks before that force 
should join them, whereas the Syracusans, on the 
contrary, wishing to reach a final decision before the 
axrnval of Demosthenes and hus army, kept sailing out 
every day against the ships of the Athenians and con- 
uünung the fight And when Anston the Conn- 
thian pilot advised them to make the prows of their 
ships shorter and lower, the Syracusans followed his 
advice and for that reason enjoyed great advantage 
in the fighting whieh followed. | For the Attic trn emes 
were built with weaker and high prows, and for this 
reason it followed that, when they rammed, they 
damaged only the parts of a ship that extended above 
the waler, so that the enemy suffered no gieat 
damage; whereas the ships of the Syxacusans, built 
as they were with the structure about the prow strong 
and low, would often, as they dehvered their ram- 


! 2e, of Ortygaa. 


| So heiske: éppuiévov. 
?* So Wessehng: ctomAéovres. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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€ 


* kai after Auuévc deleted by Wesscling 
152 


BOOK XIII. 10. 3—11 1 


ming blows, sink with one shock the triremes of the 41$ »«. 
Athenans ! 

Now day after day the Syracusans attacked the 
camp of the enemy both by land and by sea, but to no 
effect, since the Athenians made no move ; but when 
some of the captains of triremes, being no longer able 
to endure the scorn of the Syracusans, put out against 
the enemy 1n the Great Harbour, a sea-battle com- 
menced in which all the triremesjommed. | Nowthough 
the Athenians had fast-saiding triremes and enjoyed 
the advantage from their long experience at sea as 
well as from the skill of thexr pilots, yet thew superr- 
onty 1 these respects brought them no return since 
the sea-battle was 1n a narrow area ; and the Syra- 
cusans, engaging at close quarters and giving the 
enemy no opportunity to turn about to ram, not only 
cast spears at the soldiers on the decks, but also, by 
hurhng stones, forced them to leave the prows, and in 
many cases simply by ramming a ship that met them 
and then boarding the enemy vessel they made it à 
land-battle on the ship's deck The Athenians, being 
pressed upon from every quarter, turned to fhght ; 
and the Syracusans, pressing 1n pursuit, not only sank 
seven triremes but made a large number unfit for use 

11 At the moment when the hopes of the Syra- 
cusans had raised their spits hugh. because of their 
victory over the enemy both by land and by sea, 
Eurymedon and Demosthenes arrived, having sailed 
there from Athens wath a great force and gathered on 
the way alhed troops from the Thurians and Messa- 

1 Thucydides (7. 36) describes in. considerable detail this 


strengthening of the bow and its effect upon the tactics of the 
fighting in the haibour 


? (ufoMs] éufoAaie PAHFK. 





2 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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GTayyeAotvra Tots ovii yous ai BonÜeiv i£totvra. 
12 "Afmsvato. 9é, rv mpayuárcov a$rois émi 
TO xeipov ékDá»rov kal 8uà vo TÓv mepuce(uevov 
rómov Üwápxyew éM8n Aowwkfjs koaraoTácews els 
151 


BOOK XIII. 11. 2—12 1 


pians They brought more than eighty trinemes and i13 &« 
five thousand soldieis, excluding the erews ; and they 

also conveyed on merchant vessels a11ns and money 

as well as siege machines and every other hind of 
equipment.  Ás a result the hopes of the Syracusans 
were dashed again, since they beheved that they 
could not now readily find the means to bring them- 
selves up to equahty with the enemy. 

Demosthenes persuaded his fellow commandeis to 
assault Epipolae, for 1t was impossible by any other 
means to wall off the city, and talking ten thousand 
hoplites and as many more hght-armed troops, he 
attacked the Syracusans by night. Since the assault 
had not been expected, they overpowered some forts, 
and brealang mto the fortifications of Epipolé threw 
downapartofthe wall But whenthe Syracusans ran 
together to the scene from every quarter and 
Hermocrates also came to the aid with the picked 
tioops, the Athenians were forced out and, it bemg 
night, because of their unfamihanty with the region 
were scattered some to one plaee and others to 
another. The Syracusans and the alhes, pursuing 
after them, slew two thousand five hundred of the 
enemy, wounded not a few, and captured much 
armour. And after the battle the Syracusans dis- 
patched S1canus, one of their genexals, with. twelve ! 
tnremes to the other cities, both to announce the 
victory to the alhes and to ask them for aid 

19. The Athenians, now that their affairs had taken 
a turn for the worse and a wave of pestilence had struck 
the camp because the region round about 1t was 


! Thucydides (7. 46) says fifteen. 
l m (óyBockovra) Stroth : r« P, rpvakoaieov HL, rpuakooctov 
Oéka cet 
155 


2 


d 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TO arparómneoov éjmeaoóarjs, épovAevovro TrÓs Oct 
xpfjo0o TOÍS mpáypacu. Avnpoo0évns név  o0v 
mero Oetv dmowAetv TTV raxtorqv eis "Afjvas, 
ddokav. aípera)repov eivat "pos AakeBauuovíovs 
Dép Ts vraTpios. kuvvebeu 7 kaÜwLévovs «ts 
PakeAíav qmoóév TOv xpvotpeov. émureAetv: O 8é 
Nutas oUk é$m oety GiOXpós OUTOS éykaraAumeiv 
TV moAwopkíav, KG Tpujpav kai crporuorv éTL 
o Xppraov emropobvras" mpos 8e TODTOLS, cav 
dvev Tfs ToD Ocpov yvop)s etpijvmv movnadpe- 
VOL TrpOS TOUS Zvupakociovs üToTAeUoco0tV eis TV 
mOTpiOóQ, kivOvvov a)rots émakoAovÜrjoew do TÓÀv 
eleoÜóreov TOUS OTpQOTTyOUS cukogavretv. TÓV 0€ 
eis TÓ cupfoUAcv mapeA)pupévay. ot uev TQ Am- 
io06évei cvykaréBevro mrepi Tis ávaycyfs, oi O6 
TQ Nui Tyv abr)v yvopmv àredaívovro: Gump 
oUóév cadés émupivavres éi' ovyias éuevov. mois 
Oé Xwvpakooiow mapayevouévgs ovpaxías map 
re 2ukeÀQv! kai IeAwovvriv, érv 06 DeÀQov, 
Tpós Oé ToUTow 'luepatov kai Kaguapwatov, oi 
uév Mupakóoio, u&AXov eÜdppow, oi 6 "Abnvato, 
Tepi0eets éytvovro ?  vfje O06 vócov peydAv emi- 
TGOLV AajiBavovans TOÀÀOi TÓV orporirróy aTé- 
Üvraov, KaL Távres perej.éAovro 9L TÓ ur vráÀaL 
TOV üzrÓTÀOUV memovíjotaa. 9uó KQ To0 mijfovs 
BopuBotvros, «aL. rÀv GAÀcv Távrov éri ràs vas 
óppiovra, ó 9 Nuctas Tjva-yk&o8n cvyxcoptjsa Trepi 
Tljs eis oikov &vayycoyfjs. OpLoyvco ióveov O6 Óv- 
TOV TÓV orparnyóv, ol OTparidTOL TÀ eei 
&veriÜevro kai Tàs Tpvpeus mAnpoavres fjpov 
TÓS kepaías" KQL mrapijyyeUav oL cTpormyol TOÍS 
miijÜcow, órav oqujvn, ux8éva rÀv xarà 7Ó orpa- 
156 


DOOR XIII: 19; 1-5 


marshy, counselled together how they should deal with 413 ».c. 
thesituation — Demosthenesthought that they should 
sail baek to Athens with all speed, stating that to 1isk 
their hves against the Lacedaemonians im defence of 
their fatherland was preferable to setthng down on 
Sicily and accomplishing nothing worth while; but 
Nicias said that they ought not to abandon the siege 
in so disgraceful a fashion, whie they were well 
supphed with triremes, soldiers, and funds ; further- 
more, he added, if they should make peace with 
the Syracusans without the approval of the Athenman 
people and sai back to ther country, peril would 
attend them from the men who make xt their practice 
to bnng false charges against their generals. Of the 
participants in the counail some agreed with Demo- 
sthenes on putüng to sea, but others expressed the 
same opinion as Nicias; and so they came to no 
clear decision and took no action. And smce help 
came to the Syracusans from the Siceh, Sehnuntians, 
and Geloans, as well as from the Himeraeans and 
Camarmaeans, the Syracusans were the more em- 
boldened, but the Athenmans became apprehenave. 
Also, when the epidemic greatly increased, many of 
the soldiers were dying and all regretted that they 
had not set out upon their return voyage long since. 
Consequently, since the multitude was 1n an uproar 
and all the others were eager to take to the ships, 
Nicias found humself compelled to y1eld on the matter 
of their returmng home. And when the generals 
were agreed, the soldiers began gathermg together 
their equipment, loading the triremes, and raising 
the yard-arms ; and the generals 1ssued orders to the 
multitude that at the gmgnal not a man in the camp 





1 $o hichstadt — XuxeAceoróv. * So Dindorf. éyévovro. 
157 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


rómeOov Dorepetv, ce dmroAedÜnoópuevov rov DpaoV- 
vovra.  peAÀóvrow 9' ajrÀv Tfj jorepaig mAetv, 
é£éumrev dj oeXjva Tíjs émovons vvkrós.  Oumep ó 
Nucías, kai dice Oewibatqucv. Dmápycv kai Ou 
T" év TQ orparoméóq vócov e(AaBós Oukeüuevos, 
cwvekdÀeoe ro)s pávrew. ToDrov 8. üàvodmvagé- 
vov àvaykaiov eivot ràs «eiÜ.ouévas Tpeis T")uépas 
avofaAéc0a. TOv CkmÀovv, vfvaykáo0ncav kai oi 
cep. rTÓv AmuooÜévov ovykaraÜéc0a. Oi rrjv TpOs 
TO Üctov ejÀaBecav. 

18. Ot 86 Xvpakóoto mapá Twov a)TrouóÀov 
TUÜóuevo, jv airíav ToU DmepreÜetoÜac vOv dmó- 
TÀovv, Tás Te Tpwpew Tácas émAv)pocav, oUcas 
éB8ow,kovra kai Téccapas, kai ràs selàs Ovvápeus 
éfayayóvres mpoaéBaAov Tois voÀepiows kai karà 
yfiv kai xarà ÜdAarrav. ot 9. 'AÜnvatow vpvjpeus 
TÀnpocavres é£ pos ais ÓyOorkovra, TÓ gév 
Oe£tóv képas rrapéóc kay Epvué8ovri 0 orparqyà, 
kaÜ' óÓ éráyÜÓn OÓ cv Xwvpakooiov arpormQyOs 
'AydÜapyos émi 86 Üarépov uépovs EU0/006uos 
érérakro, xa" óv üvrerá£aro iukavós TÓv Xvpa- 
«ociov T|yoUpevos: Tfs 06 uéoqs rá£ews etye cv 
?)yeLoviav sapà jév rois 'Afmvaíos Mévavópos 
vapà Oé Tots 2wpakootow llóüns o KopivOios. 
oTeprewovons Oé Tíjs TOv 'AÜwvaiov dáA«yyos 
Ou TO mÀe(ocw abro)s dycvíteoUo. pwpeoww, 
ovx Tjkuara. ka" 0 qÀeovekretv éGókovv karà, roüro 
TÀaTrroUncav.  ó yàp E)pvuéócv émwewnjcas 
TepvrÀetv TO Képas TÓv évavritov, ds dmeomáao0n 
Tfjs rdLecs, émwovpeávrov ém' a0róv TÓv Xvpa- 
Koc&ov ameAnjjÜm mpos TOv kOMmov TOv Aáckcova 


158 


BOOK XIII. 12. 5—13. 3 


should be late, for he who lagged would be left behind. 412 s« 
But when they were about to sail on the following day, 
on the night of the day before, the moon was echpsed.! 
Consequently Nicias, who was not only by natuie a 
superstitiously devout man but also cautious because 
of the epidemic in the camp, summoned the sooth- 
sayeis.  Ánd when they declared that the departure 
must be postponed for the customary three days, 
Demosthenes and the others were also compelled, out 
of respect for the deity, to accede 

13. When the Syracusans learned from some de- 
serters why the departure had been deferred, they 
inanned all their iriremes, seventy-four in number. 
and leading out their ground forces attacked the 
enemy both by land and by sea. The Athenians, 
having manned eighty-six triremes, assigned to 
Eurymedon, the general, the command of the night 
wing, opposite to which was stationed the general of 
the Syracusans, Ágatharchus ; on the other wing 
Euthydemus had been stationed and opposite to him 
was S1canus commandmg the Syracusans; and in 
command of the centre of the hne were Menander 
for the Athenians and Pythes the Cornmnthian for 
the Syracusans. Although the Athenian line was the 
longer since they were engaging with à supenor 
number of triremes, yet the very factor which they 
thought would work to their advantage was not the 
least ii their undommg. | l'or Eurymedon endeavoured 
to outfüank the opposing wing ; but when he had 
become detached from his hne, the Syracusans turned 
to face him and he was cut off and forced into a bay 

! 27th August, 413 s.c. 

? ** "'hrice nine days," aecording to Thucydides, 7. 50. 4; 


" another full period of the moon." according to Plutarch, 
Nicias, 98. 6. 


159 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


' / € OS A, N / / 
uév kaÀoUpevov, ómó Oé rÀv Xupakociv karexó- 
4 uevov — karakAewoÜeis Ó' eis orevov TÓTOY Kdüi 
PuaoÜeis eis 1T]v yfjv éxmeoctv, aorOs jiév Umó Twos 
rpcoÜeis kaupía sÀqyfj TÓv Biov uer)AÀafev, émrà 
6€ vaüs év rovro TQ TÓm« OwdoÜápycav. Tíjs 8é 
vovjLuytas TO" ywopévgs ÓÀow Tois oTÓAow, cs 
O,cB00m Aóyos vóv re ovparwWyov avmpífjoÓc. kai 
Twwvag vaUs dmoÀcAévau, TÓ uév mp rov ai udMora 
cwveyyiLovoa, rats OvedÜapp.évaus vavotv évécAwav, 
peràü 8é raóra Tv Ipakooiov émwewuuévov kal 
0.à TÓ yeyovós eónuépnpa. Ópaoécs dycwibouévov, 
PiaoÜévres oi "AOqvator mávres dvyetv. Tvayká- 
oÜncav  "yevopuévov Óé roO OwypoÜU «pos TÓ re- 
vayy&oes uépos ToU Ausévos, oic oÀvyat TOv mpupcov 
év ToÍs Dpdáyeoiww émokeiUav — Qv ovyufouvóvrov 

«avos Ó TÓv 2wpakoc&ov oTparTyyOs TOXÉcs 
oÀ«dóa kAquar(ócv kai Od8cv, éru O6 mírTws 
mÀQpécas, évémpyoe Tàs év Tots Dpdyeow vaüs 
KvAwOovuévas | Qv àvajÜ0ewcdv oi uev "AÜnvatot 
rüyéos Tv Te QAÀÓya karéopecav kai dmó Tv 
vedv éppopéwos Tjuóvavro TOUS émiepouévovs, 
&AAmv o)8ejav eÜpiakovres ocrypíav Tà O6 metà 
cTrparóme0a mapeBowÜüe. mapà TOv avyuaAóv dd 
óv ai vals é£ememrokewav — üvrávrey Oé kaprepós 
Üroevóvrcv TOv küvOvvov, émi uév mfjs yís érpá- 
7109av oi 2wpakóctot, karà ÜdAarrav 8 mporepi- 
cavres üTémAevoav eis T?v OA.  dmcAovro 8é 
rÓÀv pév Iwpakooíov OÀvcyow TOv 0' 'AOwvatov 
dvüpes jLév oük éAdrrovs OwyiMev, rpujpew 8' 
ókTcokalóeka. 

14. Ot. 86 Xvwpakóoto: vonilovres jwnkér. TOv 
ktvóvvov etva, «epi Tfje qróAecs , GÀAG. sroÀ9. uGÀAov 
160 


BOOK XIII. 13. 3—14 1! 


called Daseon which was held by the Syracusans. 356 
Being hemmed in as he was immto a narrow place, he 
was foiced to 1un ashore, where some man gave lum 
a mortal wound and he lost his hfe, and seven of hus 
ships were destroyed in thus place. "The battle had 
now spread throughout both fleets, and when the 
word was passed along that the general had been 
slaan and some ships lost, at first only those ships 
gave way which were nearest to those which had 
been destroyed, but later, as the Syracusans pressed 
forward and pushed the fight boldly because of the 
success they had won, the whole Athenman foice was 
overpowered and compelled to turn 1n fight — And 
&nce the pursut turned toward the shallow part of 
the harbour, not à few triremes ran aground mn the 
shoals. When this took place, Sicanus, the Syracusan 
general, straghtway filing à merchant ship with 
faggots and pine-wood and pitch, set fire to the ships 
which were wallowing m the shoals But although 
they were put on fire, the Athenmans not only quickly 
extinguished the flames but, finding no other means of 
safety, also vigorously fought off from their ships the 
men who were iushimg against them ; and the land 
forces ran to their ad along the beach on which the 
ships had run ashore— Ánd ance they all withstood 
the attack with vigour, on land the Syracusans were 
turned back, but at sea they won the decision and 
sailed back to the city. "The losses of the Syracusans 
were few, but of the Athemans not less than two 
thousand men and eighteen triremes. 

14. The Syracusans, believng that the danger no 
longer was the losing of their cy but that, far 


VOL. V G 161 


c 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éveoT"»Kéva,. vOv àydva mepi ToU Aafetv rÓ oTpa- 
rOme0ov p.erà, TÀv vroAeuicov aiypuáAcrov, árrédpar- 
Tov TO oTÓu.. ToU Auuévos Leüypua. kovraoievátovres. 
üKdrovs Te yàp koi Tpwjpew érv. 86 ompoyy/Aas 
vals ém ykvpdv Opuícavres, kal oi0npais dÀU- 
cec. 0uaAauBávovres, émi rà okddów yedüpas éx 
caviócv kareakeUaoav kai mépas év j)uépous rpuol 
rois épyois éméÜnkav. ot 9^ " AÜnvatow Üecpotvres 
a)rois vávroÜev Tov o«wrüpíav dmokekAewgévmv, 
&«p.av ürácas Tàs Tpujpew mÀnpoüv kal rív 
webÀv ToUs kporioTous éufiBdoou, rQ Te mAíf« 
rÓv vedv kai Tfj rv üyemiouéveov jmép cfs 
cc rrptas ürovoie karamXjéew* ro)s Xvpakootovs. 
OLómep ToUs émi vais "yeuovíaus reraüyuévovs kal 
ToUs dápíoTous e£ óov vo orpare/uaros du[ifá- 
cavres Tpvjpew puév émAü5pwoav mévre Aewrovoas 
TÀv ékaTÓv e(koci, roUs 86 AovroUs émi rfjg yfs 
érafav mapà TÓv alyuaÀóv — oí 86 YXwpakóocto, ó 
pév Telóv oTpárevua mpó cTís sóAecs éoTQoav, 
TpUpets LE cwvemArpcoaav eBBouikovra Téacapas 
ovumapevrovró Té Ts Ümw»periküs Eyovres vaüs 
maióes éAeóÜepoi, rois re Éreow Óvres nó rv vá 
veavíokcv TÀucav xal avvaycovilduevou uerà, rdv 
"aüTépov. Tà Óé mepl rÓv Auuéva rely kal más d 
Tfjs vóÀecs Dmepke(uevos Tómos éyeue cO dTcov: 
yuvatkés Te yàp kai mapÜévow kai oi? mots 7AL- 
kids Tiv €v T moAMéue wpeíav TGpéyecÜa. pu 
Ovvápevoi, ToU mavrós moAéuov Tiv Kpict | Aagu- 
Bávovros, uerà moAXM$js áycvías emeÜedpovv 73v 
páxnv. 

15. Ka0" óv 97) ypóvov Nucías ó àv " AÜnvatav 
crpaTco»yos émiBAébas ràg vabüs kal vó péyeÜos ToO 
169 


BOOK XIII. 14 1—15. 1 


more, the contest had become one for the capture 4i3 c 
of the camp together with the enemy, blocked off 
the entrance to the harbour by the construction of 
a barrier. For they moored at anchor both small 
vessels and triremes as well as merchant-ships, with 
iron chains between them, and to the vessels they 
built bridges of boards, completng the undertalang 
in three days. The Athenians, seeing their hope of 
dehverance shut off im every direction, decided to 
man all their triremes and put on them them best 
land troops, and thus, by means both of the multi- 
tude of their ships and of the desperation of the 
men who would be fighting for the lives, eventually 
to strike terror into the Syracusans. Consequently 
they put on board the officers and choicest troops 
from the whole army, manning in this way one 
hundred and fifteen triremes, and the other soldiers 
they stationed on land along the beach. The Syia- 
cusans drew up their imfantry before the city, and 
fully manned seventy-four triremes ; and the triremes 
were attended by free boys on small boats, who were 
in years below manhood and were fighting at the side 
of their fathers. And the walls about the harbour 
and every high place im the city were crowded with 
people; for wives and maidens and all who, because 
of age, could not render the service war demands, 
since the whole war was coming to its decision, were 
eyemg the battle with the greatest anguish of spinit. 
15. At this time Nicias, the gene1al of the Athe- 
nians, as he surveyed the ships and measured the 


! ovvréAeuav after éxéüqkav omitted LM. 
? Dindorf adds &zitovres after karamAo£ew 
3 dy after ot deleted by Hertlein. 
* So Reiske: Aauflávovres. 


12 


3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


KwOUvou Aoywoáqevos, oUK éméueiwev ém Tijg £v 
Tf yf rd£eos, àÀÀà karaAvrO v To)s TeLoUs émi 
rwa. vaüv dvéf« xai mapésÀew ràs Tpufpew TÓv 
'AÜnvaiov ^ é€kacrov 9é TOv pwpápycw  éÉ 
ovóparos Tpocóovdv kai Tàs xeipas ékreivov 
éOe(ro mdvrwv, et kai! mpórepov, TÓ vov àvriÀa- 
BécÜa,. Tfj uóvgs xaraÀeAeuuuévs  éAm(Oos: év 
yàp Tails TÓv vavpaxetv pueAÀóvrowv dperais kai 
éavrOv ümüvrov Kal Tfjs mro pios ketoÜa, Tv 
ccornpiav . kai ToUs pév Tékvaw Dvras Tarépas 
TÓÀYV viv jmoptvjokov, ro0s O. évOO£cv yeyovóras 
TGTÉépwv mTapakaÀówv Tàs TÓV TpoyÓvov dperàs 
p?) karaLcyÜvau, rovs O9. OvO ToÜD O")nLov TeTuum- 
pévovs mporperópevos àfiovs avíva. rÀv oTeóá- 
vov, àmavras 9. àvajwoÜévras vv év ZXaAÀautw 
vpomaicv Tíiov pw!) karappüpa,. rfs maTpióos TUV 
vepipónrov 8ó£av, un06 aUroUs avOpamóOcv TpóTrov 
vOpaOotva, Tots 2:wpakoaítois. 

"O uév oov Nu«tas Towrow xpnodpuevos Aóyois 
mdÀw émi rv ió(av rá£w émavíáAÜev: ot 8^ dy mats 
vavoi sra.avicavres émÀeov kai djÜdcavres ToUs 
ToÀeutous OvéAvov TO LeOyua — oi 86 Xvpakóowot 
rayéws émavaxÜévres avverdáTrovro rais Tpwfpeo, 
kai cvwmAekOpuevow Tro(s évavr(ows Tváykacav aàj- 
ToUs émioTpébew àmó ToU LeUyuaros kal Bwuá- 
xeoÜa.. motovuévov Óé ràg àvakpojoew TÓv uév 
émi TOv aiyuuAÀóv, rOv 8' eis uéoov TOv Apgéva, 
TwGr Ó€ mpós Trà Teiy9j, Taxéos àw' àv 
óeorác0mcav ai rpvijpews &mracau, kat yeopuoÜévrov 
&TO TOV kAeiÜpcwv vA^p«s vv ó Mgmv TÓÀv kar 

| et kal Dindorf, ep. Thue 7.64.9, 70. 7. etvas. 
? 4) after zpórepov deleted by Vogel. 


161 


BOOK XIII. 15. 1-4 


magnitude of the struggle, could not remain at his £13 5. 


e 
station on shoie, but leaving the land troops he 


boarded a boat and passed along the hne of the 
Athenian trremes  Calhng each captain by name 
and stretching forth his hands, he mmplored them all, 
now if ever before, to grasp the only hope left to 
them, for on the valour of those who were about to 
join battle at sea depended the preservation both 
of themselves, every man of them, and of their 
fatherland Those who were fathers of children he 
reminded of their sons ; those who were sons of dis- 
tnguished fathers he exhorted not to bring disgrace 
upon the valorous deeds of thex ancestors; those 
who had been honoured by their fellow citzens he 
urged to show themselves worthy of their crowns; 
and all of them he reminded of the trophies erected 
at Salamis and begged them not to bring to disrepute 
the far-famed glory of their fatherland nor sun ender 
themselves hke slaves to the Syracusans. 

After Nicias had spoken to this effect, he returned 
to his station, and the men of the fleet advanced 
singing the paean and broke through the barrier of 
boats before the enemy could prevent them. But 
the Syracusans, puttüng quickly out to sea, formed 
their triremes in battle order and comung to grips 
with the enemy forced them to withdraw from the 
barner of boats and fight a pitched battle — And 
as the ships backed water, some toward the beach, 
others toward the middle of the harbour, and still 
others 1n the direction of the walls, all the trn emes 
were quickly separated from each other, and after 
they had got clear of the boom across its entrance 

165 


- 


Ó 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


óAiyovs vavpao)rrov.  éyÜa O7) mapafóAws d- 
dorépov mepi Tíjs vücgs daywawlouévowv, oi gév 
'"AOmvato, TQ Te wAcÜe. TOv vedv Üappobüvres kai 
ccr9piav dÀXQv o)xy OpOvres Üpacécs ékwOvvevov 
KaL TOV év Tfj uáyy Üávarov ebyevüs bméuevov: 
oí 86 Ipakócww Ücaràs TÓÀv üydveov €yovres 
yovéts kai mt0as édiAoTiuobvro mpós àAÀMjAovs, 
ékáorou DovAouévou Ov éavroÜU T?»v vüeqv mepi- 
yevéaÜas Tfj vaTp(c. 

16 Ai xal voAÀoi rots TÓv évavriev mpqpous 
émiflávres, Tfjs oikeias veos 0o. érépas rpwÜetons, 
év Lécows Toís ToAÀeuíow dmeÀAauBávovro ^ &woi 
06 ciónpüs xetpas émupáMovres Tváykalov ToUs 
àvrvraTToMévovs émi TOv veOwv meLouayetv.  ToÀ- 
Aákig 06 Tís iO(as É€yovres vaüs ovvrerpwuwuévas 
eis T&às TOv évavriov peÜaMMóuevoi, kal roDs uév 
&TokTeivovres, To)gs O' eig Tv ÜdAarrav mpo- 
wUoÜvres ékvpievov rÀv Tpujpov — árÀcs. 8e xa0' 
OÀov TOv Autéva TÀv T' éuBoÀOv wWódos éylvero 
«ai Bo?) rv áàywvitouévov évaM£ àmoAwgévov. 
óre yàp amoÀndÜeim vabüs jmO mÀetóvow Tpwjpov 
vavraxóÜev cvrTOLév] Tols yaAkopaot, ToU peU- 
paros eioamimrovros aUravOopos Omó Tfj; ÜaAár- 
T'S kaem(vero. wot 86 karaBvopnévov TÓV vedv 
dmokoAvjBOvres Tots ve TÓÉOw karervrpo)okovro 
«ai Tolg Oópacu vvmTÓLevow OwedÜeipovro ^ oi 8é 
kupepvírra, Üecpobvres rerapaypuévgv c) puáymv, 
«ai Távra. Tóvov ovra, rÀjp ÜopUfov, kai sroÀAákts 
émi quav vov mÀetovs émtuepouévas, o0 óc 
o"paiowv «yov, uw! vÀv a)rGv mpós Gravra 

1 So Dindorf: j$xopévovres 
? So Vogel: óAos. 
166 


BOOK XIII. 15 5—16 4 


the harbour was full of ships fighting in small groups. «2 s.c 
Thereupon both sides fought with abandon for the 
victory. The Athenians, cheered by the multitude 

of their ships and seeing no other hope of safety, 
carned on the fight boldly and faced gallantly their 
death 1n battle, and the Syracusans, with their parents 

and children as spectators of the struggle, ied with 

one another, each man wishing the victory to come 

to his country through his own efforts. 

16. Consequently many leaped on the prows of the 
hostile ships, when their own had been damaged by 
another, and were isolated in the mudst of ther 
enemies. In some cases they dropped grapphng- 
irons ! and forced their adversaries to fight a land- 
battle on their ships. Often men whose own ships 
had been shattered leaped on their opponents' vessels, 
and by slaying the defenders or pushmg them into 
the sea became masters of their triremes. In a word, 
over the entire harbour came the crash of ship strikang 
ship and the cry of desperately strugghng men slaymg 
and bemg slam — For when a ship had been inter- 
cepted by several triremes and struck by then beaks 
from every direction, the water would pour in and 
it would be swallowed together with the entire crew 
beneaththesea Some who would be swimming away 
after their ship had been sunk would be wounded 
by arrows or «lam by the blows of spears The 
pilots, as they saw the confuxon of the battle, every 
spot full of uproar, and often a numbei of ships con- 
verging upon a single one, did not know what signal 
to give, since the same orders were not suitable to all 

* "hueydides (7. 65) states that these were a device of the 
Athenians, against which the Syracusans covered the deck« 


of their ships with hides «o that the grapphng-nons would 
not take hold. 


167 


1 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cvubepóvrow, otre mpós TOUS kecAeÜovras TOUS 
épérag! éveOéyero fAémew O4 r0 mAíjÜos TÀv 
BeAQv — &mÀds O6 TrÓÀv wapayyeMWopévov  oU0eis 
oj0év vjkove TrÀv okaddv ÜOpavouévov kat mapa- 
o'Upop.évaov TÀYy rapa, diua. Dé kal TÍ) Kpavyf) 
Tüv vavpaxoUvrov kGi TOv m0 Tfs Yyüs ovgu- 
diloruuovpévev —— TroÜ yàp atyuAoÜ avrog TO 
péy v0 TOV meLÀv TOv 'Alnvatiov karetyero, 7Ó 
O' OmÓ TrÓv 2vpakoaciov, «oT évore roUs mapá 
T?v yíjv vaupaxotvras Ovpuüyovs Éyew TOUS ÉTL 
Tfs xépcov oTparoweOeVovras | oí OB. émi TÓv 
TeuyQv Ove uév lOowv ToUg iOíovs eUnpepotvras, 
émaudvi,ov, óre O^ éAÀarvTovpévovs, éoTevov kai 
nerà Oaxpücv Tols Ücots mpooq)/yovro.  éviore 
yáp, ei TÜyot, TOv 2ivpakociov Tpvjpov Tapà TÀ 
Te(yn OiadÜeipecÜal -Tivas cvvéBauve, kai -oUs 
(Oiovs év oó0aAuois rÀv ocvyyevàv AvawpetoÜa, 
Kai Üewpetv yovets uév Tékvov àvoeuav, d8eAdàs 
O6 xai yvvaikas üvOpiv kai dO6cÀddv oikrpàv 
karaoTpoo"v. 

iT. dE Oé ypóvov soÀÀQv àmoAAvuévov 
7j uáxxy TéÀos oÀk éAápDavev: o906 yàp ot OMgó- 
pevoi "pos TT)v 'yfjv devyeiw éróNuv — ot uev yàp 
"AÜmvato: TroUs dà$wrauévovs Tífs uáyns kai T[j 
yf TpocvÀéovras Tporcov «6 Ou Tfj yfs eis 
'AÜrvas wÀeÜcou voputLovow, oi 986 meloi cÓv 
Zupakooicov TroUs spoorÀéovras dvékpwov, Oi 
Tí DovAonuévov a)rÓv eis ràs Tpwujpew dufatvew 
k«Avcavres a)roUs uáyeoÜa. vüv mpoói80aot Tiv 
7GTpiód, kai ei 0.& Toro éópafav TO orópua ToD 

! Vogcl's suggestion for érépovs of the MSS. 
? So Wesseling. 7íájs «pavyijs. 


168 


BOOK XIII. 16. 4—17 


situations, nor was 1t possible, because of the mult- i55 
tude of inissiles, for the oa1smen to keep the eyes 
upon the men who gave them their orders In shoit, 
not a man could hear any of the commands annd the 
shatteung of boats and the «sweeping off of oars,! as 
well as amid the upioai of the men in combat on the 
ships and of their zealous comrades on land For 
of the entire beach a part was held by the Athenian 
mfantry and a part by the Syracusans, so that at 
times the men fighüng the sea-battle had as helpers, 
when along the shore, the soldiers hned up on the 
land. The spectators on the walls, whenever they 
saw thex own fighters winning, would sng songs of 
victory, but when they saw them being vanquished, 
they would groan and with tears offer prayers to the 
gods For now and then it happened that some 
Syracusan triremes would be destroyed along the 
walls and their erews slain before the eyes of their 
lansmen, and parents would witness the destruction 
of their ehild1ien, sisters and wives the pitiable end 
of husbands and brothers 

17 For à long time, despite the many who were 
dying, the battle would not come to an end, since not 
even the men who weie in desperate straits would 
daie flee to the land For the Athemans would ask 
those who were breaking off the battle and turning 
to the land, " Do you think to sail to Athens by 
land ? " and the Syracusan aimfantiy would mquire of 
any who were bringing their ships towards them, 
" Why, when we wanted to go aboard the triremes, 
did you prevent us from engaging in the battle, if 
now you are betraying the fatherland ^" " Was the 
reason you blocked the mouth of the harbour that, 


| Ns one shup brushed by another. 
VOL. V G 9 160 


C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Autévos, Ómcs kwAÀjcavres ro)Us moÀentovs aUroi 
deóycow  émi vÓv aiyuaÀóv, kai ToÜ -TeAevráv 
ódeulouévou máaw àvÜpaxrous mrotov Uyroóot kaAAGo 
Üávarov 1) róv ÜDmép Tíjs marp(óos, T|v éxovres 
páprvpa TÓv dycvov aioxypáüs éykaraAevmovow. 
TouuÜ0ra O06 TrÓv dm Tíjs yíjs oTparuworÓOv Oveidi- 
Lóvrov Tois mpoomÀéovot, ot mpós 7o)s avyuaÀoUs 
dzodeUyovres müAw üvéorpedov, kaimep ouvvme- 
TpuLgévas éyovres ràüs vaüs kal )wo TÀv Trpavuá- 
vov karaBapoUnevoi. rv O6 mwapà cyv sóÀw 
kuwvvevóvroy ' AOnvaieov  ékDuaoÜévrow kai mpós 
$vy?fv ópuyoávrov, oi vpocexets àei vOv 'AOm- 
vaitov! évékAwov, kat kar! óMyov &zavres érpámm- 
cav. oi pév oov 23ipakóoto, perà ToÀMaS kpavytis 
kareOLckov Tàs vals émi rv yfjv: vOv 8€ 'A8»- 
vaicv oco. ur?) perécpou GvedÜdpnoav, érel mpós rà 
Bpáxu m"pocmrvéy0ncav, ékmq8Ovres é« TOv veóy? 
eis TÓ melóv orparóTe0ov éjevyov | 0 66 Av 
zÀ"pus Tv ómAov re kai vavayicov, Qs dày 'Arcn- 
«Av uév vedv aàzoAouévev. é£jkovra, sapà 0e àv 
Xopakocoitov ókro év TreÀéos OwedÜapuévov, ék- 
ka(Bexa 0é ovwvrerpwuuévov — oí 86 Xpakóowo 
TüV Te Tpw)pev Ocas 8vvaróv Tv elÀ«ov émi mov 
y'jv, kai roUs TereAevrqKÓTas voÀirag ve kai ovn- 
páxovs àveÀóuevou 9nuooías radijs T"Éiocav. 

18. Ot 9' 'AÜmvato, ovvópagóvres éri ràg TOv 
7yepóvov aoxqvàs é0éovro TÓv orporQyOv, us) 
TÀV veQv, GÀÀà vífjs éavrOv dpovrilew covrqpías. 
AnpocÜévus pév oiv éjw« Oei, AeAvpkévov o0 


1 ràv 'ABnvaiov deleted by Wesseling, Fachstadt. 


b] 


; UTPASROM (from 3 Il. below) after veàv deleted by Din- 
doif. 


17O 


BOOK XIII 4 1—18. ! 


after preventng the enemy from getting out, you 413 5c. 
might yourselves flee to the beach ? " " Smce it is 
the lot of all men to die, what faxer death do you 
seek than dying for the fatherland, which you are 
disgracefully abandomng though you have it as a 
witness of your fighting !" When the soldiers on 
the land hurled such upbraidings at the sailors who 
drew near, those who were fleemng for refuge to the 
beach would turn back agam, even though their ships 
were shattered and thev themselves wee weighed 
down by their wounds But when the Athenians 
who were engaged near the city had been thrust 
back and began to flec. the Athemans next in hne 
gave way from time to time and gradually the whole 
host took to fight — Thereupon the Syracusans with 
great shouting pursued the ships to the land ; and 
those Athenians who had not been «lain out at sea, 
now that they had come to shallow water, leaped 
from the ships and fled to the land troops. And the 
harbour was full of arms and wreckage of boats, since 
of the Attic ships sixty were lost and of the Syracusan 
eight were completely destroyed and sixteen badly 
damaged The Syracusans drew up on the shore as 
many of their tnremes as they could, and talung up 
the bodies of the citizens and alhes who had died, 
honoured them with à pubhe funeral 

18 The Athemans thionged to the tents of their 
commanders and begged the generals to take thought, 
not for the ships, but for the safety of themselves. 
Demosthenes. accordingly, declared that, since the 


3? So Dindorf  erparuoróv. 


L2 


cC 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


(ejyuaros, karà Táxos mÀmpoüv às pujpets, 
kai àzrpooSor)ras émÜepuévovs émyyyéAMero paóíus 
Kpar?oew TÍs empoAfjs- Nuktas 8€ avveBovAeve 
KoraAvróvras Tüs vaüs Ouà TÍj]s pecoyetov' 7pOs 


e" 


Tüs cuppaxibas TróÀeis  avaxopeti. Q mávresg 
Opoyvopioves yevópevou TÓv vedv vwas évémpmoav 
KaL Tà pos Tv üxaAÀayTv vapeokeváCovro. 
Qavepoó 8' Ovros Órw. Trfjs vukrós àvateU£ovow, 
"Eonokpárns cwveBo/UAeve Tots Xvpakooiow éÉ- 
dyew TfSs vukKrÓs d-av TO GTparÓmeO0ov kai Tüàs 
ó000s dmácas TpokoraAaBéc0a.. o) veouévov 
06 rÀv avparqyÓv uà 70 moAÀo)s uév rpavparias 
etvau 7TÀv oTparuorOv, mdvras Ó omo Tíjs Ldyms 
karakómous Ümrdpxew rois copacw, drméoreiué 
Twas TÀv Umméwv émi rv mapeuBoMv rÀv "An- 
vai TOUS épotvras, ÓTL mpoomeoráAkagw ot 
2iupa«óctot TOUS Tàs O00Us kai ToUs érrukauporárovs 
TrÓmOvs TpokaraAmbopévovs.  mowjcávrow à TrÓÀv 
UmrTécv TÓ TpocoTayÜév jm vukrOs oves, oi uév 
"AOnvaiot vopuicavres rv XAeovrivov Twüs elvai 
ToUs Ov eUvouav ümQyyeAkóras, OverapáyÜmoav o) 
pukpos «aL v)v &maÀÀaymv jmepéÜevro: dumep) el 
wy) vaperpotiotnoav, do$aAds àv éxopioÜncav. 
ot pév otv Lupakóawi T's T)képas Umodookosars 
ànéoreiav TOUS mpokaraAplop.évovs TÀ eTevómopa 
TÓV OOdv- ot Ge rív "A8nvaicov erpomyoi OLeAó- 
j.evot To)s ocTpüTiOTAGs cis Ojo uépm, kal Tà pév 
ckevoóópa kai To)s dopooTovs eis pécov Aafóv- 


1 xopas after peco'yetov deleted by Vogel. 
*? $0 Wesseling: ómep. 


BOOK XIII. 18. 1-6 


buiiier of boats had been broken, they should straight- 412 s« 
way man the triremes, and he expressed the behef 
that, 1f they dehvered an unexpected attack, they 
would easily succeed m their design! But Ni1cas 
advised thav they leave the ships behind and with- 
draw through the interior to the cities which were 
their alhes. "This plan was agreed to by all, and they 
burned some of the ships and made preparations for 
the retreat 

When it was evident that the Athenians were going 
to withdraw during the night, Hermociates advised 
the Syracusans to lead forth their entire iumy imn the 
night and seize all the roads beforehand — And when 
the generals would not agiee to this, both because 
many of the soldiers were wounded and because all 
of them were worn-out in body from the fighting, 
he sent some of the horsemen to the camp of the 
Athenians to tell them that the Syracusans had 
already dispatched men to seize 1n advance the roads 
and the most important positions. It was already 
nighi when the horsemen cained out these orders, 
and the Athenians, believing that 1t was men from 
Leontim who out of goodwill had brought them the 
word, were not a httle disturbed and postponed the de- 
paiture— If they had not been deceived by this trick, 
they would have got safely away. The Syracusans 
at daybieak dispatched the soldiers who were to seize 
1n advance the narrow passes 1n the roads — And the 
Atheman generals, dividing the «soldieis ito two 
bodies, put the pack-animals and the sick and injured 
in the centre and stationed those who were in con- 


! 'Ihucydides (7. 72) states that Nicias agreed to this plan, 
but gave it up when the sailors, after their hard beating, 
refused to man the ships. 


173 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


res, TOUsg 0é Óvvapuévovs uáxeo0as mponyetoÜDos ial 
o)payetv rá£avres, mpoyjecav émi Karávgs, àv uv 
AnuocÜévovs, Gv 06 Nucov kaÜwyovuévcov 

19 Qr 86 Xvpakóotot mevrrkovra. uév Tàs kaca- 
AeióÜeicas vabs dvaápevow karüyayov eis Tiv 
TóÀw, ékfwBdcavres 8' éx vOv cpvípow dmavras 
«di kaÜomAicavres, perà smáons Tf Ovvdueos 
7oÀoUOovv rots ' AÜnvaiow, é£azróuevoi kal Ba8L- 
bew eis ToUmpoaÜ0ev Owukciovres. | émi vpeis 8! 
Thépas émakoÀovÜotvres Kal mavroyóUev mepi- 
Aap.Bávovres" daetpyov eüÜvmopetv mpós T])v ovp- 
paxov  Karávqv, vaAwoO(av 86 karavaykácavres 
owjcacÜa, Oià cob 'EAwpíov meBiov, mpós T 
"Aewdpo orauQ epuvkAdooavres  dmékrewav 
uev. wupiovs ókrakwyiMovs, élypnoav 8e émra- 
Kw0xiALoUs, év ois xol ro); oTporyyo)Us Awuo- 
cOévqv kai Nuíav: oi 88 Aowmrol BwmpmáoÜncay 
ómÓ rÓv oTporuorOv. oi yàp 'AÜqvaio. mávro- 
Ü«v ürrokAetouévns. Tíjs acrypías vaykácÜUnoav rà 
ómÀa. kat éavro)s mapaBoÜvot ots vroAejote. — ToU- 
rcv 86 mpaxÜévrow oi Xvpakóow orácavres Bio 
Tpórraua., kat à Tv orparydv ómÀa srpós ékárepoy 
7pocqÀdoavres, dvéorpeiav eis )v móAw. 

Tóre uév o$v rois 0cots éÜvoav movBnuel, TfÓ 
9' jorepaíg ovvaxÜcions ékkAyoías éBovAedovro 
"ÓÀS xp")covra. To(s atyuaAorots. AwokAfjs 8é 
Ts, TOv ÓnuayovyGv évüofóraros dv, dmednjvaro 
yvápmv às 8éo. roós uév orparwyoUs rÓw "A05- 

* So Madvig * mpoAaguflávovres. 


? ókrakiaxiMovs, éGdyypocav 86 omitted PF, 
174 


BOOK XIII. 18 6—19 4 


dition to fight 1n the van and the rear, and then set 413 s.c. 
out for Catane, Demosthenes commanding one group 
and Nicias the other. 

19 The Syracusans took in tow the fifty ships left 
behind * and brought them to the city, and then, 
taking off all the crews of their triremes and providing 
them with arms, they followed after the Athenians 
with their entre armament, harassing them and 
hinderng their forward progress — For three days 
following close on their heels and encompassing them 
on all ades they prevented them from taking a direct 
road toward Catané, their ally ; instead they com- 
pelled them to retrace their steps through the plam of 
Elorium, and surrounding them at the Asmarus River, 
slew eighteen thousand and took captve seven 
thousand, among whom were also the generals Demo- 
sthenes and Nicias. "The remainder were seized as 
their plunder by the soldiers ?; for the Athenians, 
since their escape was blocked in every direction, were 
obhged to surrender their weapons and their persons 
tothe enemy. After thus had taken place, the Syra- 
cusans set up two trophies, naiing to each of them 
the arms of a general, and turned back to the city. 

Now at that time the whole city of Syracuse offered 
sacrifices to the gods, and on the next day, after the 
Assembly had gathered, they con«dered what dis- 
position they should make of the captives. .À man 
named Diocles, who was a most notable leader of 
the populace, declared his opmion that the Athemian 


| By the Athenians 

? —'The. seven. thousand weie formally suirrendered. and 
became prisoneis of the state , the others were taken by the 
soldiers as their individual captives, either befoie the formal 
2 d 01 after, as they were picked up over the country- 
side 


175 


t3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vaav per GLKLOS aveActv, ros Ó. GAovs aixpua.- 
Acrovs év pev TÓ mapóvri TeUfivas Távras eis ràs 
AaTojtas, perà 82 raóra Tos uév cvpuioxnjoawras 
Tols ' AÜnvatois AadopomrcAijaas, ToUs O' 'Afm- 
vatous épyalouévovs év TQ Oeopornpip AauBávew 
dÀóíirov 9O/o kor/^as. avavyvaxaÜévros O6 ToD 
Vmbtapiaros "Eppiorpárus mapeAgcv eis TY)»V ekg- 
ciav éveyetpeu Àéyew, cs káAMóv éori ToU vikGv 
TÓ Tv vücv cveyrceiy avOpermriveis ÜDopvBotvros 
96 roO Or)ov kai TT) Onpumyyopéav ox D7OLévovros, 
NuóAaós TS, éarepnpévos év TÓ TOÀ equp Ovetv 
viQv, dàvéDBawev émi v0 Dua karexyópevos mo 
TÀV oikerQv Oi TO 'yfjpas: óv «cs eiOev Ó ofjuos, 
éAnée ToU BopUfov,. voptboov kormyoprjoew TÓV 
QLX LG Àc)T GV yevop.évys oov atrríis 0 mpeoDuUrepos 
évreüUev Tip£auro rÀv Aóyov. 

20. TOv xarà TÓv vóAeuov àrvxnudTcv, dvopes 
2yupakóctow, pépos oük éAáywoTov éyo peréoynka: 
Ovetv yàp viv yevópevos TaT)p é£émeuba puév 
aDTOUS eis TOv Ümép Tüjs marpíGos kívOvvov, bme- 
Gefáumv 8' àvr^ abrÓv dyyeMav T) TOv éxkelvovw 
Ü&varov éuvvev. Ou kat kaÜ' zuépav éminráv 
ryv cvuBiooiw xat Tr)v TeÀevrv ávaAoyilÓpevos, 
éKetvovs uév pakapiGo, róv épavroO 86 Biov éAeó, 
TüvrOGv TyyoUnevos etva, OvorvyéoraTos. | éketvoi 
Uév yàp TOv OjeAóuevov Trà dioe. Üávarov «cis 
maTpios owTn0püay avaAdioayres aÜávorrov cavráv 
90£av karaAeAoimaaw, €yo O0. émi míjs coxérs 
TÀutas épnuos cv TÀv Üepamevaóvrov TÓ yÍíjpas 


! So Wesseling (ep Thuc. 7.97. 9 3 Plut. IN2c. 29. 1) xotvucas. 
ayr. added by Reiske. 
176 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ i / [4 ) 
OvrÀoUv éyw TÓ mévÜos, rcv ovyyéveiwv apa kai 


5 A 5 — Uu A , 7 ? À / 
i£ a pemmv émiUmTOv  0g« "yàp eUyevéorepov éTeAeU- 


ca 


Tgoav, TocoUr« woleworépav T?v vmép a)rÀv 
pvüumv koraAÀeÀoínaow.  «kórcs oÜv puoóÓ ToUs 
' AÜmvalovs, 8v. éxetvovs oUx v0 rÀv rékvow, àAN 
ÜmÓ oikerÓv, ds Óp&re, yewarywryoUjuevos. €i pev 
ov Ócpov, & dvOpes Ziwpakóoto,, rTv TapoÜcav 
5 7 M e 3 » / , / * 
éveorqkéva,. BovX?v jmnép "AOmgvatov, eikóTcs àv 
Kai O6.à Tàs kowds Tíje ToTpüGos ovjjopàs kai 
Ouà vás iO(íags drvyías miKkpOs Qv a)Tois Tpoc- 
QvéyÜqv: émei 8' dua T mpÓs roUs v)rvymkÓTas 
&Aép xpivera, TÓ 7€ kowij ovudépov kai t) mpós 
dmravras üvÜpomovus Omép TroÜ O)uov TOv Ivpa- 
kog&ov éfeveyÜncouévg Oó£a, aképauov movijcouat 
T?v ToÜ cv épovros avufovAGav 

21. 'Ü puév ov Ófjuos TOv 'AOqvaicv Tíjs (Gas 
àvoias Gàé(av kekópuoTau. Twucopiav, TpdTov ev 
vOpà Üedv, uerà, 8é rabra. map. Tuv rv dOum- 
Üévrov.  ayaÜóv yáp éor. vO Üctov rovs GOikov 
TOoÀéuov karapxouévouvs kai Tv aóTOv. Ümepoy"v 
oUk éveykóvras àvÜpormivess dveXmiorows Trepula.- 
Àeiv ovupQopats  Trís yàp àv rjAmwoev 'AÜnvaiovs, 
pépua pév eiàmdóras éx« AjÀov ráAavra, Tpvípets 
8€ Ouakootas eig 3ukeAiav àzeovaAkóras kai TroUg 
dyevico|évovs àvOpas wAÀeiovs TÓv Terpakwv- 
piv, ores neydÀaus ovpdopais sepureoctoÜa; 
üTO yàp Tüjs TqÀwaUTrQ)S mapackevís oüre vaüg 
oUr' àvijp oUÜeis émavíjM0ev, dore wn8é mróv dyy«- 


4 Aoürra aDrots T?v ovujopàv mepuÀAewdÜ voa. | ciSó- 


! 8o Stephanus * amv. 


BOOK XIII. 20 3—21. 4 


twofold soriow, m that it 1 both the cluldien of my 425« 
own body and their valour that I muss. PYorthe more 
gallant their death, the more poignant the memory 
of themselves they have left behimd. I have good 
reason, then, for hating the Athenians, since it is 
because of them that I am bemg guided here, not by 
my own sons, but, as you can see, by slaves. Now 
if I perceived, men of Syracuse, that the matter 
under discussion was merely a decision affecting the 
Athenmans, I with. good reason, both because of the 
misfortunes of our county, shaxed by all, and because 
of my personal afflicons, should have dealt bitterly 
with them ; but since, along with conaideration of the 
pity which 15 shown to unfortunates, the question at 
issue concerns both the good of the State and the 
fame of the people of the Syracusans which will 
be spread abroad to all mankind, I shall direct my 
proposal solely to the question of expediency. 

21. " The people of the Athenians have received 
à punmshment their own folly deserved, fust of all 
from the hands of the gods and then from us whom 
they had wronged. Good it is mmdeed that the deity 
involves in unexpected disasters those who begin an 
unjust war and do not bear their own superionty as 
men should For who could have expected that the 
Athemans, who had removed ten thousand talents ! 
from Delos to Athens and had dispatched to Sicily 
two hundred tiiremes and more than forty thousand 
men to fight, would ever suffer disasters of such 
magnitude ? for from the preparations they made 
on such a scale not a ship, not a man has returned 
home, so that not even a survivor is left to carry to 
them word of the disaster. Knowing, therefore, men 


! Given as * some eight thousand " in. Book 12. 38. 2. 


179 


c1 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tes ov, dvOpes Xipakóoatot, ToUs Üvepudavoüvras 
vapà Ücois kai map' àvÜpoyrots [jucovjiévovs, Tpoa- 
kvvoüvres T)v TUxywyv uwyÜév omép dvÜporrov mpdá- 
£wre. Tí yàp aepwóv doveücat róv vmomemroxkóra ; 
Ti O évy8ofov mwipía mepuBaAetv; O0 yàp àperá- 
Üerov éycov Tv mepi rÀv arvynuárov! cpuórwqTa 
cvvaQucet Trjv. kowrlv àvÜpcmrev àcÜévevav. | os0eis 
yáp éorw oUrc ópówwos core ueitov LoxÜoa Tfjs 
TÜY)s, 3) dioe. rats aàvÜpoviveus 70ouévy ocup- 
dopats ofeías Tíjs eüOmuiovías cow ràs perofBoAds. 
'Epoóci Tiwes lows, TOUxQoav kai rfs kar. aU- 
TÓV Tu&Acpias €xopev TT)v éfovoíav. oUkobv mapáà 
pev ToU Óvuov moAÀamAacíav ciMjdore Tuwopiav, 
mTapü Ó6 rÀv aiyuaAoTov ikavryv éyere kóÀaotw; 
vapéónkav yàp éavro)s perà TOv OmÀcv mioTEU- 
cavres Tfj TOV kparoovrov eOyvopoo)vy: Owmep 
oUK ü£iov abro0s Tíjs Terépas VevoÜfvoi duA- 
avÜpwmias oi puév ov üperáÜerov T)v é€yÜpav 
QvAárrovres payópevou rereAevrkacw, oi Ó. éav- 
TOUS ")uiv éyyewicavres àvri voÀeuv yeyóvaociw 
(kérüt. ob yàp év rais uáyous Tots évavriow TÀ 
copuara éyyeupilGovres ém éAmióu oorrmpias Tobro 
vpáTTovow- et 86 mwoTeUoavres Tuuoptas TreU£ovrat 
TrÀwasrT)s, ot j.&v aÜóvres avaBéfovra. T)v ovp- 
$opdv, ot 86 mpd£avres dyvopuoves àv kÀwÜetev. 
1 


«ai after omepoóavobtvras omitted PÁÀ 
* Vogel suggests 5ruxukórov. 





! Jaterally ** do an injustice to." (The '* weakness " of 
mankind lies in their being subject to the whim of Fortune. 
The conqueror of to-day may to-morrow be pleading for 


180 


BOOK XIII. 21. 4-7 


of Syracuse, that the arrogant are hated among gods 413 ».c 
and men, do you, humblng yourselves before Fortune, 
commit no act that 1$ beyond man's powers. What 
nobihty is there 1n slaymg the man who hes at your 
feet? What glory 1s there in wrealung vengeance on 
him? He who maintams bis savagery unalterable 
amid human muisfortunes also fails to take proper ac- 
count ! of the common weakness of mankind. For no 
man is so wise that his strength can prevail over For- 
tune, which of 1ts nature finds delight in the sufferings 
of men and works swift changes 1n prosperity 

'* Some, perhaps, will say, ' They have committed 
à wrong, and we have the power to punish them. 
But have you, then, not infhcted à many times greater 
punishment on the Athenian people, and are you not 
satsfied with your chastisement of the prisoners ? 
For they have surrendeied themselves together with 
their arms, trusting in the reasonableness of their con- 
querors ; 1t 15, therefore, not seemly that they should 
be cheated of our expected humaneness — For those 
who maintamed unalte1able their enmaty toward us 
have died fighting, but these who dehvered themselves 
into our hands have become supplints, no longer 
enemies lor those who in battle deliver their 
persons into the hands of their opponents do so in 
the hope of saving their hves ; and should the men 
who have shown this trust receive «o severe a pum«h- 
ment, though the victims will accept their misfortune, 
yet the punisheis would be called hard-heaited — Bul 


mercy from to-day's conquered. We should not shut our 
eyes to the universal law that a turn of l'otune may make 
the weak strong, the unfortunate favoured of Fortune The 
same thought recurs twice infra, chap. 24. 4 (áóuetv) and 6 
(Ómepópovetv Tv dvÜpwmivqv àg0éveiav), where the róle of 
Fortune in the affairs of men 1s specifically mentioned. 


181 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8 Oct 06 roUs Tís Tyyepovías GvTVmrOLOUJAÉVOUS , 2 &vüpes 


9 


es 


3 


:: 


Ó 


Xvpakóotot, LuT, obras Tots ómÀots éavroUs icyupoUs 
Ru eS TOUS rpórrous emieucels zapéyeoÜa,. 

. Ot yàp ororeraygévot TOUS puév dópo kar- 
Loyovras «auporQpüjcavres áp)vovra,. uà TO pi- 
gos, ro)s àé diAavÜpasmeos djxyyovjiévovs BeBatcos 
dyamüvres del cvaeovat TV yepovtaw. TL 
kaBeie TV Myjev àpy"yv; T) mpós TOUS TOTTEwWO- 
Tépovs euór1s dzooTávTOV yàp llepov ka 
rà, rÀetara TOv éÜvàv avveréÜero. ms yàp Kópos 
é£ iBwuorov Tíjs 'Áo(as oÀns éBao(Aevoe, Tfj wpos 
roUg kKpornÜévras «Oyvcopocóvg. | Kpotcov yàp 
róv DBaciAéa AaBov eiyudÀoTrov ovy Os TÓL- 
kncoecv, GÀÀÀ kai mpocevnpyérnoev: mapomAnoios 
8é ka, rots GÀAots DaciAeÜüct re kal Oro: Trpoc- 
qvéx8n. TovyapoGy OuaBoUelons eis TávTO TÓTOV 
TfS "uepórros Gmravres oí Karà T)v ' Áo(av GAMj- 
ous $Üdvovres eis T?v Tob DBaoiMos ovupuaxiav 


.Trüpeyivovro. 


l4 Aéywo Trà pakpàv kai Tómotis kai xypóvois 
&$eoTrqukóTa;  kard yàp Tv Tierépav móAw oU 
máAai l'éAev é£ ióubrov Tíjs ZukeMas ons 7| Ty €p0V 
€yévero, TÓV mróAeav éxovg(ws eis TV e&ovoiay 
éketvov mraporyevopiévav TpoGekaAetro yàp 7) Tày- 
Ópós émueikeua mávras avÜporrovs, Tv eis TOUS 
Trvxukóras cwyyvoypnv mpooAofoóga." amr ékei- 
vav oOv Tv xpóvav Tfs karà 2ukeAGav *) Tyyepiovías 
iis diri od Tf] móÀeos, ur) karappülcpev TOv 


! So Reiske: yvopy. ? So Wessehlng : vpooflaAooa 





Kang of Persia, 350—529 s.c. 
" General" of Syracuse, 485—478 s.c — For his great 
vietory over the Carthaginians at Himera see Book 11. 22 ff, 


182 


(t mj 


BOOK XIII. 21 8—22 5 


those who lay clamm to leadership, men of Syracuse, a2 2c 
should not strive to make themselves strong in arms so 
much as they should show themselves reasonable in 
their character. 

22. '" The fact 1s that subject peoples bide their 
time against those who dominate them by fear and, 
because of their hatred, retahate upon them, but they 
steadfastly chensh those who exercise their leader- 
ship humanely and thereby always aid them umm 
strengthening their supremacy — What destroyed the 
kingdom of the Medes? Ther brutahty toward the 
weaker. For after the Perszans revolted fiom them, 
their kingdom was attacked by most of the nations 
also. Else how did Cyrus ! rise from private citizen 
to the langship over all of Asa? By his congderate 
treatment of the conquered — When, for example, he 
took King Cioesus captive, far from doing him any 
injustice he actually became his benefactor ; and in 
much the same way did he also deal with all the other 
kmgs as wellas peoples | Ása consequence, when the 
fame of his clemency had been spread abroad to every 
region, all the inhabitants of Asia vied with one 
another in entenung into alhance with the king 

" But why do I speak of thmmgs distant m both 
place and time ? In this our city, not long since, 
Gelon? rose from private cizen ? to be lord of the 
whole of Sally, the cities wilhngly putting themselves 
under his authonty; for the fewness of the man, 
combmed with his sympathy for the unfortunate, 
drew all men to him. And smnee from those times 
our city has laxd claim to the leadership in Sicily, let 
us not bring into disrepute the fair name our ancestors 


3 Not stiictly true, since Gelon was tyrant of Gela when 
he was called to Syracuse by the aristocratic party. 


183 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ünép TÓV mpoyóvv érauvov, po  éavroUs Ünpu- 
Oewg Kai dmrapowrijrovs mpós àvÜp«mrivqv. àrvyxtav 
map&oxapev. o) yàp mpocke Ootva, TQ $U6vo 
«aD zpàv ádopujv eimrely os vatis e?ruxobuer 
KaÀóv yàp kai TO TÍjs TÓXTS ávrumporrovons €yeuv 
roUs cvvaAyrcovras kai máAw év rois karopÜo- 
Lacu To)s TjOopévovs. TQ Lév o)v £v rois ÓmAows 
mÀeovekrYuama. TÓyv kai koupQ) kpiverau roAÀákis, 
5 9 év vais eÓnpa£íow Tuepóros iOuv éori om- 
Létov Tfjs rÓv e)0rvyo)vrow àperijs. 9010 ur) d0o- 
vjoqre Tf mavpióu. mepipónrov yevéo0a,  mapá 
müciw àvÜpeyrows órv rovs 'AÜmvatovs évikqaev o) 
póvov Toils ÓmÀow, àÀÀà kai Tfj diAavÜOpermiq. 
davrjaovrat yàp oi! TÓV doy bmrepéyew fjepó- 
TÜTL GeLVvvÓUevot 7f) map Tv | eoyvc)uoovy 
moÀvcpoUpevoi, kaL ot mrpórot Bopov eAéov ka- 
(6pvcáuevo, ToUÜrov év Tfj vóÀe. rÀv 2wpakooiov 
eóprjmovow. é£ dv müociv éorat Qavepóv s éketvoi 
p&v Sukaies éoódáAqcav, Queis 9' àfies m)rv- 
x"jcoj.ev, etzep oi pév ToLoUrovus dOwketv émeyei- 
pucav oit kai mpós ToUs éxyÜpoós eOyvcóvnoav, 
Queis 8é rowo/Tovs Éévucoapev oi xai Tots ToO0Àe- 
pucrárow pepiLovou TOv €Àeov éróAugcav émiov- 
Ae8caw coe uw) uóvov Dró rÀv dAAov kornyopíias 
Tvyyávew To)s 'ÁÜmvaiovs, dÀAà kai avToUs £av- 
TÜV küTaywcOOcKew, ei ToLovrovs üvOpas üOuceiv 
évexetpnoav. 

28. KaAóv, à üvópes 3wpakóoiot, karápéaoÜa, 

* ot added by Rhodoman. 





| [t was a boast of the Athemans that their city had always 
184 


BOOK XIII. ?2. 5—23 1 


won nor show ourselves brutal and mmplacable toward 113 »«. 
human muisfortune. Indeed idt 1s not fitüing to give 
envy an occasion to criticize us by saying that we 
make an unworthy use of our good fortune ; for 1t 1s 
a fine thing to have those who will grieve with us 
when Fortune 1s adverse and rejoice in turn at our 
successes. The advantages which are won m arms 
are often determined by Fortune and opporiumty, 
but clemency amid constant success 13 a distinctive 
mark of the virtue of men whose affairs prosper Do 
not, therefore, begrudge our country the opportunity 
of being acclaimed by all mankind, because it has 
surpassed the Athenians not only in feats of arms 
but also in humamty. For it will be manifest that 
the people who vaunt ther supenority to all otheis 
in civihzation have received by our kindness all con- 
sideration, and they who were the first to raise an altar 
to Mercy ! will find that mercy in the eity of the Syra- 
cusans From this it. will be clear to all that thev 
suffered a Just defeat and we enjoyed a deserved 
success, if 1t so be that, although they sought to 
wrong men who had t1ieated with landness even their 
foes, we, on the contrary, defeated men who ventured 
treacherously to attack a people which shows mercy 
even to its bitterest enemies. — And so the Athenians 
would not only stand aecused by all the world, but 
even they themselves would condemn themselves, 
that they had undertaken to wrong such men 

93 '' À fine thing 1t 15, men of Syracuse, to take 
been a refuge foi the distressed, such a5 Orestes and Oedipus 
and the children of Heracles, The altar of Meicy and its 
grove were well known to the ancient world and are described 
at length 1n one of the more famous passages of the 7'hebaid 


(19. 481-511, tr in the L C.L.) of Statius, who calls it the 
altar of '* gentle Clemency " 


185 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/ M ^ ^ , / 2Aé / 0 
diMas, kai T TÓV T")rvynkórov éAéc oameicaoÜa. 
M 7 Ó ^ A N A M A /À 
1v Ouaopdv — Bet yàp T? uév mpós Tro)s QiÀovs 
3 / A A M M 
eüvouav dÜávarov d$vÀárrew, T? Bé mpós co)s 

» 4 M / 
évavriovus éyÜpav Üvwrwáv: ovrw yàp ocvufnjoera. 
/ A 
ros qév cuppáxovs vyiveoÜau mÀelovs, To)s 96 
/ E / 3 N M ?»/ 
moÀeutovs éAdrrovs. TT|v 86 Ova opàv aiovov ua- 
/ LARES) 
óvÀdrTovras mapaóióóvau Traci mO4Ócv oUT eU- 
5 / Mj c ^ 
ywwov oUTe QGgQaÀés: éviore yàp oi Ookobtvres 
ÜTepéyew év pom) koupoU rÓÀv mpórepov ÜToTeTTO- 
kórQv àcÜevéorepo, ytvovrou. | naprvpest O. O v6v 
/ 
yevójevos TóÀenos: oi yàp émi moMopkía apa- 
» / 
yevópevou kai Ou T'?v Dmepoyvv dmoreuicavres 
^ / 7 
T2v TÓAw ék geraBoMjs aiyuáAwoTrow yeyóvaouw, 
cs Óp&áre. KaÀÓv otv év rais rÀv GÀAcv drvxíoaus 
/ 
Tj.épous davévras érowuuov éyew TOv mapà mávrov 
LÁ ?7 / ^ 2 / M 
&Aeov édv vv ovufaiv rÀv àvÜpwmiweov. oA 
yàp o Bíos €ye« mwapáóofa, ocráoews morus, 
AnoTeias, moÀéLovs, év ots o9 páOwv Oudbebyew 


M / LÁ » / ? A M 
4 TÓv kivOvvov &vÜpcomov Óvra.  Otówep ei TÓV mpOs 


A 


iod 


TOUS ÜmovemrOoKkÓóTas 6CÀeov ámokójojuev, mikpóv 
xa" éavrOv vóuov Ücouev eig &mavra róv aióva. 
o) yàp óvvaTrOv roUs GÀÀow avguépcs ypucap.évovs 
abroUs wap' érépov Tvuxéiv more duavÜporras, 
dAÀÀous Te' mpáfavras Oewà «aÜeiv eDyvopova 
xai vapà rovs rÀv 'EAAX«vcw é0Lcjo0s Tocovrovs 
&vüpas dovecavras év rais ToU Diov nerafloAaots 
émiBo&oÜa. rà kowdü mávrev vópuua. Ts yàp 
"EAXjwev To)bs zapa8óvras éavroUs kai Tfj TÓV 
! gAAovs re Wesseling, o286 Bhodoman, xai Dindoif, àAM 


186 


BOOK XIII. 23. 1-5 


the lead in estabhshing a fnendship and, by showing 412 s.c. 
miercy to the unfortunate, to make up the quarrel. 
For goodwill toward our fuends should be kept im- 
penshable, but hatred toward our enemies perishable, 
since by this practice it will come about that one's 
alhes increase 1n number and one's enemies decrease. 
But for us to maintain the quarrel forever and to pass 
it on to childien's children 15 nexther kindly nor safe ; 
since it sometimes happens that those who appear 
to be more powerful turn out to be weakei by the de- 
cision of a moment than their former subjects. Anda 
witness to thus is the war which has just now ceased : 
The men who came here to lay siege to the aity and, 
by means of their superior power, threw a wall about 
it have by a change in fortune become captives, as 
youcansee. Itisa fme thing, therefore, by showing 
ourselves lement anud the misfortunes of other men, 
to have reserved for us the hope of mercy from all 
men,1n case some 1ll befall us of such as come to mortal 
men. Formany are the unexpected things hfe holds 
—evie strifes, robberies, wars, amid which one may 
not easily avoid the penl, being but human. | Conse- 
quently, 1f we shall exclude the thought of mercy for 
the defeated, we shall be setting up, for all time to 
come, a harsh law agamst ourselves — For it 15 1m- 
possible that men who have shown no compasson for 
others should themselves ever receive humane treat- 
ment at the hands of another and that men who have 
outraged others should be treated indulgently, or 
that we, after murdering so many men contrary to 
the traditions of the Greeks, should 1m the reveisals 
which attend hfe appeal to the usages common to all 
mankimd. For what Greek has ever judged that 
those who have surrendered themselves and put 


187 


L2 


c2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kporoUvra e)yva)ogtvy muoTeUoavras amapavrij- 
TOU TUACpUAS rj&icoev, * q) Tis Jrrrov Tob pév cpuob 
TÓV (eov, Tíjs O6 mpomereias T?» | eoAdpeiuav 
COXT)K€v, 

24. IIdvres Ó€ &vaTetvovrau uev TpÓS TOUS vTi- 
TOT TOUÉVOUS, eikoucu Oé Tos bmomerreokóaw, 2 
uev Ty rÓÀuav korrazmovotvres , Qv óc TV GrrUX iQ 
oikreipovres. Üpaoerau. yàp TjiOv O Üvisos óTrav 
Ó mpórepov exÜpós (y ek perapoXMis i Akérrs yevó- 
p.evos omopévy vaÜetv ór. àv Ookfj Tois kparobow. 
dAtokovra, 0 , otjou, TOv Tuépov àvópóv ac wv- 
yat j.dÀLoTd. Tc$ éÀéq Ou mT]v owrv 7fjs $ioecs 
oponáÜeuav. "'AÜqvatou yàp «arà Tov lleAosrovvy- 
ciaKÓv TOÀepov eis rT)v 219akr pav vfjoov vroÀAoUs 
TrÓÀv AaxeOauuLoviov karakKAe(oavres kai AaBóvres 
atypaAcrrovs ámeA)rpoocav Tots 2xrapriáTatg.  Trá- 
Àw AakeBauuóviou zroAAoUs TÀv ' AÜmvaicov kai TÀv 
cuuuáxov aipaAorwudpuevow vapavAqotos éxpí;- 
cavro. Kai KaA|Ss  Apdórepo rabT. ,empagav.. et 
yàp TOÍS -EAAnat TV exÜpav etvat HEX. Tfje vikmns, 
kai KoAá&Gew uéxpv ToU kparífjoaL TÓV évavriov. o 
Oé mepavrépo TOv Ümomecóvra kai vwpós Tv ToU 
Kparoüvros eUyvcouooUvrv Trpoooevyovra ruuopo)- 
pevos oUkér, Tv. éyÜpóv koAdLei, rroÀ) 86 uGAAov 
àóucet Trv. àvÜpcmivqv &cÜéveiav. | eiroi? yàp. &v 
TLS$ TpÓós TT TOÜ TOLODTOU okAnpórrra TÀS TÓV 
záÀat coo &moóáocets, avÜpcone, pi neya ópóvet, 
yvà6, cavróv, (Bé Tiv TÓXTv ámávrov oócav kvpíav. 
Tivos yàp xápi oi mpóyovo, rávrov TOv "EAMjvov 

* So Hertlein . 7£iootv. 
? $0 Hertlein, ebzev P, eize other MSS. 


! Cp. Book 12. 61 ff. 





188 


BOOK XIII 23. 5—234 5 


their trust 1n the kindness of their conquerors are de- 3 sc 
serung of implacable pumshment? or who has ever 

held mercy less potent than cruelty, precaution than 
rashness ? 

24. " All men sturdily oppose the enemy which is 
lined up for battle but fall back when he has sur- 
rendered, wearing down the hardihood of the former 
and showing pity for the musfortune of the latter 
For our ardour 1s broken whenever the former enemy, 
having by a change of fortune become a suppliant, 
submuis to suffer whatever suits the pleasure of his 
conquerors. And the spirits of civihzed men are 
gnripped, I beheve. most perhaps by mercy, because 
of the sympathy which nature has planted in all. 
The Athenians, for example, although in the Pelo- 
ponnesian War they had blockaded many Lacedae- 
monians on the island of Sphacteria ! and taken them 
captive, rcleased them to the Spaitans on payment 
ofransom |. Onanothe: occasion the Lacedaemonians, 
when they had taken prisoner many of the Athemans 
and ther allies, disposed of them in the same manner. 
And 1n so doing they both acted nobly. For hatred 
should exist between Greeks only until victory has 
been won and punishment only untl the enemy 
has been overcome. | ÀÁnd whoever goes faither and 
wreaks vengeance upon the vanquished who flees for 
refuge to the lemency of his conqueror 15 no longer 
pumshig his enemy but, fai more, 15 guilty of 
an offence agamst human weakness For agam«t 
harshness such as this one may mention the adages 
of the wise men of old |. ' O man. be not high- 
spinted '; ' Know thyself'; 'Obseive how Fortune 
is lord of all. For what reason did the ancestors- 
of all the Greeks ordam that the trophies sete 


L2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


E L | Y/ 
dy Tas a rà qróAeguov vücaus karéóe£av o) Ouà Adcov, 
^ e / M 
&uà 86 vrÀv rvyóvrov fUÀwv i(oravau rà TpOmaua; 
7 e / / ? 
áp" o9y Om«s oAyov xpóvov Quagévovra, raxécs àa- 
V 3 / / 5 
vibgra. và Tís ÉyÜpas )mourüuara,  kaÜóAov Ó 
E / 
ci uév aióviov loraoÜo. v)jv Owdopàv BovAco0«, 
páÜere Tv ávÜporrivqv üo0éveav. omepopovotvres 
T^ ^ / ^ 
eis yàp kawós kai Bpaxeta pomi) rUX"s$ Tamewoi 
/ 
voAÀÀdkius ToUs Dmeprávovs. 
295. Et 9', OÓmep «ikós éort, ma/ocoÜc oAe- 
^ / ^ ^ 
potvres, riva. kaÀAUo aupóv ebpicere ToÜ vüv 
Ürápxovros, év à TT]v vpós ToUs émroukóras duÀav- 
1 ^ / / M 
Üpcmíav ádopudv rf duiMas mowjoecÜe; ur yàp 
y 1 ^ "AQ / on À / ? 0 
oteaÜe róv rÀv 'AOqvaiv Sfjuov TeAéos é£no0evn- 
Kéva, Ou Tr)v év £ukeÀógm ovpoopáv, ós kparet 
^ ^ N N *"EAA 16 / c ^ 
OXc00v rÓV T€ kaTQ, TT]V doa vrjoc«cv qdGmacOv 
kai Tfs mapaAcov Tíjs re karà T)v EopomwWv koi 
Tv 'ÀÁocüav €yeu TT)v T)yejioviav — icai yàp Trpórepov 
vepi T)v AbyvmTOV TpiuKkoo(as Tpwupeus aDrávOpous 
GToÀécas TOv 8okoÜvra kparetv BaouAéa avvÜrikas 
doxy"ovas vrowty Tváykaoce, kat máÀw Ovó Eépéov 
^ / 3 ^ 
TÓs TóÀeos karackaoetons per! oÀCyov küketvov 
35^ M ^ *EAA tÓ M e / ? / 
évíknoe kai Tfs áOos TT)v "yejvoviav é«rYjcaro. 
M ^ 
&yaÜT, yàp 7") móAu év vois peylorow  árvy"uact 
peytarQv éziboow Aapetv xai wn8émore ramewóv 
0e À / Ü Ao ^ 5 M ^ A x 
unOév DovAeUeaÜat. «aAÀÓv oiv àvri roO 77v éyÜpav 
émaifew cvuudxovs aDroUs €yew dewcapévovs TOv 
aiypaAc rwv.  üveAóvres uév yàp aóro)s rQ Üvpà 
póvor xapuoUpueÜa, riv dxapmov émÜvuiav éxrÀg- 
^ / ^ ^ 
potvres, QvÀá£avres 0é mapà uev v&v eO mallóvrcw 


* Around Memphis , cp. Book 11. 74-77 passum. 
190 


BOOK XIII. 24. 5—25 4 


celebrating victories m war should be made, not is sc 
of stone, but of any wood at hand ? Was it not in 
order that the memoriale of the enmity, lasting as 

they would for a brief time, should quickly disappear ? 
Spealimg generally, if you wish to estabhsh the 
quarrel for all time, know that in domg so you are 
treating with disdain human weakness ; for a single 
moment, a slight turn of Fortune, often brmngs low 

the arrogant. 

25. '" If, as is hkely, you will make an end of the 
war, what better time will you find than the present, 
in which you will make your humane treatment of the 
prostrate the occasion for friendship ? For do not 
assume that the Athenian people have become com- 
pletely exhausted by their disaster 1n Sicily, seeing 
that they hold sway over practically all the islands 
of Greece and retain the supremacy over the coasts 
of both Europe and Asia Indeed once before. after 
losing three hundred triremes together with thew 
crews in Egypt, they compelled the Eung,* who 
seemed to hold the upper hand, to accept ignominious 
terms of peace, and again, when their eity had been 
razed to the ground by Xerxes, after a short time 
they defeated him also and won for themselves the 
leadership of Greece — For that city has a clever way, 
in the midst of the greatest misfortunes, of making 
the greatest growth in power and of never adopting 
a policy that 1 mean-spimnted — It would be a fine 
thing, therefore, instead of mcreasng their enmity, 
to have the ÁAthenians as alles after spanring the 
prisoners Por if we put them to death we shall 
merely be indulgimg our anger, sating a fruitless 
passion, whereas if we put them under guard, we 


* Of Persia, cp. Book 12. 4. 
101 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


r)v xápw &£opev mapà 06 rv dAAov dmávrow Tijv 
co&o£(av. 

26. Na£t, aÀÀa Twes TÀv 'EAMjvov &méoQa£fav 
TOUS alxpaAorrovs. TL OOV; eL , HEY a)TOLS €k TaU- 
T)s Tíjs TpdÉecs émauvot TUyXvovot, puunoopieQa, 
TOUS vis O0ÉTs meópovrucóras eL à€ map Tp rTOYV 
TOv TUyXávovat karmyoptas, pi un9é aorol mrpátco- 
Lev TÓ aD rois ÓpoÀoyovpévos TuaprwQkóot. 
uéypu uév yàp ToU pwmnóév àvükeorov memovÜévai 
TOUS eis TT|v pLeTÉépav míoTw €avToUs mapaOó0vras, 
&zavres karapétabovrau Oucatcs Tov ' AOnvatav 
Ofj&ov: éàv Óé dkovo«cow vapà Trà kowdà vua 
roUs aiypaÀoTous Tapeomovóyuévovs, éQ' Tus 
peroigovci Tv karmyoptav. KaL yàp «eL TLivov 
dAAcv, 'Anvataov GeV. égTiy évrpamríjvau Hév TÓ 
Tfjs móÀecs á&tcopa, Xdpuv HJ aoTois &mrojteptaou 
TÓY eis àvÜporrov eüepyernpárov. oÜroL ydp eia 
ol TpÓ TOL Tpodfjs 1) TUépov Tots "EAot pera&óvres, 
qw i8ia mapa Üeóv Aoóvres Tfj xpeta Kounjv 
émrotneay: obroL vóp.ovs ebpov, 8v os Ó KOiVÓS Bos 
ék Tfíjs &ypias kai aOLKOV bovis eis "ipepov KaL OL- 
xaiav éArjAvÜe evpuioow | obrot mpóro TOUS kara- 
dvyóvras. OLaocócavres TOUS repi TÓV iKkerQv vop.ous 
mapá mew avOpcimois iax9acs mapeakeiagay: 
dv GpyyoUs yevouévous OUK aeuo QUTOUS dro- 
oTepfjoat. kai Tabra pev mpós G&mavras: (Og 9 
évious Umouvíoco Tv duAavÜÓpcrmrov. 


| róv] TOv. P, rov rà» Vogel, «p ch 27 2,4 


—À 


! Reference 15 to the discovery of corn (wheat); although 
in Book 5. 4, 69 Diodorus states that wheat was first dis- 
covered 1n Sicily and from there passed to the Atheni1ans. 


192 





BOOK XIII. 25. 4—296. 3 


shall have the gratitude of the men we succoured and 41$ s c. 
the approbation of all other peoples. 

296. ' Yes, some will answer, but there are Gieeks 
who have executed their prisoners. Whatofit? If 
praise accrues to them from that deed, let us never- 
theless imitate those who have paid heed to their 
reputation ; but if we are the first by whom they are 
accused, let us not ourselves commit the same crimes 
as those who by their own admission have sinned. So 
long as the men who entrusted theii hves to our good 
fth have suffered no irremediable punishment, all 
men will justly censure the Áthenian people; but if 
they hear that, contrary to the generally accepted 
customs of mankind, faith has been broken with the 
captives, they will shuft their accusation. against us. 
For in truth, if 1t can be said of any other people, the 
prestige of the city of the Athenians deserves our 
reverence, and we may well return to them our grati- 
tude for the benefactions they have bestowed upon 
man. Foraitis they who first gave to the Greeks a 
share in à food! gained by cultivation of the soi, 
which, though they had received it from the gods ? 
for their exclusive use, they made avaiable to all. 
They it was who discovered laws, by the appheation 
of which the manner of men's living has advanced 
from the savage and unjust ewstence to a eiilized 
and just soctety It was they who fnst, by spaning 
the lives of any who sought refuge with them, con- 
trived to cause the laws on suppliants to prevail 
among all men, and since they were the authois of 
these laws, we should not deprive them of their p10- 
tection. So much to all of you; but some among 
you I shall remind of the claims of human kindness. 


? The '* gift of Demete1." 
VOL V H 193 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


27. "Qocot uev ydp Aóyov KaL 7o4Bcias év Tfj 
móAe pereoynkare, OóTe TOV &Acov TOis T7) T'OvrpiO a. 
KotvOv mrad&evrrjpuov mrapexopévots : müciw dvÜpórmois 
UT óé TÓv d/yvorámav pop pereuajoore, 
cuOGTE TOUS pvjeavras, oi JL€v 700 pereoxnkóres 
TÓV QuAavÜporrruv T)V xápw Oióvres Tfjs €Ü- 
epyectas, oí 0€ |.éAAovres peraAjibeaQou p?) TTap- 
a4poUuevo TÀ Üvpo TOv éAmiQa rotos yàp TÓTOS 
Tois Éévois Bácwios eis mrauÓecay cAeuÜépuov Tfjs 
"Alnvalav TrÓAeoS avppnuevns ; Bpax? TÓ ou Tv 
Gpapriav picos, peydÀa G6 kai -oÀÀà và mpÓs 
eUvouav a)Tots eipyaop.éva. 

Nopis 9é rfjs mepi Tr"|v mÓ/uv évrpomtfjs kai Kar 
iOlav àv vig TOUS .alypiaAdyrovs ederátbov eUpot 
Oukaics éAéov TUyxávovras. oi pev yàp cna XoL 
Tf TrÓv KparoDvrov Dmnepoxf wacÜévres Tvovyká- 
cÜncav ovorpare/ew. Ouómep ei ro)s éÉ émioMjs 
aBucjoavras Oücaióv éoTL ruscopetaÜa., TOUS GKov- 
GS &apaprávovras mrpootjKov dv ein cvyyvduys 
G£votv. Ti Aéyc Nukiav, og m üpyfs Tv Toi 
Te(av Ümép Yvpakootov évornoápevos iióvos ayr- 
€tmev Umép Tíjs eis 2ukcAiv oTpare(as, dei oe 
TÓV mapemiv osvrav Svpakocitv dpovribav kat 
cpófevos dv OLoreréAekev; &romov otv Nuxíav 
KoAdbeota, TOV imp jp Abjvnot TemOAVrev- 
uévov kai Oià pév TT eis Tuas eüvoiav pu?) rvyeiv 


1 du AavOpoiv] duAavÜperov Dindoif. 

! 'The Eleusinian. Mysteries. 

* On the position of proxenus «see p. 45, n. 1. Nicias! 
speech 1n opposition to the expedition is given by Thucydides 
(6. 9-11); cp. also his second speech («::d 90-93 and 
Plutaich, Xx cias, 19). 


194 





BOOK XIII 97. 1-4 


27. " All you who in that aity have partiaipated in 5350 
its eloquence and learning, show mercy to men who 
offer their country as a school for the common u«se 
of mankind ; and do all you, who have taken part in 
the most holy Mystenes,! save the hves of those who 
initiated. you, some by way of showing gratitude for 
kindly services already received and others, who look 
forward to partaking of them, not m anger depnriving 
vourselves of that hope. For what place is there to 
which foreigners may resort for a hberal education 
once the city of the Athemans has been destroyed ? 
Bref is the hatred aroused by the wrong they have 
commutted, but 1mportant and many are their aecom- 
plshments which claim goodwill. 

'" But apart from consideration for the city, one 
might, in examining the prisoners imdividually, find 
those who would justly receive mercy. For the alhes 
of Athens. bem under constramt because of the 
supenor power of their rulers, we1e compelled to join 
the expeditxon.— It follows, then, that if 1t 15 just to 
take vengeance upon those who have done wrong 
from design, 1t would be fitung to treat as worthy of 
leniency those who sin against their will. What shall 
I say of Nic1a5, who from the first, after initiating his 
policy in. the 1nterest of the Syracusans, was the only 
man to oppose the expedition agamst Sicily, and who 
has continually looked after the interests of Syra- 
cusans resident in Athens and served as their 
proxenus ?? [t would be extraordimaiy indeed that 
Nicias, who had sponsored our cause as à poltician 
in Athens, should be punished, and that he should 
not be aecorded humane treatment because of the 
goodwill he has shown toward us but because of his 


195 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/ M M A H ^ ^ e / 
diAavÜporrías, Ou 8€ rrjv €v rots kowots Dmnpeotav 
dmapaurYy« Tepvreoetv Tubo piq, Kai TOV pév Ém- 
ayayóvra! cÓv sróÀeuov émi lvpakootovs '"AXa- 

e ^ MI ? 
Biá8óqv dua xal wap! fuv xai map! 'AOmnvaicv 
5 ^ Y 4 M 5 € À / 
ékdvyetv T)» ruupiav, Tóv 0. ouoAoyovpuévcos di- 
avÜperrórarov 'AÜm«vaicv yeyevguévov uróé Tob 
kowoÜO TuXetv éÀéov.  Oiómep Éyoye TT» ToU DBíov 
neraBoArv Üeopáv éAeó) T)|v TÜxqv. mpórepov uév 
^ ^^ / 
yàp év rots émonuorárow rÀv '"EAMvov Omápycv 
J 
«al 0.à, r')v kaÀokavyaDiav érawovpevos uoc puoTós 
Tiv kai septDAemros karà ácav mOÀw: vuvi 9 
/ ^ "^ 
éénykoniopuévos év &oyrjuovy xvrw mpocóe, Tv 
Tfs? aiyuaÀcotas oikrpóv mermeiparou, kaÜorepei 
^ ^ 1 ^ 
Tfs TUyns 6v vr ToXrov Bü Tv éavríüs Ovvauw 
; / / A ; , ^ 4 2 
émióe(£acÜ0a, DovAouévqs. s T?v einuepíav àv- 
^ ^ / 
Üpcmíveos Tjuás Oweveyketv poocket Kai qu) 
PápBapov «puórqra mpós OuoeÜvets dvÜpcrovs 
évOci£ aoa. 
28. Nu«óAaos qv ov mpós To)s Iivpakooious 
TOLOUTOLS Xpnoájevos AÀóyows karémavoe Tv Om- 
/ ^ 7 
pmQyopiav, ocuwmaÜets mowjcas TOo)S dkovovras. 
7 * € / » L4 1 M 5 
D'UAwrzos 0 0 Aákov, aapatrorov rÓ vrpós ' AÜ- 
/ ^ " 3 M 37/78 M ^ 
vatovs picos OiavAárTov, àvapàs éwmi v0 D9?ua 
TÓv Aóycov Tv üpyTv évreó0ev émovjcaro. Üav- 
/ / / ^ ^^ 
páLo  ueydAos, dvópes Xvpakóoio:, Üecpiv Üuás 
i74 € ^ 
OUTOS TüXéws, Tepi Qv épyq kakÓs cemóvÜare, 
, ^ 
vepi TOUTOV TÀ AÓy« peraóuiQaokopévovs. €i yàp 


! So Dindorf: érz&yovra 
* S0 Capps, xal éy à. vwc Vogel* év &oysjuovt kal wi. 
? 8o Rhodoman. r$s ràv. 
* eoqueptay Madvig, eBpoiav Bezzel* éAevÜepíav 


196 


BOOK XIII. 27. 4—38 2 


service 1n business of his country should meet with i3 5c 
inplacable punishment, and that Alcibiades, the man 
who brought on the war agamst the Syracusans, 
should escape his deserved pumshment both from 
us and from the Athenians, whereas he who has 
proved himself by common consent the most humane 
among ÁAthenians should not even meet with the 
mercy accorded to all men. Therefore for my part, 
when I consider the change in his circumstances, I 
pity his lot For formerly, as one of the most dis- 
unguished of all Greeks and applaudedfoi his knightly 
character, he was one to be deemed happy and was 
admured im every city ; but now, with bands bound 
behind his back in a tunic squalid in appearance, he 
has experienced the piteous state of captivity, as if 
Fortune wished to give, im the life of this man, an 
example ofher power. The prosperity which Fortune 
gives 1t behooves us to bear as human bemgs» should 
and not show barbarous savagery toward men of our 
own race " 

28. Such were the arguments used by Nicolaus in 
addressing the people of Syracuse and before he 
ceased he had won the sympathy of his hearers But 
the Laconian Gyhppus,! who still maintamed im- 
placable his hatred of Athenians, mounting the 
rostrum began his argument with that topic. "I 
am greatly surprised, men of Syracuse, to see that 
you so quickly, on a matter imn which you have 
suffered grievously by deeds, are moved to change 
your minds by words? For if you who, in order to 

! The general of the foices sent by the Lacedaemonians 
to the aid of Syracuse ; ep. chap. 7. 

? Cp. * The world will little note nor long remember what 


we say here, but it can never forget what they did here" 
(Laneoln, The Getiysbus y Oration). 


197 


Ct 


- 
- 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pets! Ómép àvacráceus xiwOvveUoavies pos TOUS 
émi karackaóf Tíjs vavpióos ÜpQv mapoyeyevy- 
pévovs áveioÜe rois Üvjpois, Tí xp*) vOv Ts Oua- 
TelveoÜa, To)s puqóév TOucquévovs,  9óre Óé poi, 
Tpós Üe&v, àvópes Iwpakóouo, ovyyvoumv TT 
avpovMav ékriÜeuévo werà sapprotas  2rapriuá- 
TS yàp dv kat TOv Àóyov éyo XmapridTwv. ai 
7pürov àv ris émixrijoee más NucóAaos éAefjcat 
óc) To)s 'AÜqvaiovs, ot TO yfpas aDroÜ 8i 
T)v dmai0iav éÀeewóv memovjkaoi, kaL mapuov eis 
ékkAmo(av év éoÜnr. sevÜium Oakpóew kai. AMéyei 
Octv oikreipet ToUs dovetg rv iOiov Tékvov 
oUkéru yàp émweuc]s éoTww Ó TÓÀv owvyyeveoTdrmv 
perü T?)v TeÀevT)V Qjvmobovüv To)0s 8é moÀeui- 
«máTovs oca. mpoaupoUjevos.  émei «ÓGoL TÓV 
ékkAnouaLóvrov viobs ávypupévovs xarà TOV TÓ- 
Aeuov ézevOcooare; (moÀAoi yov? vOv kaÜnuévov 
&0opiBqoav. o 9' émiBaAóv, 'Op&s, doi, ros 
TQ Üopipw Tv cvuéopàv éuéavílovras; | móooi 
O6 dOeAQoUs 7) cvyyzvets 3) Dí(Aovs dmoÀcAekóres 
éminretre; (kai? woÀAQ mAetovs émeonucvavro.) 


0 kal o DPuUAurTOS, ÜOewpeis, éd, vO mAÀíÜos rív 


5 9 7; 7 ai ^ 5C 
9 "Aüsqvaiovs Ovorvyosvrov, | oro: mávres o008v 
5 Hi / € / ^ 
eis ék«eivovus üpaprávovres TÓv vaykatordmuv 
/ 3 / M Lol ^ 
copürev éorepyÜncav, xai TocoÜro poeiv ToUs 
'A0 / 3 7 4 3 290 7 ? / 
Tvaious 0deiAovaw gov ToUs iLovs T)yomjkact 
29 lIlós o?$v o)k dromov, dvópes 2Xvpakóoctoi, 
A / e ^ 
TOUS Jév TereÀevroKÓTras ékKoUoiov mép uv 
fW / / ^ 
cAéoÜa. Üávorov, óuás 86 órép éeivov wg8e mapá 


! óuets added by Vogel ? 50 Dindorf: $*c«. 
. 5 yotüv Capps: oiv all MSS. except P. 
* 50 Dindorf: ópó. * kol omitted P, Vogel. 


198 


BOOK XIII. 28. 2—99 1 


save your city from desolation, faced peril against 413 sc 
men who came to destroy your country, have become 
relaxed in temper, why, then, should we who have 
suffered no wrong exert ourselves? Do you in 
heaven's name, men of Syracuse, grant me pardon 
as I set forth my counsel with all frankness ; for, 
being a Spartan, I have also a Spartan's manner of 
speech. And first of all one mught imquire. how 
Nicolaus can say, ' Show mercy to the Athemans, 
who have rendered his old age piteous because child- 
less. and how, coming before the Assembly in 
mourner's dress, he can weep and say that you 
should show pity to the murderers of his own children. 
For that man 1s no longer equitable who ceases to 
think of Ius nearest of kin after their death but elects 
to save the hves of his bitterest foes. Why how many 
of you who are assembled here have mourned sons 
who have been slain in the war?" (Many of the 
audience at least raised a great outcery. And 
Gylippus interrupting it said, ' Do you see, Nicolaus, 
those who by their outcry proclam ther misfortune? 
Ánd how many of you look in vain for brotheis or 
relatives or friends whom you have lost ?" . (A far 
greater number shouted agreement) Gylppus then 
conünued ^*'Do you observe, Nicolaus, the multitude 
of those who have suffered because of Athenians * 
Al| these, though guilty of no w1ong done to 
Athenians. have been robbed of their nearest kins- 
men, and they are bound to hate the Athenians in as 
great a measure as they hase loved their own. 

20 '' Will 1t not. be «strange, men of Syracuse, if 
those who have perihed chose death on your be- 
half of the own accord, but that you on their behalf 


199 


t5 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÓV moAepaayrdrram Aafety TUAC)piay, Kai érQvely 
uév To)g Dmép TÍ]S Kowfjs éAevuÜepías To)s iOovs. 
&vaAccavras ovs, mepl mrÀctovos O6 Tiv TÓÀV 
dovéav mowctoÜa. cwrwQpíav Tíjs ékeivcov TuMTS ; 
KOG|LeC eméicacte ón.ootq. TOUS Tádovs TÓV 
pernMaxórav KQi TUVO. kaAAova, kóopov eóprjaere 
ToÜ koÀáca. ToUs ékcivcv aDTÓxeipas, €i jw) v3) 
Aía moMroypadjcavres abrovs BovAeoÜe xaraA- 
veiv épjvya Tpómoua TrÓÀv pnerjMÀaxórowv. | QAAá 
uerafaAóvres v?]v rTÀv moAepcv mpooryyopiav yeyó- 
vacw Liérau: mróOev aDrots raor)s Ts diAavÜporrias 
cvykexopmuévgs; ot yàp à7m' &pxyfjs rà epi TroU- 
Tcv vópuua OvvTáfavres vois uév Ovorvxyobot TÓv 
éAecov, rots O06 Oià sovnpíav ààwkoÜücwv érafav m- 
poptav — év moTépa 07), rá£e. ÜOpev vro)s aixypa- 
Adrrovs ; év Tfj Tv fyrvyukOórow, kai ris aÜToUs 
TÓXT) uU) mpoabucyÜévras SBiáooro mr'oÀepueiy Zypa.- 
KoGiots Kal Th vOpd T6ctv emaavoupuéviy. etprjvm 
ddévras émi karackaóg mapeivou. Tfs Üperépas 
vOÀecs, Ouómep ékovais éAópevot móAeuov GOwov 
eiUUycs jmouevóvrov Tà ToUTov Óewd, kai uj, 
KpaToÜüvres pév, amapaóryrov éxóvrow Tv ko 
ÓuOv' wuórQra, c$aÀévres Oé, vote Tfj üeolag 
duavÜpdrmow mapavreio0cv? Tv Tuwopiav. | ei 8 
éAéyxovra, Óu& movopíav kat sÀeovefíav rowvrois 
éAarro Lacu TrepuremrokKóTes, p?) koaraueudéoÜowv 
Tiv TUy"v umJO  émuaAetloÜnv* cO -fj$ ixeoías 
! mepi mrÀetovs. after ioiovs deleted by Rhodoman. 
* &o Fachstadt: 5v 
? So Wesseling . zapowretoÜa 
* So Dindorf- xarageudéotwcar égiKaAetoÜcoav 


200 


BOOK XIII. 29. 1-6 


shall not exact punishment from even your bitteiest 412 s« 
enemies * and that, though you praise those who 
gave their very hves to preserve their country's frec- 
dom, you shall make 1t a matter of greater moment 
to preserve the hves of the murderers than to safe- 
guard the honour of these men? You have voted 
to embelhsh at publie expense the tombs of the 
departed ; yet what fairer embelhshment will you 
find than the punishmg of ther slayeis? | Unless, 
by Zeus, 1t would be by enrolhing them among your 
citizens, you should wish to leave hving trophies of 
the departed — But, 1t may be said, they have re- 
nounced the name of enemues and have become 
supphants On what grounds, pray, would this 
humane treatment have been accorded them ? For 
those who first established our ordinances regarding 
these matters presernibed me1cy for the unfortunates, 
but punishment for those who from sheer depravity 
practiseiuquity— In which category, now, are we to 
place the prisoners ? Inthatofunfortunates " Why, 
what Fortune compelled them, who had suffered no 
wrong, to make war on Syracusans, to abandon peace. 
which all men praise, and to come here with the 
purpose of destroying your city "? Consequently let 
those who of then free will chose an unjust war bear 
its hard consequences with courage, and let not those 
who, if they had conquered, would have kept im- 
plaeable then cruelty toward you, now that they 
have been thwaited in. then. purpose, beg off from 
punishment by appealing to the human lLliandness 
which is due to the prayer of a supphant — And if 
they stand convieted of having suffered their serious 
defeats because of wickedness and greed, let them 
not blame Fortune for them nor summon to their aid 


VOL V u2 201 


12 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


üvoua.  roDro yàp wap  AàvÜpoxrow dQvAárTera4 
rois kaÜapàv puév TT?v Wuyrv ayvopnova 96 cov 
TÜy"v éoynkóow.  obrow O. àmávrov TÓv àDuam- 
párcow mÀc)pg TÓv Diov é€yovres oU0éva TÓmOov 
a)rots DdáouLov eis €Aeov kai karadQvyrv doAe- 
Aocrract. 

80. T6 yàp r&v aioyiorov oix éfovAeUcavro, Tl 
üe rÀv Oeworárow ok émpa£av; rÀeove£(ag tàióv 
éoT. TÓ TOÍS iOLdig eUrvyLaus oUK QpkoUpcvov TÓV 
TÓppco keuLévov kat pwrüóev mpoonkóvrov émiv- 
peiv* oórou ra0T. émpaé£av | eüOnuuovéoTarow yàp 
óvres TOv 'EAWjvow, v?v «ervxiav comep pap) 
dopriov oU $épovres, rjv veAáyeu cM kovrq Ouew- 
yopévqv £ukeAcav émeÜvuqoav xoarakAnpovyfoa:, 
ToUs évoikolvras é£avópamoówdpevoi. | Gewóv. doi 
Mr vpoa8ueÜévras sóAeuov émépew: kai Tobc 
évijpyncav. diÀow yàp óvres TOv éumpooÜev ypóvov, 
éCaióvgs àveAmioros rryAwaórg Gvváueu 2wpako- 
ciovs émolpkqoav.  jmepnóávov éori vÓ «Óv 
w/me kpar)Üévrov mpoÀaufávovras* cv oyqv 
karajméiLec0a. Tuwopiav: o)0é cobro apaAe- 
Aocraci.  TpO ToÜ yàp émW$vau Tífs XukeAMag 
yvepmQv ékUpcoav Xpakootovs pév kai XieAvovv- 
Tíovs éfavÓpamoO8icaoÜa., ro)s Óé AowroDs 8u8óvai 
dópous àvaykdlew.  Órav oÜv sepi roUs aTroUs 
àvÜpcwmous jwápyn mÀeovefía, émovuM$j, bwepm- 
$avia, rís &v vov &ycov ajro0s éAerjcewv;  éme( 
rol ye 'AÜmvatot sàs éxpwcavro MurvAgvatoiws, 
kparysavres yàp abràv, àówucfjoau. àv odücv fov- 

- So Faber (ep. ch. 31. 1 enfra)* árvynuárov. 


? So Vogel suggests : spoAauflávovra. 
202 


BOOK XIII. 29 6—30. 4 


the name of 'supplication. For that term is re- 48 »« 
served among men for those who are pure im heart 
but have found Fortune unkind — These men, how- 
ever, whose hves have been crammed with every 
malefaction, have left for themselves no place im the 
world which will admit them to mercy and refuge 
30. " For what utterly shameful deed have they 
not planned, what deed most shocking have they not 
perpetrated ? It 1s a distinctive mark of greed that 
a man, not being content with his own gifts of 
Fortune, covets those which are distant and belong 
to someone else ; and this these men have done. For 
though the Athenians were the most prosperous of 
all the Greeks, dissatisfied with their fehoeity as if it 
were à heavy burden, they longed to porton out 
to colonists Sicily, separated as it was from them by 
so great an expanse of sea, after they had sold the 
inhabitants into slavery. It is a terrible thing to 
begin à war, when one has not first been wronged ; 
yet that is what they did. Lor though they were 
your friends until then, on a sudden, without warning, 
with an armament of such strength they laid siege 
to Syraeusans It is characteristic of arrogant men, 
antiapating the decision of Fortune, to decree 
the punishment of peoples not yet conquered : and 
this also they have not left undone — For before the 
Athenians ever set foot on Sicily they approved a 
resolution to sell into slavery the erbizens of Syracuse 
and Seliuus and to compel the 16maimng Sicihan- to 
pay tibute — When there i5 to be found in the same 
men gieedmess, treachery, arrogance, what person in 
his nght mind would show them mercy ? How then, 
mark you, did the Athenians treat the Mitylenaeans * 
Why after conquering them, although the Mity- 


208 


ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aouévov, émwÜvpuoovrov Óé Tí éAevÜepías, éym- 
óicavro ro)s év rjj vóÀew karaoQátau. — cuóv Te 
xai DápBapov TO menpaypuévov. xai rabra é£W$- 
poprov eis "EAMvas, ets ovpuáxovs, eis eüepyéras 
ToÀÀákis yeyevouévovs. | 7) 02) vOv üryavakrotvrov 
e( ToiaÜra Tpos TOUS dÀÀovs mpá£avres aroi 
capamAnoías reU£ovrat Tuucoptas* OukauóraTov" yáp 
éorw, Óv kaD' érépov vópuov Tw &Ünke, TovTQ 
Xpopuevov ur) àyavakreétv. kai Ti Àéyco Mn ovs, 
oUs^ éxmoAwopkjcavres "80v dxékrewav, kai 
2ikwvaiovs, ot Gvyyeveis óvres Tífjs aórífjs MyAtow 
TÜXTS ekotwdviaa ; core So Orjpovs mrpós "Ac- 
TuUKyV Opy"v émTaiwKÓTas oU0€ ToUs kw Oeícovras? 
éyew TOY TÀV TereAevrqkÓTcow odcpara. o) XkUÜa. 
ToUr' émpo£av, GÀX ó mpoorrotosjevos diAavÜparríg. 
O.adépew Ofjuos Jmóiopaoi ràs móAes dpBgv àv- 
QZpnkev. Tóm Aoyiübec0e ri àv Émpa£av ei vv Tv 
Ziupakociv TA éfemópÜgoav: oi yàp mois oi- 
Kelois oUruos dps xpnoápevoi: Tots um8ev mrpoc- 
1Kkovci. Bapurépav àv éfeüpov ruwpíav. 

91. Oók. éorw oDv roírous Oücawos dzrokeluevos 
cA«os* aol yàp aoróv émi rv iBiov dxAmpqudrov 
àvgprkaci. 00 yàp á£iov ToUrow karadvyeiv; 
"pos ÜeoUs, Óv às marpíovs vuiàs ddeAéoÜai 
wpoe(Àovro,  wpós dvÜpcómovs, o)s OovAccóuevoi 
zapeyévovro; Ac5wnrpa kai Kópqv xal rà robrcv 
émikaAolvra. pvorüpuan T)v iepàv aórQv vfoov 

! So Wesseling * 8ucatórepov 
* oós added by Dindorf. 
? knbeócorras] kgóescavras PAFJK, Vogel. 


mm m m m i e aia t e e i a i s rpm 


| This decree was not actually carried out; cp Book 19 
55 8f. * Cp. Book 12. 80, 5. ? Cp. Book 129. 76. 3. 


20f 








BOOK XIII 30. 4—31 1 


naeans had no intention of domg them any wrong 113 &« 
ut only desired their freedom, they voted to put to 
ie swoid all the mhabitants of the city.! A cruel 
ad barbarous deed. And that crime too they com- 
utted agaxnst Greeks, agamst alhes, agaimst men 
ho had often been their benefactors. Let them not 
ow complain if, after having done such things to the 
'st of manland, they themselves shall receive hke 
unishment ; for it 1s altogether just that a man 
1ould aecept his lot without complamt when he is 
unself affected by the law he has laud down for 
chers — What shall I say also of the Melians,? whom 
iey reduced by siege and slew from the youth up- 
ard? and of the Seionaeans,? who, although then 
insmen, shared the same fate as the Melians" 
onsequently two peoples who had fallen foul of 
ttic fury had left not even any of their number to 
erfoim the rites over the bodies of their dead. It 1s 
ot Seythians who committed such deeds, but the 
eople who claim to excel 1n love of mankind have 
y their decrees utterly destroyed these cities... Con- 
der now what they would have done if they had 
icked the ety of the Syiaceusans; for men who 
ealt with ther kinsmen with such savagery would 
ave devised a harsher punishment for à people with 
'hom they had no t1es of blood 

31. '** There 15, therefore, no just measure of mercy 
1 store for them to call upon, since as for the use of 
; on the oecasion of their own mishaps they them- 
elves have destroyed it. Wheie i5 1t. worth. then 
/hile to flee for safety ? To gods, whom they have 
hosen to rob of their traditional honours ?. To men, 
«hom they have visited only to enslave? Do they 
all upon Demeter and Coré and their Mysteries now 


905 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 memopÜnkóres, vai, dÀAÀ oix atriov TO mÀfjgos 
vÀv 'Afwvaiov, aAA 'AAkiBiadóns 0 7abra oup- 
BovAeUcas. aAÀ' cóprjcop.ev TOUS ovp povAovs Kad. 
TÓ mÀeioTov croxalopévovs Tis TÀv GKovóvToV 
BovAraecs, do0' ó xeworovàv TQ p"ropu Aóyov 
oiketov UmoDdAAeu Tíjs éavroD Tpoaupécecs. oU 
yàp O AMéyow Kóptos ToU TÀ(éovs, aÀA 6 Ofivos 
eüilei TÓv Prjropa. TÜ BéXrwrra Aéyew Xpnorà fov- 
Aevóuevos. eí Oé Tos aOuobow ayTkeoTa gvy- 
yvojuv OGcouev, éàv eis ro)s ovpupovÀovs Tv 
avriay Qvàdépoocw, e)xepíf; Tots movnpois Tov 
ázoAoy(iav vape£óueÜa — dmÀÓOs 06 mávrov éoviv 
dOukcrarov Tüv pév eUepyeoiQv f) TOUS Ougu- 
BovÀovs, àÀAà róv Ofjuov &xoAauávew vàs xydpvras 
zapà TOv e€0 salóvrov, rÀv 9  dOuenuárov émi 
ro)s D"üropas ueraüdépew T7)v Twbopiav 

Kai émi rocobróv cwes éfeomrákaow TÓv o- 
ywopv doc. ^ AÀkukóqv, eis óv cv é£ovoíav ook 
éyo|.ev, daci 8etv Tusc petoÜat, roós 9. aiyuaAo- 
TOUS Gyouévovs émi TT» srpoac?kovcav Tuuitopí(av 
ddetvat, kai sow évóei£aoUa,. Oiór. vv Owcaiav 
pucozovQpiav oUk éoy"9kev Oo Ofjuos rÓv Xipako- 
aiv. e( 06 xai kar àAXÜewav abro: yeyóvaau 
oL oUpBovAot Tob moAépov, pepoéo0c  TÓ uév 
wAfüos rois p5yropoiw mwép dv ceqmárnoav, Üjets 
O6 OuaLus HercAebaeaQe TÓ mÀfjÜos ÜTép dv 
58ümoÜc. xaóAov 8' et pev émrioTápevot gods 
rj8bcnoav, Ov a)TTv TT) erpoaípeoty &Ctou Tuc pias, 
e& 0 eixjj BovAevadpevou Tóv sróAeuov. é£iveykav, 





?opaly. 
206 


BOOK XIII. 31. 2-5 


that they have laid waste the sacred island ! of these 43 5« 
goddesses ? Yes, some will say, but not the whole 
people of the Athemans are io blame, but only 
Aleabiades who advised this expedition. — We. shall 
find, however, that 1n most cases ther advisers pay 
every attention to the wishes of them audience, so 
that the voter suggests to the speaker words that 
suit his own purpose. For the speaker is not the 
master of the multitude, but the people, by adopting 
measures that are honest, tram the orator to pro- 
pose whatis best. If we shall pardon men guilty of 
irrevocable mnjustices when they lay the responsibihty 
upon their advisers. we shall indeed be providing the 
wicked with an easy defence! ]t os clear that 
nothing im the world could be more unjust than that, 
while 1n the case of benefactions it 1s not the ad- 
visers but the people whe receive the thanks of the 
recipients, in the matter of injyustices the punishment 
is passed on to the speakers. 

'* Yet some have lost their reasoning powers to such 
a degree as to assert that 1t is Alcibiades, over whom 
we have no power, who should be pumshed, but that 
we should release the prisoners, who are being led to 
thew deserved punishment, and thus make it known 
to the world that the people of the Syracusans have no 
nghteous mdignation agamst base men. — But if the 
advocates of the war have 1n truth been the cause of it, 
let the people blame the speakers forthe consequences 
of their deception, but you will with justice punish the 
people for the wrongs which you have suffered. And, 
«peakmg generally, if they committed the wrongs 
with full knowledge that they were so doing, because 
of their veiy intention they deserve punishment, but 
if they entered the war without a consideied plan, 


207 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


o08' dg aUToUs dóeréov, tva. uy) oxeOu&Lew év ois 
rüv dAÀev fíow éÜvoÜQow ^ o9 yàp Otkouóv. écri 
Tv 'AOwvatev dyvov 2wpakootow dépew àmo- 
Aeuav o08^ év otc rÓ mpaxÜév avüákeoróv éomww, dv 
ToUTois dmoAoyíav DmoAcireoÜa. rois üuaprávovot. 

39 N: Aía, aÀMà Nucías Dvép 2wwpakootcv éro- 
Avreócaro kai póvos cvveDoUvAevoe ju) moÀepuetv. 
TOv pév éket yeyevquévov ÀAóyov àkosonev, rà 8' 
évraüÜa, vempoypuéva TeÜecpü)kapev. O0 yàp àvr- 
evrQOv éket mepi Tíjs orpaTe(as, évrabüÜa oTpa- 
T»yOós fv Tfjs Ovvdjecos kai Ó rroAvrevópevos Omrép 
3pakociov ümere(yuoev OpÀv TTv TÓMv kai ó 
diAavÜparros Oukeipevos vrpós ojpás, AnuooÜévovs 
kai vOv &ÀÀwcv dmávrov BovÀouévov Acor Tv 
moÀ.opkiav, Móvos éfidcaro pévew kai moAÀegetv 
OLÓóTep éycye vopiio qw Oei! cap Üpiv TÀéov 
(ox0ca, rÓv uév Aóyov cv épycv, zv 9' ámay- 
yeAiav Tífs me(pas, rà O' á$avtj TOv ÜÓmÓ mávrwv 
éco paqévov. 

Ny) A£, àAAA, kaAÓv ui) motetv 7v éxyÜpav aid- 
V.ov. oUkoÜv perà T)V TÓV T)Oucnkórov kóAaoww, 
éàv piv Ookj, mpocnkóvros OwAjoeoÜe cv éy- 
Üpav. o) yàp 8ücatov, Órav uév kparóocw, cs OoU- 
Aows xpfjoÜa. rots TfjÀekóoiv, Óórav 06 kpormÜdouv, 
cs ov0év vjóuc]KkÓTas ovyyvopms Tvyydvew. kal 
ToU puév Ooüva. Oücqv dv émpafav üádeÜWoovra:, 
Aóy« 8 ejoxsjuove ka' óv dv ypórov a9rots ovp- 
$épy Tís duas uvquoveUcovow.  éQ* yàp Om 
ToÜro wpd£avres o)v moÀAots &AÀow al ToUs 


! gu) 8eiv Dindorf: ug8év 
* So Wesseling: év 
208 


BOOK XIII 31 5—32 4 


even so they should not be let off, in order that they 418 sc. 
may not grow accustomed to act offhand in matteis 
which affect the lives of other men. For it 1s not just 

that the ignorance of the Athenians should bnmng 
destruction to Syracusans or that 1n a case where the 
crime is irremediable, the eriminals should retam a 
vestige of defence 

39 " Yet, by Zeus, someone will say, Nicias took 
the part of the Syracusans in the debate and was the 
only one who advised against making war — As for 
what he said there we know 1t by hearsay, but what 
has been done here we have witnessed with our own 
eyes | l'orthe man who there opposed the expedition 
was here commander of the armament ; he who takes 
the part of Syracusans in debate walled off your city ; 
and he who 1s humanely disposed toward you, when 
Demosthenes and all the others wished to break off 
the siege, alone compelled them to remain and con- 
tnue the war. Therefore for my part 1 do not be- 
heve that his words should haxe greater weight with 
you than his deeds, 1eport than experience, things un- 
seen than things that have been witnessed by all. 

'" Yet, by Zeus, someone will say. it is a good thing 
not to make our enmity eternal Very well, then, 
after the punishment of the malefactors you will, if 
you so agree, put an end to your enmity in a suitable 
manner. Fortis not just that men who treat their 
captives hke slaves when they are the victors, should, 
when they in tuin are the vanquished, be objects of 
pity as if they had done no wrong — And though they 
wil hase been freed of paying the penalty for ther 
deeds, by specious pleasthey willremember the friend- 
ship only so long as itis to ther advantage — For I 
omit to mention the fact that, 1f you take this course, 


200 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


AaxeBaupovious a&ucijoere, Üpiv xápiw Kdet TÓV 
vÓÀeuov émavmpmjiévovs kai evrabÜa. cupjLaxíay 
ámooretavras eov yàp a)To(s QyomwTÓS Qyew 
eipfvnv kai meptopav Tiv £ukeAiav mopÜovuévmv. 
OióTep éàv Tro)s abypaAdTovs ddévres diMav ocvv- 
dmT500e, mpo8órai $avijaeote TÓV  OUMJAQX- 
cávrcv, kai Tos kKowo)s éywÜpovs Ovváguevoi 
TaüT€wócat, rToco)rovs orparuTGs üoO0vres qáAw 
(Cxvpo)s karacKkevdcere | o) yàp àv. mOT  €yoyec 
muoreóoow cs 'AOnvato TrAucaórqv éxyÜpav ém- 
avppnpévo. BeBaiay dvAdÉovow T?)]v dila, GAAÀ' 
acÜeveis uév Ovres Smokpibrjaovroa TUVO ebvouav, 
avaAaBóvres 0' aoToUs Tv Gpy oov mpoaipeau eis 
TéÀOS &Covaw éyc uév ov, Zeü ical mávTes 
Ücoi, uoprÜpouau mvávras Üuás qu?) oclLew ToUs 
ToÀejioUS, M) éykaraAwmety ToUs ovuudyous, p) 
cá&Aw érepov émáyew cf vaTpiów kivOvvov. | pets 
6é, À dvópes 2Ziwpakóoiot, ToUTovs dóévres, éàv 
&zoDf rwv Ovoyepés, o)0  dmoÀoyiav éavrois eó- 
ox"uova karaÀeülere. 

33. Towatra OuaAeyÜcvros To$ Aákcvos uerémeae 
TÓ "Afjfos kai TV AtokAéovs yv éxÜpc)gev. 
Duómrep oi pev orpormyoi mapaxpfipua àvnpéOnoav 
kai oí opua, ot o "Afrvato vrape8ó0naav eis 
rüs ÀoTouías, v voTepov ot pev émvi mÀetov mou- 


* ày added by Dindorf 


* At the first request of the Syracusans for aid the Lace- 
daemonians did no more than send their general Gylippus 
(chap. 7), not wishing to break the peace with Athens. | But 
early in 113 they declared war on Athens, seized and fortified 
Deceleia 1n. Attiea, and. began sending troops on merchant 
ships to Sicily. 

* Plutarch CVicias, 28. 2) and. Thucydides (7. 86 2) state 
210 








BOOK XIII. 32. 4—33. 1 


you will be wronging nol only many otheis but also asi 
ilie Lacedaemonians, who for your sake both entered 
upon the war over thee and also sent you aid heic ; 
for they might have been well content to maintain 
peace and look on while Seily was being laid waste ! 
Consequently, 1f you free the prisoners and thus enter 
into friendly relations with. Athens, you will be looked 
upon as traitors to your alhes and, when it is in your 
power to weaken the common enemy, by releasmg 
so great a number of soldiers you will make our 
enemy agam formidable — For 1 could never brmg 
myself to beheve that Athemans, after getting them- 
selves involved in so bitte1 an enmity, will keep the 
fuendly relation unbroken ; on the contrary, while 
they are weak they will feign goodwill, but when they 
have recovered their strength, they will carry their 
original purpose to completion. I therefore adjure 
you all, in the name of Zeus and all the gods, not to 
save the hves of your enemies, not to leave your alhes 
in the lurch, not again for a second time to bring peril 
upon your counby X You yourselves, men of Syra- 
cuse, 1f you let these men go and then some ill befalls 
you. will leave for yourselves not even a respectable 
defence " ? 

88. After the Laconian had spoken to this effect, 
the multitude suddenly changed its mind and ap- 
proved the proposal of Diocles? Consequently the 
genetals * and the alles ? were foithwith put to death, 
and the Athemans were conggned to the quarries ; 
and at a later time «such of them as possessed a better 


that Gylippus proposed that the hves of the generals be 
spared, since he wished to take them back with him to Sparta. 
3 Cp. chap. 19. 4. * Demosthenes and Nicias. 
5 Associated with the Athenans. But Diocles had pro- 
posed (chap. 19. 4) that the allies should he sold as booty. 


211 


L2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ocias pereoynkórcs Ónó TOV veorrépov éapmayév- 
res O.eocÜnoav, ot D: Aouroi OXe80v Grravres éy TÓ 
Seopomrmopio kakoüpevo. vOv Düov oikrpüs kor- 
éoTpejav. 

Merá Oé r)v kardAvow ToD ToAéuov AuokAfjs 
TOUS vÓLOUS Gvéypose Tois 3ivpakoatous , kai ovvéBm 
mapáboSov repli TOV Gvüpo. oUrov yevéota Trepu- 
méreuny.  ümapair]ros yàp €v ois émVTUALOLS 
yevóp.evos kai a«Ànpás koAdibov TOUS é&apaprávov- 
Tas, £yposjev. &y TOlS vópois, dv Tis ÓmAov exco 
eis T7 dyopàv Tapayévorou, Üdvarov civau mpóo- 
TUAOV; obre dyvoíq. Goog oUre QÀÀy) TtwvL Trepuoráaet 
cvyyváyn mpocoyyeMévraov. O6 soAeuiov émi 
Tfj x«opas &£emopevero &ipos eov aldwBiov 0é 
aráces Kai rapayijs KQGTà. TV Gryopüv yevopévns, 

d/yvorjoas perà ToU fibovs mapfjv eis TÜv dyopáv. 
TÓY 5c lOLcoT OOV TivOs karavonjoavros kai eimóvros 
ÓTL TOUS itous ajrós ko.ra Aet ópovs, &veBónae, 
Mà Ata. oi pev o$v, aAA, kai Kupiovs TOUÁOO. 
kai omacápevos. TÓ Lldos cavróv dmékTewe. 

Tabra pév ov émpáyÜm karà ToÜrov TÓv 6£w- 
avTÓv 

94. Fu Gpxovros o '" Aürjvnoat KaAAov '"Po- 
paio. pév àyri TÀVv Üwárov yi ápyovs kaTéavioay 
Térrapas, ILórÀtov KopwijAtov" l'étov DáBiov, 
"OXvumiás 9' $y0Q "ap" " HAelois Oevrépa T'pÓS 
TOÍs évevükovra, ko Tv évíka. GTdOLOV "E&atveros 
-Axpayyavrivos émi Oe TOTO -Afrvaicv Trepi 
ZukeAtav émrauórav cwveBn TTV Tyyepováav odrÓv 
karaópovnÜiva. «000 yàp Xtov kai Xápguow kai 

! aAÀa kai PAFJK, aAA cet. 
* KopwyAcov kai P, Vogel. 
212 


BOOK XIII. 33. 1—34 2 


education were rescued from there by the younger 41$ c. 
men and thus got away safe, but practically all the 
rest ended their lives priably amid the haidships of 
this place of confinement. 

After the termination of the war Diocles set up the 
laws for the Syracusans, and 1t came to pass that this 
man experienced a strange reversal of fortune — For 
having become implacable in fixing penalties and 
severe 1n punishing offenders, he wrote 1n the laws 
that, if any man should appear in the market-place 
carrying a weapon, the punishment should be death, 
and he made no allowance for either ignorance or 
any other ecirrcumstance — And when word had been 
received that enemies were m the land, he set forth 
carrying à sword; but since sudden civil strife had 
arisen and there was uproar in the market-place, he 
thoughtlessly entered the market-place with theswoid 
And when one of the oidinary citizens, noticing. this, 
said that he himself was annulhng his own laws, he 
cried out, '* Not so, by Zeus, I will even uphold them." 
And drawing the sword he slew himself ! 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

84. When Calhas was archon in Athens. the 45e. 
Romans elected in place of consuls four mihtary 
tibunes, Pubhus Cornelius .  . Gaius Fabius, and 
among the Eleians the Ninety-second Olympiad was 
celebrated, that 1n which Exaenetus of Acragas won 
the "stadion " In this year ijt came to pass that, 
after the Athemans had collapsed in Sicily, thor 
supremacy was held in contempt ; for immediately 
the peoples of Chios, Samos, Byzantium, and many 


1 See Book 12.19. 
913 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Botávrio( kai moAÀÀot 7Àv cvujáxcv dTéornQcav 
zpós roUs AakeGatuoviovs. Oumep ó Ofjos aÜv- 
wícas éfeydópqoev ékovoios fs Onuokparías, 
éAópevos Bé dvÓpas Terpakooiovs, ToUrow TT 
Guouenow émérpeie rv kowdv. oi 86 rífjs óyap- 
yías Tpoeori Tes vavimwynaáp.evou srÀetovs 7pvfjpeus 
üméoTetAav Treocapákovra xai orpaTwWyoUs.  obTOL 

M / M ? / ? ? ? 
66 oraciálLovres mpós àAÀMAovs eis '"Opomóv éÉ- 
émAevcav: éket yàp dppovv ab TÓÀv moÀeuiov 
Tpwpew. — yevopévns ov vavoxias évüixov oti 
Aak«8auuóvvot kai akadáv eikoou kai Ovetv érupi- 
€voay. 

3wpakócio, Oé karaAeAvkóres TÓv mpOs 'AOm- 
vaiovs TOÀeuov, roOg uév Aakeóauuoviovs cvugua- 
x"cavras, dv Ü?pye lAÀwrmOs, ér(psoav Tots ék 
ToU ToÀéuov Àajpow, ovvaséoTeuav 8 aicrois eis 
AakeBatuova ovuaxytav eis róv mpós '"AUmvatovs 
TÓÀeuov Tpiákovra kai mévre Tpvjpews, dv Tpyev 
"Eppokpáry)s Ó mpoTreUcv rÀv moÀvrüv — abroi 8€ 
vràs ék ToÜ woÀéuov yevouévas cdeAe(as dÜpol- 
cavres TOUS uév vao)g àvaÜyuaoi ai ok/Àois 
ékóojncav, rÀv Óé ovpamuoTOv ToUs GpioreUcav- 
TGs TOiS TpoovQKo)vcaus Ocpeais ér(uQcav.  uerà 
0€ ra)ra rÀv Onuaywcydv Ó mÀctoTov map! aUTois 
(cyvcas AokAfüs émwewe TÓv Ófuov peraoríoaot 
T?)v ToÀwreiav eis TÓ kAr)pt Tàs àpyàs OtoucetoÜa:, 
cAécÜau. Óé xai vouoÜéras eis TÓ Tv mrooMre(av 
O.aTáÓau kai vOuovs KouvoUg (Oiq cuyypdabaa. 














! Diodorus 15 most sketchy at this point and in the repetitive 
passage im chap 36. A Peloponneman fleet had been lying 
off Salamis, possibly hoping to be able to attack the Peiraeus 
n the midst of the political confusion in Athens , 1t had then 


214 


BOOK XIII. 34. 2-6 


of the alhes revolted to the Lacedaemonians. | Conse- 42 rc 
quently the Athenian people, bemg disheaitened, of 
their own aecord renounced ihe demociacy, aud 
choosing four hundred men they turned over to them 
the administration of the state — And the leaders of 
the ohgarchy, after building à number of tnremes, 
sent out forty of them together with generals. 
Although these were at odds with one another, they 
sailed off to Oropus, for the enemy's triremes lay 
at anchor there In the battle which followed the 
Lacedaemonaans were victorious and captured twenty- 
two vessels. 

After the Syracusans had brought to an end the 
war with the Aihemans, they honoured with the booty 
taken in the war the Lacedaemonians who had fought 
with them under the command of Gylppus, and ihey 
sent back with them to Lacedaemon, to aid them 
in the war agaimst the Athenians, an alhed force 
of thirty-five trnemes under the command of Hermo- 
crates, their foremost citizen. — And as for themselves, 
after gathering the spoil that accrued from the war, 
they embelhshed their temples with dedications and 
with arms taken from the enemy and honoured with 
the appropriate gifts those soldiers who had fought 
with distinetion. — After this Diocles, who was the 
most influenta] among them of the leadeis of the 
populace, persuaded the citzens to change their fo1m 
of government so that the admunistrahon would be 
conducted by magistrates chosen by lot and that 
lawgivers also should be elected for orgamzing the 
pohty and drafting new laws privately. 


sailed on to Euboea, which was of the utmost mmportance to 
Athens now that all Attica was exposed to the Spartan troops 
stationed 1n Deceleia. See Thucydides, 8. 94-95. 


215 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


35 /NXómep oi 2Xwpakóowo. To)s djpowwoew Oia- 
dépovras vÀv moArów eiÀovro vouoÜéras, dv Jv 
émubavéoraros Aw Ais. TocoÜUro yàp rÀv dÀÀcv 
Ou/veyke cvvéaet kai 8ó£r core Tíjs vouoÜecias omó 
sávrov kow$j ypajetons ovouacÜfjva, roUs vóuovs 
AwokÀéovs. o) uóvov Oé róv àvÓpa roÜürov LOvra 
éÜaóuacav oí XMpakócw, àÀÀA kat TeÀevr)cavra 
TuLQis Tjpoukais ér(uocav kai veov qkooóumycav 
Onpocóg TOv UoTepov DyÓ ÁLovvciov kaTO TT"]v Tei- 
xyomowav koÜe«peÜévra. | éÜavpacÜn O6 O avr 
oüros kai mapà Tois dÀÀow XukeAworaus: ToÀAÀal 
yotv rÀv karà Tv vfjioov wóÀeov xpojevau Oue- 
TéÀecav TOls TOUTOU vÓLOis, Méxp. ÓTOU TüvTES ol 
XuceAQra,. Tfs '"Popaiwv moAweias 7£i0noav 
oí O. oóv Xjvpakócto, karà ToUs vecrépovs ypóvovs 
karà pév TiuuoAéovra vopoÜerácavros a)rots Ke- 
dáAÀov, xarà 86 Tóv 'lépeva TÓv facuMa IloAv- 
Ocpov, o)0érepov a9rÀv ovópacav vouoÜérnv, àAX 
3) é£qynr)v ToO vopoÜérov, Quà v0 To)s vópnous 
yeypajévous àpxyaía GuaÀékrq Ookety etvat 8va- 
kaüravof»rovs  qeydAns 9é ovoQs karü T?» vopo- 
Ücoíav àvaÜewpjoeos, uuoomóvnpos uév daiverad 
Oià. TO mávrcv rv vouoller&v rikpórara srpóoruua 
Üctvau. karà üvrov TÀv áOwuo)Uvrov, 8ikavog 8 
ek ToU mepvrrÓTepov TÀv pO aDroÜ kam á£í(av 

! daívera.] 0 àvjp added by Suidas (s.c /— dvabed pois), 
Const Ewc. 9 (1), p. 939 


! [n 402 8 c ; ep. Book 14. 18. 

? Cicero (ad .íté 14 19), wriüng 1n April, 43 B c , states 
that this was an act of Antony, based upon a law of Caesaiv's 
presumably passed by the Roman people | Nothing can 
have come of 1t, since Sextus Pompeius held the island by 
late 43 n.c. and lost it to Augustus, who showed no interest in 


216 





BOOK XIII. 35 1-4 


35. Consequently the Syracusans elected lawgnvers 412 » c. 
from such of their citizens as excelled in judgement, 
the most distinguished of them being Diocles — For 
he so far excelled the rest im understanding and 
renown that, although the writing of the code was a 
task of all in common, they were called " The Laws 
of Diocles " And not only did the Syraeusans admire 
this man during his hfetime, but also, when he died, 
they rendered him the honours accorded to heroes 
and built à temple in his honour at pubhe expense— 
the one which was torn down by Dionysius at a later 
tme when the walls of the oty were beimg con- 
structed.! And this man was held m high esteem 
among the other Sicihan Greeks as well; indeed 
many cities of the 1sland continued to use his laws 
down to the time when the Sicihan Gieeks as a 
body were granted Roman citizenship.?.| Accordingly, 
when in later times laws were framed for the Syra- 
cusans by Cephalus ? 1n the time of Timoleon and by 
Polydorus in the time of King Hiero, they called 
neither one of these men a " lawgiver," but rather 
an '" interpreter of the lawgiver," since men found 
the laws of Diocles, written as they were in an ancient 
style, difficult to understand.  Profound reflection 1s 
displayed in his legislation, the lawmaker showing 
himself to be a hater of evil, &nce he sets heavier 
penalties against all wrongdoers than any other 
legislator, just, in that more precisely than by any 


extending Roman citizenship to the provinces on such a 
wholesale scale — Pliny in his sketch of Sicily (3. 88-91) list», 
shortly before 4 p. 79, several different degrees of civic status 
foi the cities of the island. 

3 [n 3389 n c. ; ep. Book 16. 82. 

* Hie10 was given the title of '* King! 
probably bore it until his death in 216. 


* 


in 270 Bc. and 


9217 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ékdoTq TÓ émwripuov Dmáp£aw spoyuarwcós 8é 
KaL moÀUTewos ék ToÜ máv ÉykXnua kai mpüypa 
Onuócióv Te kat iGworwucov àpuQwoDnrosuevov cpw- 
pévms à£uàcos Tuuopias: éaru. O6 kai karà Tm»v 
Aéfiwv o/vrojos kai voÀM)v mois dvaywtwockovow 
àToAevmov àvaÜedpnow — éuaprópnoe 9" aDro9 c1) 
üper?]v KaL Tr)v okÀmpórqra cíjs wy 7) mepi 
Tv TeÀevTiV Tepumréreia, 

Taóro. uév ov &«piéorepov eimetv mpoyjy0nv 8i 
TO To)s TÀelovs TOv ovyypadéwnv óMywpórepoy 
repu a)ToU OveAéyÜa,. 

36. Ot 0' "A0mvato, mvÜOpevou T)v &v/ XukeAMa 
OUvapu GpOnv dvnpuuévqv, Bapéwos é&depov -ó 
TMfjÜos ris cvudopás. o) wr)v éAqyóv ys 81à ToüTo 
Tfj" dioruuas epi cTís yejuovias, áAÀà vaüs 
re KüreokeUaLov 7Àelovs kai xprjuara, émopitovro, 
ómcs diovwkd ot uéypi rfe doyárns eXr(Bos ómdp 
TÓv mptmTe(v. éAóuevo, 86 rerpakociovs dv8pas, 
ToUTois éOc av Tv é£ovoiav adrokpáropa. Btoukety 
T& korà TÓv mÓAeuov: ómeAáuflavov yàp rjv óA- 
yapxtav eUÜUercrépav «elvai 7s DÜquokparías év 
TQ(s ToiaÓTrois 7epioTácoeoiw — o) p»v* rà mrpdy- 
pad, ye kavrà T?)v éketvev T)koAoU0noe kplowv, àAM 
T0ÀU xeipov rÓv zóAepov 8uokncav. | dvoorelÀavres 
yàp reacapákovra vaüs avve£émejijav vods àÓnyn- 
copévovs ÓUo crpoTyyo)s dAAorpios Éyovras mpós 
&ÀAMjAous — rÀv 96 mepi roUs '"AÓmvatovs Tpoyuá- 
TOV TéTQOTeUc)pévov Ó uév katpós Trpooe8etro zoÀ- 


! jmápéau] Cp. 14. 6. 3, $moBei£at or ómorá£a: Reiske, rá£ai 
(cp. 1. 78. 15; 192. 91. 1) Bezzel. 

? So Remke: óAMyw mpórepov. 

? Aakebaiovíav after rs deleted by Vogel. 
218 


BOOK XIII 35. 4—36. 3 


predecessor the punishment of each man i5 fixed ac- is 5i 
cording to his deserts, and both practical and widely 
experienced, in that he judges every complaint and 
every dispute, whether 1t concerns the staie or the 
individual, to be deserving of a fixed penalty. He is 

also concise imn his style and leaves much for the 
readers to reflect upon And the dramatic manner 

of his death ! bore witness to the uprightness and 
austerity of his soul. 

Now these quahties of Diocles I have been moved 
to set forth in considerable detail by reason of the 
fact that most lustorians have rather shghted lum in 
their treatises 

36. When the Athenians learned of the total de- 
struction of their forces im S1oly, they were deeply 
distressed at the magiutude of the disaster. Yet 
they would not at all on that account abate then 
ardent aspiration for the supremacy, but set about 
both constructing more ships and providing them- 
selves with funds wherewith they might contend to 
the last hope forthe primacy Choosing four hundred 
men they put in their hands the supreme authority to 
direct the conduct of the wai ; for they assumed that 
an ohgarchy was more suitable than à democracy 
in eritieal ei ecumstanees hke these. The events, how- 
ever, did not turn out according to the judgement 
of those who held that opinion, but the F'our Hundred 
conducted the war far less competently. For, al- 
though they dispatched forty ships, they sent along 
to command them two generals who were at odds 
with each other. Although. with the affaus of the 
Athenians at such low ebb, the emergency called for 


! Cp. chap 38. 


N ! kai after uyjv deleted by Vogel. 
210 


4 


Uu 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Afs Ópovoias, oi 06 orparwyot mpós GAAjÀovs 
coraoíabov. kai réAos ékqsrÀeUcavTEes eis "parróv 
dmap&akevot TrpÓS ToUs ILeAomovvnocovs cvawuá- 
xnoav: kakás Oé KaL TV páxqv évornodpevow kai 
TOV ktybvvov Gryevvá)s bmopeivavres, árréBaAov vas 
6Uo mpós rais eucoow, Tàs O6 Aovràs nóyis Qiéow cav 
eis Epérpiav. 

Toórcv 8é vrpaxÜévrov oi ovpaxov rÀv ' A05- 
vaitv Oud ve ràs mepi 2ukeMav àrvyias kat Ou 
rüs TÓv Tjyeuóvov kayetias queÜioravro' mpos 
Aake8Oauuoviovus. ovup[udáyov 8. Ovros rois Aake- 
Oauuoviows Aapetov ToU llepoóv DBaoiMéwos, Gap- 
váfaLos o TÓV eni ÜaAdrraS TÓTOV éÉycv TTV 
cTparmyiav éyopijye Xp'ipiacro. TOÍS AaxeDaupiovt- 
Dis nereméparo Oé kai ràs ék Gowtiens. TpW/ pets 
rpuakogías,, OvaAoy Lb puevos dmooTétÀa, rots Aake- 
Oauoviow éri T)v. BosiÜeuav ? 

97. Touosrev 9' éAarrcopárov ois 'AOnvaioiws 
ets éva, kaupóv ovvOpapóvrov? ümavres karaAeAóa8at 
TOV TrOÀepLov Suevi] eoa oDkcért yàp To)s 'ÀAOm- 
vaiovs oU006 TOv cA xta rov Xpóvov oU8cis qme 
roiaDra. ÓmooTíceoÜa. — o) uv Tà Tpdypard, ye 
Tf TÀV TToAÀ v UmoArjbet TéÀos Coxev akóAovÜov, 
aAA eis roUvavriov züvra Oià Tüs TÓV OuomoAe- 
poUvray Ürepoxyàs perameaoetv avvéfm Già rouasras 
airtas. 

AA fiáóns $vyàs a cv é£ 'A0nvóv cwvemoAéumoe 
xpóvov Tw rois Aakeboupovious , kai peydAas ev 
TÓ TroAequ Xpetas TGpéoyero Jv yàp kai Aóyq 

vvarQTaros Kai rÓÀus moÀD mpoéyow rÀv moA- 


1 So Reiske-* «aüíoravro * So Dindorf, Bowwríav 
* So Dindoif. zpooópauóvro 
2290 


BOOK XIII. 36. 3—37 2 


complete concord, the generals kept quarrelling with 412 » c. 
each other — And finally they sailed to Oropus with- 

out preparation and met the Peloponnesans in a 
sea-battle ; but since they made a wretched begin- 

ning of the battle and stood up to the fighting hke 
churls, they lost twenty-two ships and barely got the 

rest safe over to Exetnia. 

After these events had taken place, the alhes of 
the Athenians, because of the defeat» they had suf- 
fered 1n Sicily as well as the estranged relations of 
the commanders, revolted to the Lacedaemon1ans. 
And smce Darius, the king of the Persians, was an 
ally of the Lacedaemonians, Pharnabazus, who had 
the mihtary command of the regions bordering on the 
sea, supphed money to the Lacedaemonians; and 
he also summoned the three hundred triremes sup- 
plied by Phoenicia, having in mind to dispatch them 
to the aid of the Lacedaemonians 

37. Inasmuch as the Athenans had experienced 
setbacks so serious at one and the same time, everyone 
had assumed that the war was at an end ; for no one 
expected that the Athenians could possibly endure 
such reverses any, longer, even for a moment. How- 
ever, events did not come to an end that talhed with 
the assumption of the majonty, but on the contrary 
it came to pass, such was the supenonty of the com- 
batants, that the whole situation changed for the 
followmg reasons. 

Alcibiades, who was in exile from Athens, had for 
a time fought on the side of the Lacedaemonians 
and had rendered them great assistance 1n the war ; 
for he was a most able orator and far the outstanding 

22] 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


rÀv, érU O' ebyeveia kat mÀovTq zpóros 'AOn- 
vaicv. o)ros otv émiÜvjdv Tijs eis TT"v sraTp(8Oa 
Tvyeiv. kaÜó8ov, vávra épwxaváro mpos TÓ Tols 
'AÜnvaiow p&£ai rv TÓVv xypnotpov, kai uáAuoT 
év ois kauwois éÓ0kovv Totg OÀow éAarro0oÜa.. 
éycv o)v duÀav mpós QGapváBaLov Tóv Aapeiov 
carpdmmv, kai Üecpóv a)róv uéAAovra Tpiakooías 
vaüs dmocTéAÀew Tots AakeOoiuoviows eis ovuua- 
x(qv, émewev dmooTívo. TíSs cvpd£ewos  éOiBaoke 
yàp cs o) coubépeu cQ aciAet robs Aake8a.- 
povious Toietv dyav ioxyvpoUs: o) yàp ocuvoicew 
llépcaus: &peirrov oiv eivat mepiopáv ToU)s Oia- 
ToÀeuoÜvras toovs Ovras, Óm«s mpós dÀMjAovs cs 
mÀetorov ypóvov Ouadépovrai. | Ó8ev 0 QapváBatos 
OuAaDov «0 Aéyew «óv 'Aldkwiá8qv, máAw TóÓv 
cTÓÀov üméoTeiev «is QGowüeqv.  córe uév oóv 
TruÀucaUTQv TÀV MakeGauuoviov ovuaxtav mapet- 
Àaro' uerà 8é rwa xpóvov rvycv Tíjs ka0ó8ov kai 
OvvájLecs Tyynodpuevos, vroAAais uév uáyaus. éviemoe 
Aakeüauuoviovs, kai TeÀéws rà cv 'Afmvaiwv 
Tpd;ypuara, srecóvra máAw T/yewev. dAÀAÀà epi uév 
TOUTOV Év TOUS oikeiows ypóvow àkpuBéorepov époo- 
pev, ta, p?) rap. dicw srpoAaufávopev Tf, ypad£ 
* / 
TOUS küupoUs. 

38. ToO yàp éwavowiov xpóvov OwAnAvÜÓros 
"AO5vmov uév Tjpxe. Geóropmros, "Popyato: 8 àvri 
TÓÀYv UT&rcv Térrapas xiMdpxovs karéorncav, T.Bé- 

! $o Dindoif- à. 


! Cp. chap. 36 5 


BOOK XIII. 37. 2—38. ! ] 
ciüizen in darmng, and, besdes, he was in hugh u2 sc 
birth. and wealth first among the Athenians Now 
since Alcibiades was eagei to be allowed to 1etuin to 
his native. city, he contrived every device. whereby 
he could do the Athenians some good turn, and in 
particular at the crucial moments when the Athemans 
seemed doomed to utter defeat. Accordingly, since 
he was on fnendly terms with Pharnabazus, the 
satrap of Darius, and saw that he was on the point of 
sending three hundred ships to the support of the 
Lacedaemonians, he persuaded him to give up the 
undertakmg ; for he showed him that it would not 
be to the advantage of the King to make the Lace- 
daemonians too powerful That would not, he said, 
help the Persians, and so a better pohcy would be to 
mamtaim a neutal attitude toward the combatants 
so long as they were equally matched, in order that 
they might continue their quarrel as long as possible. 
Thereupon Pharnabazus, belieung that Alcibiades 
was giving him good advice, sent the fleet back 
to Phoenicaa. Now on that occasion. Alcibiades de- 
prived the Lacedaemonians of so great an allied force ; 
and some time later, when he had been allowed to 
return to Athens and been given command of a 
mihtary force, he defeated the Lacedaemonians in 
many battles and completely restored again the 
sunken fortunes of the Athemans. But we shall 
discuss these matters in more detail in. connection 
with the appropriate period of time, 1n order that our 
account may not by anticipation violate the natural 
order of events. 

38 After the close of the year Theopompus was 4&1: 
archon in Athens and the Romans elected in place 
of consuls four mihtary tubunes, Tibeiius Postumius, 


223 


3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


puov IHoorospuov kat D'ítov KopvjAtov, zpós 8€ ToU- 
TOLS ['évov OvaAépuov KaL Kaéacva Dápuov epi 
0e ToUTOUS roUs xpóvovs ' AOnvatot Tv ék TÓV Terpa- 
KOoGÜCOV GÀwyapytay karéAvcav kaL TÓ ojoTw)ua TÍs 
mroÀvreías ék TÓV mroAvráv cvveorijoavro. TOÓTQV 
0€ mávTGV 7v elo"yniis ()mpapévns, àvnp kai TQ 
Bip kóopuos kai  dpovijoet OokÓv O.adépew TÓYV 
dAÀÀcv kai yàp TOV "AXafidany obTos póvos cvv- 
ef'ovAevae karáyew, 0i óv máAw éavro)s àvéAaBov, 
Kai qroÀÀ Ov GAAov eio ynT)s yevópevos ém. àyaDÜQ 
Tíjs Tro pibos o) perpías dmoboxfjs érÜyxavev. 
"AAA. raÜTOa pév pukpóv DOTepov éyevi]£n, eis 
9€ róv mróAepov ' AÜnvato: uév orparwyo)s karéorn- 
cav OpácvAAov xai OpaovBovAov, oi vOv oTÓAÀov 
eis 2ípov dUpotcavres éyouvalbov ro)s orparuóras 
eis vavpaxtav kaÜ" $uépav avameípas mrouoUp.evot. 


4 MüvOapos 9' ó rÀOv AakeBouuoviov vajapyos ypó- 


vov pév Two, mepi Trjv. MiAqrov Qiérpife, mpooóo- 
KQv uu mapa Dapvafiábov porüeuav | rpuakootas 
yàp Tpvipets àkoUcv ék Oowücqs karamzemAevkévat 
peréopos Tv rais erat, vopiGcov TyÀucoórQo OTÓÀC 
5 karaÀioew 3v " AUqvalcov dyepovíav: uer! óMyov 
M / / vu M 5 / / 
0€ cuÜOpjevós rwov, órc srewaÜeis ' AAkiuáón má 
améoreie TOv oTÓÀov eis GDowücqv, rTàs uév mapà 
/ ? / » /, $ 1 M / 
GO opvaBáLou éArióas àréyvc, a0rós 8€ karapricas 
Tás T' ék lleAomovvüoov vaüs kai ràs mapà TÓv 
é&cÜcv cvupáxov, Acpiéo, pév perà Tpiv kal 
Ócka. veQv améoTeiAev eis '"PóOov, mruvÜavóp.evos 
émi veomepugpuO Tias ewíoracÜn. TOv 'PoBov: 
/ ^ ^ 
vpocóáros yàp Tots AakeOauuioviows Tiwés TÓV 





! "his step was the government of the Five Thousand in 
224 


BOOK XIII 38 1-6 


Gaius Cornelus, Gaius Valerius, and. Caeso Fabius an s 
Át this time the Athenians dissolved the ohgarchy 
of the Four Hundred and formed the constitution 
of the government from the ciüzens at lage. The 
author of all these changes was Theramenes, a man 
who was orderly in his manner of life and was re- 
puted to surpass all others 1n judgement ; for he was 
the only person to advise the recall from exile of 
Alcibiades, through whom the Athenians recovered 
themselves, and since he was the author of many 
other measures for the benefit of his country, he was 
the recipient of no small approbation. 

But these events took place at a httle later time, 
and for the war the Athenmans appointed Thrasyllus 
and Thrasybulus gene1als, who collected the fleet at 
Samos and trained the soldiers for battle at sea, giving 
them daily exercises. But Mindarus, the Lacedae- 
monian admiral, was inactive for some time at 
Miletus, expecting the aid promised by Pharnabazus, 
and when he heard that three hundred triremes had 
aruived from Phoeniaia, he was buoyed up in his hopes, 
beheving that with so great a fleet he could destroy 
the empire of the Athenians. But when a little later 
he learned from sundry persons that Pharnabazus had 
been won over by Alcibiades and had sent the fleet 
back to Phoenicia, he gave up the hopes he had placed 
in Pharnabazus, and by himself, after equipping both 
the ships brought from the Peloponnesus and those 
supphed by his alhes f£iom abroad, he dispatched 
Dorieus with thirteen ships to Rhodes, since he had 
learned that certain Rhodians were banding together 
for a revolution —The ships we have mentioned had 


place of the ohgaichy of the Pour Hundred. "The old 
democracy was restored the following yeai 


VOL. V I 295 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


áró Tis 'lraÀias 'EMMjveov  àmeordAewav eis 
cvpuLay(av Tàs mpoewmiévas vaüs: a)rÓs O€ Tàs 
dAAas mácas àvaAaBóv, oDcas OyOo5kovra xal 
rpeis, daríjpev eis "EAXjomovrov 9i& 70 srvvüdveo0o, 
róv TÀv 'AÜmvaiov cróÀov év Xu OwurpiDew 
kaU' óv Ov) xpóvov oi rÀv 'AÜqvaieov ocrparwq»yoi 
ÜecpoÜüvres mapamAéovras àvfxyÜncav ém' obro)s 
ierà vedv éfákovra. rÀv 86 AakeOotovicv kar- 
evexyÜévrwv eis Xiov &ofe rois vOv '"AÜnvaiov 
orpaTWyois mpoomAe0üco,. Tf Aéop«, kàket mrapà 
TOv cvppáxcv dÜpotoot Trpuípews, Ómcs ur» ovg- 
Batvy Tos moÀeutovs Omwepéyew TQ mAnÜew Tv 
vedv 

89. Oóro: uév ov sept cabra. GvérpuiBov. Mivóa- 
pos 89  ó rÀv AakeOaqovicov vaiapxos vukrós |era 
ToU ocTÓÀov mavrós ékmAe?oas eig '"EMwjomovrov 
ékojiLero karà omovOrQv, kai Oevrepatos eis Ai- 
yevov karémAevaev. oi 0. ' AÜnvato: mvÜÓuevo, TOv 
vaGpázÀovwv oÀk àvépewav dmágas Tàs Tvopà TÓV 
cvudyov Tpvfjpeis, TpuOv O6 óvov mpooyevo- 
p.évov aiTo(s, éOUekov ro0s AakeGawuoviovs. émet 
9' $AÜov eig 2iyewv, ebpov TOv pév oTÓAÀov ék- 
memÀevkÓra, Tpeis Oé vaüs OmoAeAeu4uévas, dv 
e0Üécs ékvpievcav kai perà rabrT. eig "EAeotvra 
kaTraTmÀeUcavres Tü wepi TY vaupayxtav ap- 
eoKeváLovro.  AakeÓauuóviou O6 Üecopotvres ToUs 
TOÀeuiovs Tà mpós TTV páyyv érowuuatopnévovs, 
ka, aUroi TévÜ' 7jépas avareipas! srovoUjevou kai 
yvpuyàcavres roUs épéras, éf£éra£av TOv orÓÀov eis 
va.ujL.a.xCGav, ovra. vel Ovetv éAdrc TÓYV évevijkovra. 
ooro. Lév oüv ék ToÜ mpós T"? 'ÁÀcíav gépovs 
éor)oav Tràs vuUs, ot O' 'AÜmvatoi TÓ mpós Tv 
296 


BOOK XIII. 38. 6—39. 3 


recently been sent to the Lacedaemonians as an i1 c. 
alhed force by certain Greeks of Italy.—And Mindarus 
himself took all the other ships, numbering eighty- 
three, and set out for the Hellespont, since he had 
learned that the Atheman fleet was tarryimg at 
Samos. The moment the generals of the Athemans 
saw them saihng by, they put out to sea against them 
with gaxty ships — But when the Lacedaemomans put 
in at Chios, the Athenian generals decided to sail on 
to Lesbos and there to gather triremes from the 
alhes, 1n order that 1t should not turn out that the 
enemy surpassed them in number of ships 

390 Now the Athenians were engaged in gathering 
ships But Mindarus. the Lacedaemonian admuiral, 
setting out by night with his entire. fleet, made in 
haste for the Hellespont and arrived on the second 
day at Sigerum ! When the Athenians learned that 
the fleet had sailed by them, they did not wait for 
all the trnemes of their alhes. but after only three 
had been added to ther number they set out in 
pursuit of the Lacedaemonians | When they arrived: 
at &Sgeium, they found the fleet already departed, 
but three ships left behind they at once captured ; 
after this they put in at Eleus * and made prepara- 
tionsfor thesea-battle The Lacedaemonians, seeing 
the enemy rehearsmg for the battle, did likewise, 
spending five days in proving their ships and exer- 
cising their rowers , then they drew up the fleet for 
the battle, :t«. strength being eighty-eight ships. 
Now the Lacedaemonians stationed their «hips on the 
Asian «ide of the channel. while the. Athemans lined 


1 Onthe Asian «ide at the very entrance of the Hellespont. 
* Directly oppogite Sigeium 


1 So Hertlein àvézetpav 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


5 / Y ? / ^ M / 
E)po-w«v éxyovres àvrav5yovro, TO év mÀnÜü« 
4 Aevrójevo, rais O. éjmewpious Dmepéyovres. | Aake- 
o ^ ^ / 
Oautóviot ju£v oOv évi coU Ocfio0 képaros érafav 
^ ? ^ 
Tro)s Zwpakoctovus àv 'Epuokpárus dà$myeitro, rO 
/ 

9' eóQvupuov a)7ol cuvemA)povv lleAomovviüjotoi, 
/ M L1 / x ^ 5 5 
Miódpov Tv Wyepoviav éyovros. TÀv 89  'Afm- 

" 5 v M] M 8 M ? 7 0 (9 / ÀA ? 84 
vaicv émi uév vó 8efióv éráyÜm GOpáovAMos, éàmi 
0e rÓ eücvupov Gpac)BovAos kai rÓ pev mpórov 
éoTrevóov apud órepot diAoruuoDpevor epi ToÜ TÓT OV 

5 Óvrcs ui) TÓv poÜv éycotw évavríov. O10 kat vroÀov 

vov GÀAYJÀ inÀeov, GuakÀet 3 
xpóvov aAAYjÀovs TrepiémÀeov, GuakAetovres rà ovevà 
kai mepi Tfjs aráoecs romopaxobÜvres erat) yàp 
'AfU8ov kai Ziyoro? Tfjs vavuaxtas ywopévas ovv- 
éBawve TOv potv o) uerpiíws éumoO(Lew dv orevots 

/ , 1 ? N e ^ ? 7 ^ 
rómows. 0) uT»v GÀX oi rÀv ' AÜnvaiov kvBepvíjrat 
TOÀD Ta(s éjmetpious mpoéxovres ToÀÀAÀ mpós Tv 
vi«yv ovveBáAovro. 

40. T&v yàp IleAomovvqotow $mnepexóvrov TO 
/ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
mre. rÓYv veQv kai rais rÀv érifaróv dperois, 7) 
/ ^ ^ E ^ 
Téxvn TÀv kvBepvyràv dxpuovov v)» DrepoxTyv TÓv 
évayrüiwv émo(ew. | ómróre yàp ot IIeAomovvjotot xarà 

b 2 / ^ N ? ? M ? / 
oTovÓ"v dàÜpócis rais vaveiv eis éuBoArsv émé- 
powro, ràs éavrOv oUrcs duÀoréyvos kaÜ(oravov 
7 ^ 
cre ToU puév &ÀÀov pépovs a)rás ju Ov9vaoÜa, 
Ü.yetv, Trois 0€ oróuacu. TOv éufóAov  uóvows 
2 avaykáieo0a.  ovufdAAew. | Oumep ó. MüvOapos 
OpOv QTpakrov oücav T)v é« TÀv éufoAÀQv Bav, 
kar. óÀcyas kai koarà pav ékéAevae ovurAékeoÜa.. 
? ^ ^ ^ 
oU uv o00. évraüUa T$v TÀv kvfepvgrOv céyvgv 
! aoroi suggested by Vogel (cp. Thuc. 8 101. 3). abrots. 
* Oety] Oye PF. 
228 


BOOK XIII 39. 3—40 2 


up against them on the European side, bemg fewer usc. 
m number but of superior traimng — The Lacedae- 
monians put on their nght wing the Syracusans, whose 
leader was Hermocrates, and the Peloponnesians 
themselves formed the whole left wing with Mindarus 
im eommand For the Athenans Thrasyllus was 
stationed on the nght wing and Thrasybulus on the 
left At the outset both sides strove stubbornly for 
position in order that they might not have the current 
againstthem Consequently t they kept sailing around 
each other for a long time, endeavouring to block off 
the straits and stiugghng for an advantageous posi- 
ton; for the battle took place between Abydus and 
Sestus ! and 1t so happened that the current was of no 
little hindranee where the strait was narrow — How- 
ever, the pilots of the Athenian fleet, bemg far superior 
in expenience, contributed greatly to the victory. 

40. Yor although the Peloponnesians had the ad- 
vantage 1n the number of their «hips and the valour 
of their mannes, the skill of the Athenian pilots 
rendered the supenonty of their opponents of no 
effect For whenever the Peloponnesians, with their 
ships in a body. would charge swiftly forward to 
ram, the pilots would manere their own ships 50 
skilfully that their opponents weie unable to strike 
them at any other spot but could only meet them 
bows on, ram against iam — Consequently Mindarus, 
seemg that the force of the rams was proving in- 
effective, gave orders for his ships to come to grips 
in small groups, or one at a time But not by this 
manoeuvre either, às it turned out, was the skill of 


! Some eight miles up the Hellespont from the entrance 


220 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


» *T / 5 » * ^ $ 7 
dpa: 0v etvat ovvéfouvev, &ÀX. eüdvis ékicAtvoii eg 
^ ^ & / 
rüàs TOv veOv émwbepouévas éufoAàs mAaytaus év- 
éceiov kai moÀÀds karerirpookov. duÀorwuas 8 

/ ^ 
épmecojons cis àpdorépovs, o) puovov Tais éu- 
"^ / La 
BoAats Ovwekwóvvevov, àÀÀà ovpmAekópevov | Tois 
, / / M ? e M ^ ^ 
émuBáraus OvyycviLovro. | moÀÀS 9. m0 Tís ToO 
^ e 
poU Bias Guakevópevot mpárrew éd! ikavóv ypóvov 
OLextvOUvevov, ov0erépov Ovvauévov Tvxetv TÍs 
^ / 
víx«tys — icoppómov 06 Tífjs náyns ovovs, éreóávnoav 
ózép Tivos ükpas vas «ioci vévre sapà TÓv 
/ ? / ^ ? / 
cvuuAdxycv ümeoraAuéva, rots '"AÜnvatow. | Qofn- 
/ M c / 1 M M 
0évres ó6é ot lleAomovvüow mpos c75v "AvOov 
» ? / ^^ 5 / M / 
&jvyov, é£amrouévov vOv ' AÜnvaiov xai diAoruAÓ- 
repov Ouo£ávrov. 
^ M H t^ / / 
T's 9é vavuaxias TowO0rov TéÀos Aafoocms, 
'AOnvatow vaüs éAafov Oxrc uv Xov, mévre 86 
KopiwOicv, 'AuBpakwuoráv 8€ 8vo, Xwvpaxooiov 8é 
" /| 3 Y / / ; € 7 
ka, IeAAqvéowv! kat AevkaBiov uiav e£ éxáorowv: 
NE n / 5 ^ » 4 a / 
a)ro, O6 mévre vabs àméDaAov, ás vácas Bwüi- 
^ / M X ^ff)? € 1 1 / 
cÜfvai cvvéBu. era 86 ra00. oi cepi Tóv Opao?- 
BovÀov éorQcav Tpómaiov émi Tfj ákpas, oÓ -Ó 
Tífs 'Exáfgs éovi uvquetov, kai ToUs ümayye- 
Aotvras TTv vükmv eis 'AÁO^vas émeuiav, abroi 86 
perà Tavrós ToU oTÓÀou TÓv mÀolüv émi KwCucov 
émowvjcavro ajr? yàp mpOó Tíás vavpuax(as T" ddó- 
^ M / 
eor2kvta, pos QapváBaQov róv Aapetov avpommyóv 
kai KAéapyov róv Aake8auuovicv Tyyeuóva. | eüpóv- 
5 E ^ ^ 
res Ü' avrijv üreixuorov po8itos Tífs émfloAfs ékpá- 
! So Vogel: ILoMmvato. 
* mévre] vevrekaibeka Thuc. 8. 106 3 


230 


BOOK XIII. 40. 2-6 


the Athenian pilots rendered ineffective; on the uic 
contrary, cleverly avoiding the on-coming rams of the 
ships, they struck them on the side and damaged 
many. And such a spint of nvalry pervaded both 
forces that they would not confine the struggle to 
ramming tactics, but tangling ship with ship fought 
it out with the maiines — Although they were hm- 
dered by the strength of the current from achieving 
great success, they continued the struggle for a 
considerable time, neither side being able to gain 
the victory. While the fighting was thus equally 
balanced, there appeared beyond a cape twenty-five 
ships which had been dispatched to the Athenians 
from their allies The Peloponnesians thereupon in 
alarm turned 1n fhght toward Abydus, the Athenians 
chnging to them and pursung them the more 
vigorously. 

Such was the end of the battle ; and the Athenians 
captured eight ships of the Chians, five of the 
Corinthians, two of the Ambraciotes, and one each 
of the Syracusans, Pellemans, and Leucadians, while 
they themselves lost five ships, all of them, as it 
happened,having beensunk — Afterthis Thrasybulus 
set up a trophy on the cape where stands the memorial 
of Hecabé ! and sent messengers to Athens to carry 
word of the victory, and himself made his way to 
Cyzicus with the entre fleet — For befo1e the sea- 
battle this city had revolted to Pharnabazus, the 
general of Danus, and to Clearchus, the Lacedae- 
monian commander — Finding the city unfortified the 

! Also called ** Hecabé's Monument" and *'' Biteh's 
Monument " (Strabo, 7 55, the Cynossema of the Romans, 
modern Cape Volpo), because one account states that Hecabé 


(Hecuba) was metamorphosed into a biteh (ep. Euripides, 
Hec. 12713) 


231 


L2 


E: 


Ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TQ0OQV, küi xp'ip.ara. mpa£ápevo, Tos KvoCuevoos 
dmémAevcav eig 2moróv 

4l. Mivoapos o. óÓ TÓv AaxeÜauuovicov vaUapxos 
Gmó TS Tirr)S óvyov eis "AfvOov Tás Te Temovn- 
kutas vaüs émeokeaoe kai mpós Tràs év EUfoíüq 
TpVr)peus áméoreuev "Ema TÓv 2WrapmwTW, 
mpoorá£as dyew TV raXtoriv. ós émei karémàev- 
cev eis EXfoiav, üÜpoícas ràs vaüs ovcas mevr- 
KOVTQ. KO.T gmovónv avüxyÜn: kai karà TÓv "AQ 
yevop.évov TÓv rpujpcov émeyevij£ XeuLcov TyÀ- 
KoÜTOS cGOT€ TS JL€V vas a7zácas àmoÀég0at TrÓÀv 
O6 dvOpOv Od0exa uóvov OtacwÜ0$va. — ÓnÀoi 8é 
Trà! mepl ro)rov dváÜmua keiuevov év c mepi 
Kopovetav veQ, kaÜdmep dnoiv "Eóopos, r)jv ém- 
ypa$üv éyov raóTqv: 


otO- omó mevrikovra vedv (lávarrov mrpo$vyóvres 
TpÓs ckoméAougw ' ' Ago odpora. yf véAacav 
OcOeka, roUs Ó. &GAÀovs OÀecev péya Aairua, Üa- 
AÀácons 
víjüs re oTvyepois TveUpaot ypncapévas. 


Ileoi 86 Tv ajróv Kaupóv "AAkiBvdóns xov 
da M UR Tpvpeus .KorémAevae Trpós TOUS év 
Zio OuorpiBovras, ot TáAÀaL "poak)Koóres jov 
ÓTL memeukas etn TOV DapváfSa Sov MWnuKÉér. rais 
TpiaKOOlQLS VOUOL PorjBetv TOlS Aacebüautoviows. 
diÀoópóvos 9 a.oTOV amoDeCapévov TOV Év Tjj 
Xápo, OwAéyero mpós abroUs ;mepi Tfjs kaÜó8ov, 
TOÀÀA karemuyyeMópuevos Xp]auuos éceoÜa. T$ 
TOTpiÓ., Ououos kai rÀ& kaÜ' éavróv dmoAoynoá- 


! So Hertlein* uóvovs. 


* r& Vogel: có. 
OD 


BOOK XIII 40. 6—41. 5 


Athemans easily achieved their end, and after exact- 11 5c. 
ing money of the Cyzicem they sailed off to Sestus 

41. Mundarus, the Lacedaemonian admiral, aftei 
lus flight io Abydus from the «cene of hus defeat 
repaired the ships that had been damaged and also 
sent the Spartan Epicles to the triremes at Euboea 
with orders to bnng them with all speed. When 
Epicles armved at Euboea, he gathered the slups, 
which amounted to fifty, and hurnredly put out to 
sea; but when the tnremes were off Mt Athos there 
arose a storm of such fury that all the ships were lost 
and of their crews twelve men alone surivved — These 
facts are set foith by a dedication, as Ephorus states, 
which stands 1n the temple at Coroneia and bears the 
following inseniption . 


These from the crews of fifty ships, escaping de- 
struction, 
Brought their bodies to Jand hard by Athos' sharp 


crags ; 
Only twelve, all the rest the yawning depth of the 

waters 
Took to their death with their ships, meeting with 


termnble winds 


At about the same tme Alabiades with thirteen 
themes came by sea to the Athenians who were 
lying at Samos and had already heard that he had 
persuaded Pbharnabazus not to come, as he had 
intended, with hus three hundred ships to reinforce 
the Lacedaemonians. And since the troops at Samos 
gave him a fnendly welcome, he discussed with 
them the matter of hus return from exile, offering 
promises to render many services to the fatherland ; 
and in like manner he defended his own conduct and 


VOL. V r2 233 


r2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


A A M € e^ o / 7 e 
jp.evos ai zoÀÀà Trjv éavroU Ookpócas rUXqv, ÓrL 
^ ^ / 
"v üO(av dpersv v-0 rÀv éxÜpiv qvdykacrac kara 
Tfjie marpüóos évOei£acÜa, 
r ^ ^ 3 

42. "Tv 86 ovparuorOv àopnévos To)s Aóyovs 
"pooOecapévov kai sepu. rovrov Owmepalbauévov 
eis ' AÜvjvas, &Qo£e rà OY)u« Tov àvÓpa Tv éykAn- 

^ ^ ^ / 
uárev dxoÀóca,. kat peraOoÜva. Tís oTparw»yias: 
Üecpobvres yàp aDroU TÓ mpakrikOv Tíjs TÓÀUmS 
M A M ^ e / e / 

xai T)v Tapà Tots "EAMQo. 8ó£av, DmeAáuBavov, 
ómep Tjv eiKós, o0 pukpàrv pomTv &oeoÜa. cois 
cóerépow Tpáyp|aow rovrov Tpooyevouévov. kai 
yàp ó Tüs moÀvetas àjmyoUpevos róre Omnpagé- 
vjs, àvip ei kai vis GAÀos civau. Oó£as ouverós, 

^ / / / M ? / 

TQ O")u« ocvveBovAevoe karáyew 70v ' AAifideny. 
/ 5 E / 5 / ? / 
roUrwov O. dmoyyeA0évrov eis Ziáuov, ' AMcfiáons 
vpós ais eixev iOíms vavgi Tpioka(Beka évvéa 
/ Ml M Pd 5 / H Ld 
mpocéÀaBe, kat perà rovrov ékmAeUcas els 'AA- 
kapvaccóv Tap, Tífje róÀecs eicempátoro xpriuama. 
perà 9Oé Taóra Tv Mepomióa! smopÜfoas ger& 

^ / 3 / 5 / ^ A 
vOoÀMÉfs Àe(as QüvémAÀevoev eis 3áuov.  moÀÀÓv 8€ 
cvvaxÜévrov Aad)pouv, rois T &y Xdáue orpanó- 
TQis Kai Tois j.€Ü" éavroU OvcAópevos às cieActas 
TGXU roUs «D malóvras e)vovs éavrQ karecakeUacev 

M N M] 5 Ml / ? / A 
llep; óé vOv a)rOv ypóvov '"AvrávÓpwow, dpovpáàv 
/ 

éxovres, jveremépibavro sopa, AakeGoquovicv orpa- 

/ » v ; / ^ X 5 / 
Tworas, ueÜ* àv éxBaAóvres r1» QuAakmv éAevÜépav 

/ 

qkovv T»V TüTpiÓn: oi yàp Aae8Oauuóvios Trepi 
^ ? ^ ^A ^ 
Tí eis Qowiüwgv aroorToÀfjs TOv Tpiakocicv veàv 


! So Palmer  MepoSíza 


E 


* Aecording to Thucydides (8. 81) this meeting between 
Aleibiades and the Athenian [lect took place befoie the 
naval battle. * The Assembly in Athens. 


934 


BOOK XIII. 41 5—42 4 


shed many tears over his own foitune, because he i1 5c 
had been compelled by his enemies to give proof of 
his own valour at the expense of his native land : 
429. And sce the soldiers heartily welcomed the 
offers of Alabiades and sent messages to Athens 
regarding them, the people? voted to dismuss the 
charges against Alcibiades and to give him a share 
in the command ; for as they observed the effiaency 
of his daring and the fame he enjoyed among the 
Greeks, they assumed, and with good reason, that 
his adherence to them would add no httle weight 
to the cause. Moreover, Theramenes, who at the 
tme enjoyed the leadership in the government and 
who, 1f anyone, had a reputation of sagacity, advised 
the people to recall Aleibiades — When word of this 
action was reported to Samos, Alcibiades added nine 
ships to the thirteen he already had, and sailing with 
them to Hahearnassus he exacted money from that 
city After this he sacked Meropis ? and returned 
to Samos with much plunder And smce a great 
amount of booty had been amassed, he divided the 
spolls among the soldiers at Samos and his own 
troops, thereby soon causing the recipients of his 
benefactions to be well disposed toward himself. 
About the same time the Antandrians.* who were 
held by a garrison,* sent to the Lacedaemonians for 
soldiers, with whose aid they expelled the garrison 
and thus made their country a free place to live im , 
for the Laeedaemonians, finding fault with. Pharna- 
bazus for the sending of the three hundred ships back 
? 'The island of Cos 


* Just outside the Troad to the south-east. 
5 Of Persians (Thucydides, 8. 108) 


ct 


r2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ ^ / A^ ; 
éykaAoüvres 7Q (Dapvafál« rots "AvravÓpov oi- 
^ / 
kofot cvveudynoav. 
^ M / / M bi i4 
T&v 8é cvyypadéov GOovkvoiOns nuév Tv (oro- 
píav karéorpoóe, mepuAaDcw xpóvov érüv eikoot 
xai Ovotv év BUBAois ókro* mwés 86 Owaipobow eis 
* / P ^ A A / 5155 "e 3 / 
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1 $o Dindorf: karéovpele 


236 


BOOK XIII 42. 4—43 2 


io Phoeneia, gave then aid to the inhabitants. of itt i. 
Ántandrus. 

Of the historians, Thucydides ended his lustoiy;! 
having included à pend of twenty-two years im 
eight Books, although some divaide it ito nme?; 
and Xenophon and Theopompus have begun at the 
point where Thucydides left offi Xenophon em- 
braced a period of forty-eighti years, and Theo- 
pompus set forth the facts of Greek history for 
seventeen yeais and brings his account to an end 
with the sea-battle of Cmdus m twehe Books ? 

Such was the state of affaws in Greece and 
Ása. The Romans were wagmg war with the Aequi 
and 1nvaded their territory with a strong army , and 
investing the city named Bolae they took 1t by siege. 

43. When the events of this year had come to an 410 »4 
end, 1n Athens Glaucippus was archon and in Rome 
the consuls elected were Maicus Cornehus and 
Lucius Funus At this tme in Siecdy the Aeges- 
taeans, who had alhed themselves with the Athemans 
agamst the Syracusans, had fallen into great fea at 
the conclusion of the war; for they expected, and 
with good reason, to pay the penalty to the Sicilan 
Greeks for the wrongs they had infhceted upon them. 
And when the Selinuntians went to war with them 
over the land 1n dispute,* they withdrew fiom it of 
their free will, being. concerned lest the Syracusans 
should use this exeuse to join the Selnuntians in the 
war and they should thereby run the risk of utteily 


|o,6 with this year. 

? Modern editions recognize eight Books. 

3 'The Hellen«ca of Xenophon covers the years 411—362 n c., 
ending with the battle of Mantineia, and the /lellenica of 
Theopompus, which 1s not extant, included the years 410- 
304. B c. * Cp. Book 12. 82. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 T5)v warpioa. émei 0. ot 2ieÀwoUvriot ,Xeopis Tfjs 


Ct 


apdwop roiv moAÀM TÍS mrapaceuuévms ümeré- 
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kai vfjv TÓlw a)rois éyxetpitovres. kao rÀev- 
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karamemoAeumuévas ràs rÀv 'AÜmvaicv Ovváne. 
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Prqotpuov xdpas, vrpéofleus dmréoreue perà TÓV 
Ácyeoraiwv mpós Xvpakootous, émvrpémov a)rois 

1 "Avvifov cvpBovAevovros added by Vogel, capaiaAotvros 


by, Reiske, ro6 placed after mperedovros by Dindorf. 
? So Dindorf; Ópcos. 





* Às one of the two annually elected suffetes, somewhat 
238 


BOOK XIII 43 3-6 


destroying their country. But when the Selinuntians uv s c. 
proposed, quite apart from the terntory in dispute, 
to carve off for themselves a large portion of the 
neighbouung terntory, the mhabitants of Aegesta 
thereupon dispatched ambassadors to Carthage, 
asking for aid and putting their eity in. the hands 
of the Caithagimans || When the envoys armved and 
laad before the Senate the instructions the people 
had given them, the Carthaginians found themselves 
in no httle quandary : for while thev were eager to 
acquire à eity so stiategically situated, at the same 
tune they stood im fear of the Syracusans, having 
just witnessed their defeat of the armaments of the 
Athenans But when Hannmbal, ther foremost 
citizen, also advised them to acquire the city, they 
rephed to the ambassadors that they would come to 
ther aid, and to supervise the undertaking, 1n case 
it should lead io war, they selected as general 
Hannibal, who at the time lawfully exercised sove- 
reign powers! He was the grandson of Hamilcar, 
who fought in the wai agamst Gelon and died at 
Himera,? and the son of Gescon, who had been exiled 
because of his father's defeat and had ended his 
hfe in Selinus. 

Now Hannibal, who by nature was a hater of the 
Greeks and at the same time desired to wipe out 
the disgraces which had befallen his ancestors, wa« 
eager by his own efforts to achieve some advantage 
for his country. Hence, seemg that the Sehnuntians 
were not satisfied with the cesaon of the terntory 
m dispute, he dispatehed ambassadors together with 
the Aegestaeans to the Syracusans, referring to them 


similar to the Roman consuls. Evidently Diodorus preferred 
not to use the unfamiliar title * Cp Book 11 21-22 


930 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tv Kpiotv roÓTcV, TÓ pév AÓyq TpooroLoUuevos 
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pev pur BovÀouévov, moÀÀà 8€ mpós To)vs mapà 
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Tüpeiv pos guév £eAwovvriovus TT? ocvpuaxítav, 
"pós 0€ Kapynóoviovs Tr5v eipyvqv. | 

44 Meràü 96 c)v émávoOov TOv  mpeopevrdv 
Kapyn8óvio. uév Tots Aiyeoratow àréoreiAav Aí- 

vds Te vevrakioxiMovs kat TÀv Kajraváv ókra- 
Koctovs. otro. O. 7oav Omó rÓÀv XaAÀkiémv crois 
" AÜnvat i; TO s X3wpakocíovs TrÓÀeuov pe- 

qVGio:s eis TOV "pos 2pakocious TÓAÀeuOV p. 
puoÜcouévoi, kai puerà TT)v T)orrav koaramemÀev- 
KÓres oUk «eiyov To)0g puoÜoGorücovras: oi àé 
Kapym8óvio! T&oiv Vmmovs dyopácavres kai ga- 
oÜovs àfioAóyovs Bóvres eis T)v Alyecrav kar- 
éorncav. 

Ot 86 ZieXwosvriow koc! ékeivovs ro)s ypóvovs 
evOnuuovoÜvres kai Tíjs mÓAews abrots zroÀvavOpo)- 
o7)s, kareópóvovv rÀv Aiyeoraiov | kai TÓ uév 
Trprov év rá£eu zv Óuopov xópav érópÜovv, sroA) 
7poéyovres Tra(s Ovvápueo:, uerà 06 rabra kara- 
$povijcavres kara. rácav 1v xopav éakcódoÜncav. 
ot 0é rv Aiyeoraíov orparw)yoi vapornprjcavres 
avroUs éméÜevro uerà rv KapywOovicov kai rÓwv 
Kapsavv — dwpooOor)rov 86 Tíjs édó8ov yevo- 
Hévoys pa8íos érpébavro voUs XeMwovvriovs, kai 
TÓV pev orpurioTOv dveiÀov mepi xiMovs, cíjs 

! So Dindorf: zoAvávópov oto. 
243.0 


BOOK XIII. 43. 6—44. 4 


the decision of the dispute; and though ostensibly 50 5c 
he pretended to be seeking that Justice be done, m 

fact he believed that, after the Sehnuntians 1efused 

to agree to arbitration, the Syracusans would not joim 
them asalhes | Since theSehnuntians also dispatched 
ambassadors, refusing the arbitration and answering 

at length the ambassadors of the Carthaginians and 
Aegestaeans, in the end the Syracusans decided to 

vote to maintain then alhance with the Selinuntians 

and their state of peace with the Carthagmians 

4* After the return of then ambassadors the 
Carthagimnans dispatched io the Aegestaeans fne 
thousand Libyans and exght hundred Campamans. 
These troops had been hired by the Chalcidians ! to 
aid the Athenians in the war against the Syracusans, 
and on the return after its disastrous conclusion they 
found no one to hire their services ; but the Cartha- 
giians purchased horses for them all, gave them high 
pay, and sent them to Aegesta. 

The Sehnuntians, who were prosperous in those 
days and whose city was heavily populated, held the 
Aegestaeans m contempt. nd at first, deploying 
n battle order, they laid waste the land which touched 
the border, since their armies were far superior, but 
after this, despising their foe, they scattered every- 
where over the countryside The generals of the 
Aegestaeans, watching ther opportumty, attacked 
them with the aid of the Carthagimans ? and Cam- 
panians. Smee the attack was not expected, they 
easily put the Selinuntians to fhght, lkalhng about a 
thousand of the soldiers and capturing all their loot 


| Of Sicily. 
? Moie aceuiately, the Libyan mercenaries mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph 


241 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


06 Aeías váo's ékvpievoav.  nerà Óé Tv pudymv 
e)écs dméoreAav mpéofew, ot juév  ZieAwoivriot 
pos 2ivpakoctovs, ot 0  Aibyeoratow pos Kap- 
x990ovious «epi BonÜcías ^ ékarépov O' émay- 
yeiAoqévov | ovppiaxyjocew, 0. uév. Kapynóovuakós 
móÀeuos raUvrqv éAaBev àpyxv ot 806 Kapynóówo: 
7poopcievou TO péyeÜos ToU sroÀéuov, T"»v ém- 
vpomTyv ێ0ckav 'Avvifa TQ OorpoTQyQ mepi ToO 
peyéOüovs ví Ovvdpews, kai mávra mpoÜUpcs on- 


? ^ Ht 
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üáons TÓÀews ToUs kparíorovs, kai vaUs map- 
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uévus GupiBátew às Svváuers. 

T& pév odv xarà rv 3uceMav év rovrous sv. 

45 Karà 8é c5v 'EAMOa AcpieDs ó 'Pó8tos, 

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otros yàp ev '"ABvOq OGurpiov cvvtye mavrayóÜev 
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é ro A«piés Ovros sept có Xityevov 7fje Tpodá8os, 
e ^ 
ot Trept 2onoóv óvres ' AÜnvato, srvÜÓjevoi rÓv mapá- 
mÀovv àv5yÜncav ém' a)roós mdonaus Tai vavoiv, 
ojUcats éOoprjkovra. kat réocapow. ó 86 A«piebs 

7 
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peréopos karavoáoas 86 TÓ uéyeÜos roD oróÀov 
karemAdym, Kai ocT)piav dAÀAyv oj8euiav dpüv 
/ 

karédvyev eis AápBavov.  éxfiflácas 8€ roUs orpa- 
Tróras Kai ToUs dpovpotvras rjv móAw mpocAafló- 
249 


BOOK XIII 44. 4—415 4 


And after the battle both sides stiaightw av. dis- 5101 
patehed ambassadors, the Selinuntians to the Syra- 
cusans and the Aegestaeans to the Caithaginians, 
asking for help. Both parties promised ther asast- 
ance and the Carthaginian War thus had its beginning 
The Carthaginians, foreseeing the magnmtude of the 
war, entrusted the responsibility for the size of thew 
armament to Hannibal as their general and enthua- 
asucally rendered him every assistance And Hanni- 
bal during the summer and the following wanter 
enhsted many mercenanes from Ibena and also 
enrolled not à few from among the cibzens; he 
also vinted Làbya, choosing the stoutest men from 
every city, and he made ready ships, planning to 
convey the armies across with the opening of spring. 

Such, then, was the state of affairs in Sicily. 

45. In Greece Doneus the Rhodian, the admiral 
of the triremes from Italy, after he had quelled the 
tumult in Rhodes, set sail for the Hellespont, being 
eager to join Mindarus; for the latter was lymg 
at Abydus and colleetnng from every quarte the 
ships of the Peloponnesian alhance — Ànd when Do- 
reus was already in the neighbourhood of Sigeium 
i the Troad, the Athemans who were at Sestus, 
learning that he was sailing along the coast, put out 
agamst hum with ther ships, seventy-foui in all. 
Doneus held to his course for a time in ignorance of 
what was happemng; but when he observed the 
great strength of the fleet he was alarmed, and seeing 
no other way to save his force he put m at Dardanus. 
Here he disembarked his soldiers and took over the 


1 Cp. chap. 38. 5, Thucydides, 8. 44 
943 


10 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ievos, péAn re vrajrAne TaXxéws 3 mapexópuoe KaL 
Tv arparuoTdy OUS ev émi TÓs Trppas éméormocv, 
oUs O  émi Tíjs yis eükaípos éra£ev. ot O0 -Afn- 
vaio KQTO mov emrovóTv karamAeóoavres éy- 
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vÀnÜei TrepuxvuÜévres karemóvovv TOUS évavrtovs. 
à 91) TvÜóuevos MivOapos Ó rv HeAorrovvgatav 
vaUapxos, eUÜécos é£ Apuov per TavTÓS aviy 8n 
ToU aTÓÀov, kai karémÀet mpós TÓ AapOdvetov uerà 
veQv reocápov mpós rais ÓyOo"kovra, DonÜ")cov 
Tots uerà roO Acpiéos ovwmapfjv 86 kai TO meLóv 
orpárevua TOU GOapvaDáLov BonÜotv rois Aaxe- 
OaLtLOVLOLS 

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kai MívOapos uév éyov émrà vpós rais évevrikovra 
vavciv émi pev TÓ Aatóv Képas éra£e Zupakootovs, 
TOU Ocfio0 8 ajTós etye T7) fyyepovtay: TOv 8 
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pav TO cUco"uov Tífs uáxyns, ot caAmucrai Óe TM 
vos mrapayyvyéAjaros. TjpSavro o"Latveww TÓ Tro- 
Aeuucóv: kai vOv uév éperáw oUQey eAAeumóvr oov 
"poüvuias, TOv Oé kvBepvyrüv évréyvws rots 
ota£t Xpeopévov, karraamnkerucóv cvvéBauve ytveoOa. 
TÓv àyÓOva  Ómóre yàp ai rpuf)peus eis epBoliv 
énujépowro;' Trvuoüra. ot kuDepviirat mrpós aÜTTv 
TT|v ToO katpo$ pom éméorpedov Ts vaüs Tpay- 
paucas Gore Tàs mÀwyàs yiveoUat kac epi BoAMjv. 
oL uév oov émuárac Üecpobtvres motas TÓS €av- 
TOv va)s ouvemijepouévas caís Óv moAeuiov 
244 


DOOK XIII. 45 4-10 


troops who were guarding the city, and then he u0:c 
speedily got in a vast supply of missiles and stationed 
his soldiers both on the fore-parts of the ships and 
1n advantageous positions on the land The Athe- 
nians, sailing in at full speed, set to work hauhng 
the ships away from the shore, and they were 
wearing down the enemy, having crowded them 
on every side by ther superor numbers. When 
Mindarus, the Peloponnesian admiral, learned of the 
situation, he speedily put out from Abydus with his 
enüure fleet and sailed to the Dardaman Promontory ! 
with eighty-four ships to the aid of the fleei of 
Dorieus ; and the land army of Pharnabazus was 
also there, supporting the Lacedaemonians. 

When the fleets came near one another, both «des 
drew up the triremes for battle ; Mindarus, who had 
ninety-seven ships, stationed the Syracusans on hi 
left wing, whue he himself took command of the 
nght; as for the Athenians, Thrasybulus led the 
right wing and Thrasyllus the other. — After the forces 
had made ready in this fashion, their commanders 
raised the signal for battle and the trumpeters at a 
amgle word of command began to sound the attack , 
and since the rowers showed no lack of eagerness 
and the pilots managed them helms with sull, the 
contest which ensued was an amazing spectacle. For 
whenever the triremes would drive forward to ram, 
at that moment the pilots, at just the errieal imstant. 
would turn the ships so effectively that the blows 
were made ram on  À«s for the marmes, whenever 
they would see their own ships borne along with their 
sides to the triremes of the enemy, they would be 


1 Some ten miles inside the Hellespont on the Asian side. 
NN MEME (o CEDE M MU MM MENU NE 


1 So Hertlein (cp. ch. 40. 1) : ézeóépovro. 
94.5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


rpvíjpeot, mrepióeetis € éytvovro, Trepi o$àv à Gycyvivres 
ómóre 9' oi kuBepvfjrau. roís épmretptaus ékkpoboeua 
7às émibopás, váAww éyivovro mepwyapets kai pe- 
TÉGpOL Tos éXrriotw 
46. O9 n oU0 oi rois KQ.TQOTDOJLO.0U/ emiBe- 
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eK 7roAAo0 Ousor)puros edeornkóres érófevov karà 
TÓ guveyés kai raxyÜ Oo TOTos v DeAQv aÀ/pns: 
M / 
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^ / 4 
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kai TOv GÀÀov ger& Dofs mapaBonÜovvrov, 
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nerà 8é rara "AÀkwuidógs éc 2iduov rapaóó£ws 
émedávo uerü veOv ewooi, vÀécv xarà TÜyqV eis 
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e / / / b / / 
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^ / 
perécipot Tots éÀmiow éyivovro kai zroAD T poDv- 
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oj0év éóaivero góocqpov, TOlS o ' AOmvatois 
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O,areraypuévov, oi pév  AaxeOauuóviot / kavravmAa- 
24.6 


BOOK XIII. 45. 10—496. 


teiror-stricken, despaiing of their hves ; but when- iz: 
ever the pilots, employimg the skill of practice, would 
frustrate the attack, they would m turn be oveijoy ed 
and elated 1n their hopes | 

46. Nor did the men whose position was on the 
decks fail to mamtain the zeal which brooked no 
faxdure ; but some, while still at a conaderable di.- 
tance from the enemy, kept up a stream of arrows and 
soon the space was full of missiles, while others, each 
time that they drew nea, would hurl them javelins, 
some doing their best to strike the defending marines 
and others the enemy pilots themselves ; and when- 
ever the ships would come close together, they would 
not only fight with their spears but at the moment of 
contact would also leap over on the enemy's trneme« 
and carry on the contest with their swords. And 
since at each reverse the victors would raise the war- 
cry and the others would rush to aid with shouting, 
a mingled din prevailed over the entire area of the 
battle 

For a long time the battle was equally balanced 
because of the very high rnrwalry with which both 
«4des were inspired ; but later on Alcibiades unex- 
pectedly appeared from Samos with twenty ship., 
sading by mere chance to the Hoellespont — While 
lhiese ships were still at a distance, each side, hoping 
that reinforcement had come for themselves. was 
elated 1n its hopes and fought on with far greater 
courage ; but when the fleet was now near and fo: 
the Lacedaemomans no signal was to be seen, but 
for the Athenians Alcibiades ran up a purple flag 
fom his own ship, which was the signal they had 
agreed upon, the Lacedaemonians m dismay. turned 


1 éy after ot deleted by Vogel 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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| 70v rÀv Vogel: cóv P, róv other MSS. 
? $o Hertlem : xoreokevate 


248 


BOOK XIII 46 3—47 2 
in fhght and the Athenians, elated by the advantage 110 wc. 
they now possessed, pressed eagerly upon the ships 
trying to escape — Ánd they speedily captured ten 
ships, but then a storm and violent winds arose, as 
a result of which they were greatly hindered in the 
pursuit; for because of the high waves the boats 
would not respond to the tilers, and the attempts 
at ramming proved fruitless, ance the ships were re- 
ceding whenstruck. Inthe end the Lacedaemonians. 
gaming the shore, fled to the land army of Pharna- 
bazus, and the Athenians at fiist essayed to drag the 
ships fiom the shore and put up a despe1atc battle, 
but when they were checked in their attempts by the 
Persian forces they sailed off to Sestus. For Pharna- 
bazus, wishing to build a defence for himself before 
the Lacedaemonians agamst the charges they were 
bringing against him, put up all the more vigorous 
fight against the Athenians ; while at the same time, 
with respect to his sendmg the three hundred tr 
remes to Phoenicia,! he explained to them that he 
had done so on receiing information that the king 
of the Arabians and the ling of the Egyptians had 
designs upon Phoenicia 

47. When the sea-battle had ended as we have 
related, the Athenians sailed off at the time to Sestus, 
since 1t was already mght, but when day came they 
collected their ships which had been damaged and 
set up another trophy near the former one? And 
Mandarus about the first watch of the night set out 
to Abydus, where he repaired his ships that had been 
damaged and sent word to the Lacedaemonians for 
reinforcements of both soldiers and ships; for he 


1 Cp chap 37. 4f. 
? Cp. chap. 40 6 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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rómos T] vpooíjv AH, «ópos zv Wesseling. 
9250 


BOOK XIII 47 2-5 


had in mund, while the fleet was being made 1eady, i0 si 
to lay s1ege with the anny together with. Pharna- 
bazus io the cines m Asia which weie allied with the 
Athenians 

The people of Chaleis and almost all the rest of the 
inhabitants of Euboea had revolted from the Athe- 
nians! and were therefore highly apprehenave lest, 
living as they did on an island, they should be forced 
to surrender to the Athemans, who were masters of 
the sea ; and they xherefore asked the Boeotians to 
join with them in building a causeway ac oss the 
Eurnpus and thereby joimng Euboea to Boeotia. 
The Boeotians agreed to this, since it was to theu 
special advantage that Euboea should be an rand 
to everybody else but a part of the mamland to them- 
selves | Consequently all the cities threw theinselves 
vigorously into the building of the causeway and vied 
with one another; for orders were issued not only 
to the citizens to report en masse but to the foreigners 
dwelhng among them as well, so that by reason of 
the great number that came forward to the work the 
proposed task was speedily completed. On Euboea 
the causeway was built at Chalos, and in Boeotia 
in the neighbourhood of Aulhs, since at that place 
the channel was narrowest. Now 1t so happened that 
in former times also the1e had always been a current 
m that place and that the sea frequently reversed its 
course, and at the time m question the force of the 
current was far greater because the sea had been 
confined into a very narrow channel, for passage 
was left for only a single ship | High towers were also 

! Soon after the Athenian disaster at Syracuse (Thucy- 
dides, 8. 95). 


? Strabo (9. 2. 2) quotes Ephorus to the effect that a bridge 
only two plethra (202 ft.) long spanned the Euripus at Chalcis. 


25] 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! rÓyv] omitted by Dindorf, Vogel. 
? So Wessehng  Tóre. 


259 


BOOK XIII. 47 5—48. 3 


built on both ends and wooden bridges were thrown 10 e« 
over the channel 

Theramenes. who had been dispatched by the 
Athenians with thirty ships, at first attempted to stop 
the workers, but since a strong body of soldiers was at 
the aide of the builders of the causeway, he abandoned 
this design and directed his voyage toward the 1slands.! 
And since he wished to reheve both the citizens and 
the allies from their contiibutions,? he laid waste the 
terntory of the enemy and collected grcat quantities 
ofbooty He visited also the alhed cities and exacted 
money of such inhabitants as were advocating a 
change in government — ÀÁnd when he put 1n at Paros 
and found an ohgarchy in the city, he restored ther 
freedom to the people and exacted a great sum of 
money of the men who had participated in the 
ohgarchy. 

48. It happened at this imethat a serious civil strife 
occurred 1n Corcyra accompanied by massacre, which 
1s said to have been due to various causes but most of 
all to the mutual hatred that existed between its own 
habitants — For never in any state have there taken 
place such murderings of citizens nor have there been 
greater quarrelhng and contentiousness which cul- 
minated 1n bloodshed? For it would seem that the 
number of those who wee slam by their fellow 
citizens before the present civil strnfe was some fifteen 
hundred, and all of these were leading citizens And 
although these misfortunes had already befallen them, 
Fortune brought upon them a second disaster, in that 
she increased once morc the disaffection which. pre- 

! ; e, of the Athenian Confederacy 

? Toward the cost of the war with the Lacedaemonians 


3? "Thucydides (3. 70 f£.) deseribes the earlier civil strife on 
the 1sland 


2595 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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254 


on 


BOOK XIII. 48. 3-8 


vailed among them. For the fovemost Coreyraeans, t «c 
who desired the oligaichy, favoured the cauze of the 
Lacedaemomans, whereas the masses whieh fax oured 
the democracy were eager to ally themselves with 
the Athenians — For the peoples who were strug- 
ghng for leadership i Greece were devoted to 
opposing prmciples; the Lacedaemonians, for ex- 
ample, made it their pohey to put the control of the 
government in the hands of the leading citizens. of 
their allied states, whereas the Athemans regularly 
established democracies m their cities — Accordingly 
the Corcyraeans, seemg that their most influential 
citizens were plannmg to hand the city over to the 
Lacedaemonians, sent to the Athenians for an army 
to protect their city — And Conon, the general of the 
Áthenians, sailed to Corcyra and left 1n the city six 
hundred men from the Messenmans m Naupactus,! 
while he himself saed on with his ships and cast 
anchor off the sacred precinct of Hera. And theax 
hundred, setting out unexpectedly with the partisans 
of the people's party at the time of full market ? 
against the supporters of the Lacedaemonians, 
arrested some of them, slew others, and drove more 
than a thousand from the state ; they also set the 
slaves free and gave citizenship to the foreigners hving 
among them as a precaution against the great number 
and influence of the exiles. Now the men who had 
been exiled from their country fled to the opponite 
mainland ; but a few days later some people still in 
the city who favoured the cause of the exiles seized 
the market-place, called back the exiles, and essayed 
1 '(These Messemans had been allowed by the Spartans to 
leave their country and had been settled 1n Naupactus by the 


Athenian general Tolmides m 456 s.c. (cp. Book 11. 84). 
? [n the middle of the morning. 


255 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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| So Kiuger: vy. 
256 


BOOK XIII. 48. 8—49. 4 


a final decis10n of the struggle When mght brought i7 
an end to the fighting they came to an agreement 

with each other, stopped their quarrelhng, and re- 
cd hving together as one people m the father- 

lan 

Such, then, was the end of the massacre 1n Corcyra. 

40. Archelaus, the king of the Macedomans,! since 
the people of Pydna would not obey his orders, laid 
siege to the city with a great army. He received 
reinforcement also from Theramenes, who brought 
a fleet, but he, as the siege dragged on, sailed to 
'Thrace, where he joined Thrasybulus who was com- 
mander of the entire fleet. Archelaus now pressed 
the siege of Pydna more vigorously, and after reducing 
it he removed the city some twenty stades distant 
from the sea. 

Mindarus, when the winter had come to an end, 
collected his triremes from all quarters, for many had 
come to him from the Peloponnesus as well as from 
theotheralles. Butthe Athenian generals in Sestus, 
when they learned of the great size of the fleet that 
was bemg assembled by the enemy, were greatly 
alarmed lest the enemy, attackmg wnth all their 
trremes, should capture their ships. Consequently 
the generals on ther side hauled down the ships they 
had at Sestus, sailed around the Cheisonesus, and 
moored them at Cardia?; and they sent triremes to 
Thrasybulus and Theramenes in Thrace, urging them 
to come with their fleet as soon as possible, and they 
summoned Alcibiades also from Lesbos with what 
ships he had. And the whole fleet was gathered 1nto 

1 419-399 m.c. He was a great admner of Greek culture 
and Eurmides was but one of many disunguished Greeks 
whom he invited to his kingdom. 

? Onthe north side ofthe Chersonesus on the Gulf of Melas. 

VOL. V K 257 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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KaL ToO nv 7oxev "AAkiBidons, ToU O6 Onpajtévrs, 
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perà ro8 kaÜU" a$róv uépovs woÀ) mpoémAevoe rÀv 
&GAÀcw, fBovAójwevos pokaAécacÜau. Tos Aake- 
Onuuoviovs «is vavpayiav (Onpauévgs 96 xai 
OpoaciBovAos éduAoréyvovv eis TO kvkAÀccacÜa. 
«aL Tíüs eis TT)v TrÓAwv. érravóOov To0s éxzrAeUcavras 
etotav. — MívOóapos 8é ràs puév 'AAkwfuáSov vas 
eikoov nóvas ópOv mpoodoepouévas, Tàs 9 áAAas 
àyvoàv, kareópóvnae, kal vavoiv oyborkovra 
Ópacécs éx Tfj mwóÀecs vóv émirÀovv émowjcaro. 

! nerà after 6é deleted by Dindorf. 
258 


BOOK XIII 49 4—650 2 
one place, the generals being eager for a decisive 10 ec. 
battle. Mindarus, the Lacedaemonian admural, sail- 
ing to Cyzieus, disembarked his whole force and in- 
vested the city — Pharnabazus was also there with a 
large army and with his aid Mindarus laid siege to 
Cyzicus and took it by storm. 

The Athenian generals, having decided to sail to 
Cyzicus, put out to sea with all their ships and sailed 
around the Chersonesus They arnved first at Eleus ; 
and after that they made a special point of sailing past 
the city of Abydus at mght, im order that the great 
number of their vessels might not be known to the 
enemy. And when they had arrived at Proconnesus! 
they spent the mght there and the next day they dis- 
embarked the soldiers who had shipped with them 
on the terntory of the Cyzicenes and gave orders to 
Chaereas, their commander, to lead the army against 
the city. 

50 As for the generals themselves, they divided 
the naval force into three squadrons, Alcibiades com- 
mandimg one, Theramenes another, and Thrasybulus 
the third. Now Alei»ades with his own squadion 
advanced far ahead of the others, wishing to draw the 
Lacedaemonmans out to a battle, whereas Theramenes 
and Thrasybulus planned the manceuvre of encircling 
the enemy and, if they sailed out, of blocking their 
retreat to the city.  Mindarus, seeing only the ships 
of Aleibiades approaching, twenty m number, and 
having no knowledge of the others, held them in con- 
tempt and boldly set sai from the city with eighty 


1 The island of Marmora 


* etkoot («/ Vogel(cp. Xen. Hell. 1. 1. 18); «at MSS 
except AHLM which omit. 


250 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


(os 9c mÀqatov éyévero TÓYv mepi TÓv ' AArifiáOmv, 
oí pev "A8nvaiot, kafdsrep ws apTOtg TOpnYyyecA- 
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yfis TOUS HeAomovvrotois gToÀUS Syévero dóvos, «s 
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1üe. rots Aakeóautoviows, kai Tv udxw9v ék cfjs 


! $o Wessehng: énímow. 
? 8o Dindorf: raros. 


260 


BOOK XIII 50 2-6 


ships to attack him. Then, when he had come near 40s c. 
the ships of Alcibiades, the Athemans, as they had 
been commanded, pretended to flee, and the Pelo- 
ponnesans, im high spints, pursued after them 
vigorously in the belief they were winning the victory. 
But after Alcibiades had drawn them a considerable 
distance from the city, he razised the signal ; and when 
this was given, the ships of Alcibiades suddenly at 
the same time turned about to face the enemy, and 
Theramenes and Thrasybulus sailed toward the city 
and cut off the retreat of the Lacedaemonians — The 
troops of Miundarus, when they now observed the 
multitude of the enemy ships and reahzed that they 
had been outgeneralled, were filled with great fear. 
And finally, since the Athenians were appearing from 
every direction and had shut off the Peloponnesians 
from their line of approach to the ity, Mindarus was 
forced to seek safety on land near Cleri, as it 15 called, 
where also Pharnabazus had his army — Aleibiades, 
pursuing him vigorously, sank some ships, damaged 
and captured others, and the largest number, which 
were moored on the land itself, he seized and threw 
grappling-irons on, endeavounng by this means to 
drag them from the land. And when the infantry of 
Pharnabazus rushed to the aid of the Lacedaemon- 
ians, there was great bloodshed, inasmuch as the 
Athenians because of the advantage they had won 
were fighting with greater boldness than expediency, 
while the Peloponnesians were 1n number far superior; 
for the army of Pharnabazus was supporting the Lace- 
daemonians and fighting as 1t was from the land the 
? Omepayóvrov PA, ómepexóvrov cet. 


261 


7 


L2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yfjs smowoUpevov TTj» oTrüow eixev acQaÀeorépav. 
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vepi róv 'AAkwBuáOgv: rà 86 Omnpaguéve: mapexke- 
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raxíoTügv Tjkew, Ómcs elf Owywvioovrat. 

51. Tw 6é 'AÜqva&ov epi raóra "ywouévaw 
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u&v mpós ' Alkiudov Omép rv àócAkouévov veo? 
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katpéov áycv weLoUs oL 86 uerà ToO Opaovfo?- 

ov karaerrovnuévov kai ràs Tfjs ocnpias éArrióas 

ümeyvokóres máÀw éfaijws rois djvyats Owvpyei- 
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uev vrpárov oc ToU QapvaBátov uo odópo: desyew 
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karaAewbÜévres kal moÀAà Opácavres kal maDóvres 
é£ecoÜncav. 

Tovrar 9€ karamemovguévov oi srepi Tóv Gnpa- 
269 


BOOK XIII. 50. 6—51. 5 


position it had was more secure — But when Thrasy- a0 s. 
bulus saw the 1nfantry aiding the enemy, he put the 
rest of his marines on the land with intent to assist 
Alcibiades and his men, and he also urged Theramenes 
to join up with the land troops of Chaereas and come 
with all speed, in order to wage a battle on land. 

51. While the Athenians were busying themsel es 
with these matters, Mindarus, the Lacedaemonian 
commander, was himself fighting with Aloeibiades for 
the ships that were being dragged off, and he dis- 
patched Clearchus the Spartan with a part of the 
Peloponnesians against the troops with Thrasybulus ; 
and with hmm he also sent the mercenaries in the 
army of Pharnabazus. "Thrasybulus with the marines 
and archers at first stoutly withstood the enemy, and 
though he slew many of them, he also saw not a few of 
hisown men falling; but when the mercenaries of Phar- 
nabazus were surrounding the Athenians and were 
crowding about them im great numbers from every 
direction, Theramenes appeared, leading both his 
own troops and theinfantry with Chaereas. Although 
the troops of Thrasybulus were exhausted and had 
given up hope of rescue, their spirits were suddenly 
revived again when reinforcements so strong were at 
hand. An obsünate battle which lasted a long time 
ensued ; but at first the mercenaries of Pharnabazus 
began to withdraw and the continuity of their battle 
line was broken ; and finally the Peloponnesians who 
had been left behmd with Clearchus, after having 
both infheted and suffered much punmshment, were 
expelled. 

Now that the Peloponnesians had been defeated, 


1 So Kruger: Xápqra ? veóyy added by Rhodoman. 
$ So Wesseling, mepiepyouévov PAFJL 


— 


263 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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1 ó pev] oues or ó Vogel. 


* éxcmv üvreráyÜnoav 19 ungrammatical. dvreráx0m 
Reiske. 3 So Vogel: émvywópevov. 


264 


BOOK XIII. 51. 5-8 


the troops of Theramenes rushed to give aid to the 410 vc 
soldiers who had been fighting under Alcibiades. 
Although the forces had rapidly assembled at one 
point, Mindarus was not dismayed at the attack of 
Theramenes, but, after dividing the Peloponnesians, 
with half of them he met the advancing enemy, while 
with the other half which he himself commanded, first 
calling upon each soldier not to disgrace the fair name 
of Sparta, and that too in a fight on land, he formed 
a hne against the troops of Alcibiades — He put up 
a heroic battle about the ships, fighting 1m person 
before all his txoops, but though he slew many of the 
opponents, 1n the end he was killed by the troops of 
Alcabiades as he battled nobly for his fatherland. 
When he had fallen, both the Peloponnesians and all 
the alhes banded together and broke into terror- 
stricken fhght. The Athenians pursued the enemy 
foi à distance, but when they learned that Pharna- 
bazus was hurrying up at full speed with a strong force 
of cavalry, they returned to the ships, and after they 
had taken the city ! they set up two trophies for the 
two victones, one for the sea-battle at the island of 
Polydorus, as it 1s called, and one for the land-battle 
where they forced the first flight of the enemy. Now 
the Peloponnesians in the city and all the fugitives 
from the battle fled to the camp of Pharnabazus , and 
the Athenian generals not only captured all the ships 
but they also took many prisoners and an immeasur- 


! Cyzicus. 





4 8o Bhodoman: é£zó PAK, $790 «0 cet. 
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1 $o Dindorf, cp. Xen. Hell 1. 1. 34: soMréóv. 


AM € P MM—Ó—— € a e n à 


! 'The despair of the Lacedaemonians after such a disastei 
is portrayed in the letter from the vice-admural to Sparta 


266 








BOOK XIII 51 8—52. 4 


able quantity of booty, since they had won the victory 110 s.c. 
at the same time over two armaments of such gaze ! 

59. When the news of the victory came to Athens, 
the people, contemplatmg the unexpected good for- 
tune which had come to the city after their former 
disasters, were elated over their successes and the 
populace in à body offered sacrifices to the gods and 
gathered in festive assemblies ; and for the war they 
selected from their most stalwaxt men one thou- 
sand hoplites and one hundred horsemen, and in 
addition to these they dispatched thirty triremes to 
Alcibiades, 1n order that, now that they dominated the 
sea, they might lay waste with mnpunity the cities 
which favoured the Lacedaemonians. The Lacedae- 
monians, on the other hand, when they heard of the 
disaster they had suffered at Cyzicus, sent ambas- 
sadors to Athens to treat for peace, the chief of whom 
was Endius? When permission was given him, he 
took the floor and spoke suceimctly and in the terse 
fashion of Laconians, and for this reason I have 
decided not to omit the speech as he delivered it. 

'" We want to be at peace with you, men of Athens. 
and that each party should keep the cities which it 
now possesses and cease to maintain its garrisons in 
the other's territory, and that our captives be ran- 
somed, one Laconian for one Athenian. We are not 
unmundful that the war 1s hurtful to both of us, but 
far more to you Never mind the words I use but 
learn from the facts. As for us, we till the entire 


which is given by Xenophon (Hell. 1. 1. 93) and ran as 
follows: "The ships are gone. Muindarus is dead. The 
men are starving. We know not what to do " 

? Endius, an ex-ephor, was an hereditary friend of Aloi- 
biades and had served before on such a mission (Thuc. 5. 44 3, 
38.6 3). 


267 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! sroÀejctvres o. o. uóvov Dindorf: séumovres o. 0. uáMov 
* 70 added by Capps. 
* ékBÀn0évres added by Reiske. 


268 


BOOK XIII. 52. 4—7 


Peloponnesus, but you only a small paxt ! of Attica. 410 &c 
While to the Lacomans the war has brought many 
alhes, from the Athenians it has taken away as 
many as it has given to their enemies. For us the 
richest lang to be found in the inhabited. world ? 
defrays the cost of the war, for you the most poverty- 
stricken folk of the ihabited world — Consequently 
our troops, 1n view of their generous pay, make war 
with spirit, while your soldiers, because they pay the 
war-taxes out of their own pockets. shrink from both 
the hardships and the costs of war In the second 
place, when we make wax at sea, we nisk losmg only 
hulls among resources of the state, while you have on 
board crews most of whom are citizens. And, what 
1$ the most important, even 1f we meet defeat in our 
actions at sea, we still maintam without dispute the 
mastery on land—for a Spartan foot-soldier does not 
even know what fhght means—but you, if you are 
driven from the sea, contend, not for the supremacy 
on land, but for survival. 

"* It remains for me to show you why, despite so 
many and great advantages we possess in the fighting, 
we urge you to make peace. I do not affirm that 
Sparta is profiting from the war, but only that she 
is suffering less than the Athemans — Only fools find 
satisfaction in sharing the misfortunes of their enemies, 
when 1t is in their power to make no tnal whatsoever 
of misfortune l'or the destruction of the enemy 
bnngs no joy that can balance the grief caused by 


1 From Deceleia, some 13 miles north and a little east of 
Athens, which the Lacedaemonians had seized and fortified, 
they could raid the larger part of Attica. 

? "The king of Persia, who was contributing to the mainte- 
nance of the Peloponnesaan fleet, but notas yet so generously 
as toward the end of the war 


260 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


AvmrQv 5j rÀv iOicv raAawrOpia. o) póvov Oé ToU- 
Tcv €veka OwÀvÜQva,. orme)Oopev, dÀÀà xai TO 
várpiov éÜos Tm2poüvres: Üewpotvres yàp Tàs év 
TÀ TroÀéue dUovewutas qroAÀAd, kai Gewà sràDv srovov- 
cas, otójeÜa Oetv davepóv srovijcas Got KaL Ücotc 
kat dvÜpeyroiws, Ór( ToUrov TKwra müvrcov éopév 
QUTLOL. 

53. ''ouaóro. 86 kai ToUrows apamA(jot: ToÜ 
Adicvos OuaAexÜévros, ot uev émuewcéoTaro, Tv 
'AÜnvatav épperrov ats 'yvcopiaus Tpós TT)v eipjvnv, 
oí 6€ moÀepomowtv ciÜores kai ràs Omnuooias 
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TÓÀeuov.  cuvemeAdBero 06 cfjs yvopuwus TaUTQs 
xa. KAeoódv, uéyvoros àv TrÓre Ónuaycyós. Ós 
mGpeAÜcwv ai moÀÀA mwpós TT)v DmóDeciw oikeios 
O.aÀeyÜels éperecpioe Tóv DOfjuov, TO uéysÜos rÓv 
eomnepmudrev -poóepópevos, comep Tfs TÜyns 
oU& évaAAA£ eiÜuauévns Bpafejew và korà vróAeuov 
mporepóuara. "'AÜm«vaio! uév ov kakós DovAev- 
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"pós Gpéokeuuv eipwqévow  défoamarqÜévres  obross 
érrüucav Tots OÀots, core unkéri 6)vaoÜat mra moTe 
abroUs yvnoios ávaAaBetv. àAÀAà rabra uev vore- 
pov mpaxÜévra Teíferau Aóyov xarà Toíg iOlovs 
Xpóvovs: TrÓTre Óé oi 'ÀÜnvatoi rois Te «)nuepiü- 
pocw émapÜévres koi moÀAàs kal peyáAas éXmi- 
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iOicov Ovváuecv, raxécos dovro rrjv )yeuovíav àva- 
kr1)02.00a,.! 

54. Tv 8é xerà roÜrov róv évwiavrÓv mpáfecv 


!* ávakríjcaaÜ0at] àvakrijaccQ au. Dindorf. 


270 


BOOK XIII 52. 8—54. 1 


the distress of one's own people. And not for these 410 ».c. 
reasons alone are we eager to come to terms, but be- 
cause we hold fast to the custom of our fathers ; for 

when we consider the many terrible sufferings which 

are caused by the rivalnes which accompany war, we 
beheve we should make 1t clear 1n the sight of all gods 

and men that we are least responsible of all men for 

such things." 

58. After the Laconian had made these and similar 
representations, the sentiments of the most reason- 
able men among the Athenians inchned toward the 
peace, but those who made it their practice to foment 
war and to turn disturbances im the state to their 
personal profit chose the war — A supporter of this 
sentiment was, among others, Cleophon, who was the 
most influential leader of the populace at this time. 
He, taking the floor and arguing at length on the 
question imn. his own fashion, buoyed up the people, 
ciüng the magnitude of their military successes, as 
if indeed it 1s not the practice of Fortune to adjudge 
ihe advantages 1n war now to one side and now to the 
other. Consequently the Athenians, after taking un- 
wise counsel, repented of it when it could do them no 
good, and, deceived as they were by words spoken in 
flattery, they made a blunder so vital that never agam 
at any time were they able truly to recover But 
these events, which took place at a later date, will be 
described in connection with the period of time to 
which they belong; at the time we are discussing the 
Athemans, being elated by their successes and enter- 
tammng many great hopes because they had Alcibiades 
as the leader of their armed forces, thought that they 
had quickly won back their supremacy. 

54. When the events of this year had come to an 409» c 


211 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÉÀoS exova dv ' AOvnoi ev "apéAafe Nu Gpynv 
AuwokAMijs, év "Popup 96 Tv Ümarov etyov àpynv 
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guvipyorye, «ai akpas uev e&jkovro. vas emAijpaiae, 
rà, Óé $opr1yyà. noia. m€pi yia zrevraükóota Tap- 
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kai T TpOS Tàs TroÀLOpk(as pax ovr ara. «aL BéÀn 
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v)v TÓÀv zoÀeuíov mapovcíav éócjAccav. kai oi 
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Ka ékelvovs pév To)s kaupoüs dvopdbero AuAi- 
Dawv, uerà 8é raro. TOÀÀo(s éreou mpós aDrQ 
kruaDebans móAecs atruov eyevij8n Tj TÓÀe:w TÍíjs 
emovupías. eiye O6 To)g oÜUjravras AvviBas, 
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ómTreis 0€ rerpakuayuAMovs, cs 0€ Tüuauós $7ow, 
ob TOÀÀQ TÀetovs TÓVv Ó€ka popuácov. TÓS [L€V 
ov vabs éy rà zrepi Morin» kóAzo vácas évedoA- 
Kn0€,  BovApievos € evvoua O,00va.t Tots Zvpakootois, 


e 
c» o) mápeariv éketvous TroÀeuijoev od06 vavrucj 
279 


BOOK XIII 54 1-5 


end, 1n Athens D1ocles took over the chief office,! and 109 ».c. 
in Rome Quintus Fabius and Gaius Furius held the 
consulshspp — At this ime Hannibal, the general of the 
Carthagimans, gathered together both the mercen- 
anes he had collected from Iberia and the soldiers he 
had enrolled from Libya, manned sixty ships of war, 
and made ready some fifteen hundred transports. On 
these he loaded the troops, the siege-engines, missiles, 
and allthe other accessories — After crossing with the 
fleet the Libyan Sea he came to land in Sicily on the 
promontory which lies opposite Libya and is called 
Lliybaeum ; and at that very time some Sehnuntian 
cavalry were tarrying in those regions, and having 
seen the great size of the fleet as 1t came to land, they 
speedily informed their fellow citizens of the presence 
of the enemy — The Selinuntians at once dispatched 
their letter-carriers to the Syracusans, asking their 
aid; and Hannibal disembarked his troops and pitched 
acamp, beginning at the well which in those times had 
the name Lilybaeum, and many years after these 
events, when a city was founded near 1t,? the presence 
of the well occasioned the giving of the name to the 
ety? Hannibal had all told, as Ephorus hasrecorded, 
two hundred thousand infantry and four thousand 
cavalry, but as Timaeus says, not many more than one 
hundred thousand men His ships he hauled up on 
land in the bay about Motyé,* every one of them, 
wishing to give the Syracusans the impression that he 
had not come to make war upon them or to sail along 


i Of a1chon ? [n 396 n.c. 

3 "The city of Lilybaeum. 

* The bay and island of the same name lie a little north 
of Lilybaeum. 


1 (js 6é Stephanus: ó 9€. 


to 
- 
Co 


6 


t5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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Tác"s owovOfüs ràs mpocfoAàs émowtro. f uév 
yàp mTÜpyovs OmepfáAXovras Totis geyéÜeow ém- 
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rofóraus kai adevOoviraus roots ypouevos dv- 
éoreÀÀe ro)s émi rÓv émáMceov uayopévovs. 

55 OL 86 ZieAwodvrto, é« «oMv. óvres. dmewoi 
ToAtopk(as, kal KapynSovíows év TQ mpós léAwva 
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obmor TATiLov $m rÓv eDepyernÜévrov els row - 
rovs dóBovs ovykAewOocaÜo.. ÜeopobOvres 86 rà 
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3 uéyeÜos ToU mepweorÓ ros kwü/vvou o) wv xarà 


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TÓV TeXÓv Tjbvovro. oi uév yàp dxpuálLovres 
rais TjÀuc(aus év mois ÓmÀow Óvreg BwekiwBivevov, 
oi 06 mpeofórepo: sepí re rás mapackevás 7)cav 
KaL repvropevóuevo, TÓ Tetyos éBéovro Tv véov 
py) mepubeiv aíro)s ÜDmoxew(ous Tois moAeuiow 


2T4 


BOOK XIII. 54 6—565. 4 


the coast with his naval force against Syracuse. And 409 s c. 
after adding to his army the soldiers supphed by the 
Aegestaeans and by the other alhes he broke camp 
and made his way from Lilybaeum towards Selinus 
And when he came to the Mazarus River, he took at 
the first assault the trading-station situated by 1t, and 
when he arrived before the city, he divided his army 
into two parts ; then, after he had invested the city 
and put his siege-engines in position, he began the 
assaults with all speed He set up six towers of 
exceptional size and advanced an equal number of 
battering-rams plated with iron against the walls; 
furthermore, by employing his archeis and slmgers 
in great numbers he beat back the fighters on the 
battlements. 

55. The Sehnuntians, who had for a long time been 
without experience m sieges and had been the only 
S1cian Greeks to fight on the side of the Cartha- 
gmians 1n the war agamst Gelon,' had never conceived 
that they would be brought to such a state of fear 
by the people whom they had befriended. But 
when they saw the great size of the engines of war 
and the hosts of the enemy, they were filled with 
dread and dismayed at the magnitude of the danger 
threatening them. However, they did not totally 
despair of their deliverance, but in the expectation 
that the Syracusans and their other alhes would soon 
arrive, the whole populace fought off the enemy from 
the walls — Indeed all the men 1n the prime of hfe 
were armed and battled desperately, while the older 
men busied themselves with the supplies and, as they 
made the rounds of the wall, begged the young men 
not to allow them to fall under subjection to the 


* Cp. Book 11. 21. 
Q5 


c 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ywoj.évous 'yvvaikes 0€ xai maiües Tás Te Tpo- 
dàs kal BéAm Tots jmép Tís Tarpióos dycwlo- 
pévowg  rapekópuCov, Tiv 0400) kai T)V Émi Tfs 
eip/jvs aioyüvqv map' oj0€v TyyoUnevot. ocaóro) 
karámÀnfius kaÜewmr)Kke) care TO péyeÜos cfc 
mepuorácecs OetoÜa, kai Tfj]s Tapü TÓV Yyvvaukdv 
BonÜO«ias. 

'O 8' "Avvifas énayyeiAAuevos rots orporvóraus 
eis Óuapmrayz]v 8coew Tv "óÀw, rds T€ uQxyavàs 
Tpoofpewse kai Tois KparioTows OTpaTiOTOLs ék 
9uaDoyfis mpocéBaAAe ois Te/xecw.  Opio8 Ge oi 
re GáAmVyyes TÓ moÀepucóv éovjuouvov kai mpós 
&v mapáyyeAua wv émqyAáAate TO TÓv Kapym- 
Govíov orpárevua, kai Tf Be pév TÓv kpwv 
écoÀeUero rà TelyQ, cQ 9. Ue. rÀv mÜpyowv oi 
paxópevou voÀAo)s TÓÀv 2ieÀwovvricov  ávfpow. 
év moÀvypovio yàp eip?vm yeyovores kai TrÓv Te- 
xOv ov0 vrwoüv émwuéÀeuav emowuévou pq- 
Olcos karemovotvro, TÀv ÉvAtvov mrÜpycv qmroÀO Tots 
Ujreow ÜOmepeyóvrew.  ecóvros O6 ToÜ Telyovs ol 
uev Kapgravoi omeUO0ovres émijavés cw mpü£au, 
TGXécs cioémecov eis Tv mwÓAwv TO uév oiv 
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T5v BowvÜeuav é£eooÜ0noav xai ovyvo)s éavróv 
améBaAov: oUm yàp veAécs àvakekaÜappévov ToO 
Teiyovs uacdpevow kai xarà ^v éjo8ov eis 
Ovoycpias éumimrovres qois TAÀaTToÜvro | vv- 
krós O' émvyevouévgs oi puév Kapyn8óviow 3v 
ToÀopkíav éAÀvcav. 

56. Ot 86 ZXeAwoUvrio, TÀv bmmécv ToUs kparí- 
oTovus émiAéÉavres Oià vurrOÓg e)Üéng dméoreuav 
976 


BOOK XIII. 55. 4—56 1 


enemy ; and women and girls supplied the food and 409 ».«. 
missiles to the defenders of the fatherland, counting 

as naught the modesty and the sense of shame which 

they cherished in time of peace. Such consternation 
prevailed that the magnitude of the emergency called 

for even the aid of their women. 

Hannibal, who had promised the soldiers that he 
would give them the city to pillage, pushed the siege- 
engines forward and assaulted the walls in waves with 
his best soldiers. And all together the trumpets 
sounded the signal for attack and at one command the 
army of the Carthaginians as a body raised the war- 
cry, and by the power of the rams the walls were 
shaken, while by reason of the height of the towers 
the fighters on them slew many of the Selinuntians. 
For in the long period of peace they had enjoyed they 
had given no attention whatever even to their walls 
and so they were easily subdued, s$nce the wooden 
towers far exceeded the walls in height. "When the 
wall fell the Campamans, being eager to accomplish 
some outstanding feat, broke swiftly into the city 
Now at the outset they struck terror into their 
opponents, who were few 1n number ; but after that, 
when many gathered to the aid of the defenders, they 
were thrust out with heavy losses among their own 
soldiers ; for &nce they had forced a passage when the 
wall had not yet been completely cleared and 1n their 
attack had fallen foul of difficult terrain, they were 
easily overcome. t nightfall the Carthagimians 
broke off the assault. 

56. The Sehnuntians, picking out their best horse- 
men, dispatched them at once by mght, some to 


l rà after xai omitted PA, Vogel 
? So Hertlein: eioráke 


to 
-1 
-i 


4 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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ZLvpokovcas, Oeópevou TTV TOxtoTqV Bovetv, cS 
o) Ovvajévns mÀetoo xpóvov TÍjs zróAems Dmocrfjva: 
TÓV moAepitay TT) OUvapu. oL Lev otv 'Ákpa- 
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BovAóuevo. T)v Osvagw dÜpóav &yav émi TOUS 
KapxBoviovs oí Oé 2vpakócto vvÜÓnevow à 
mepi vr)v TroMopkiav, mpós pev KaAra8eis TrÓÀeuov 
éyovres O.eAUcavro, Tas D dm Tfj xopas Dvvdpiews 
àÜpoibovres, neydXqv sroLOUILevot mrapagkeviy éypó- 
vlov, vopibovres ékmroAopkmÜroeaÜaU rv. móÀw, 
GÀÀ odk Gvaprrac0rjocoto4. 

'ÀvviBas 8é Tífjs vukTos O.eADosans áp )uépa. 
mayraxótev uev mpoaépaAe, TÓ 0€ kar TV TOt 
memTakós pépos ToU Tebxovs. Kai TÓ OvvámTOV 
TOUT karégaAe Trois pxavais. &vokaBápas e 
TÓV vrecóvra TóTOV ToÜ Teíxovs, Kai Tols Kporiaros 
ék Oua8 oy fis aycwióquevos,, € ém. óAcyov éÉéwoe ro)s 
ZeAwovvriovs o0 w/v ye PiácaoÜa. BOvvaróv jv 
TOUS Umép TÓV OA OuarycoviCopiévovs ToAMV o. 
ávaupouuévov ap djiQorépous, rots pev Kapxn- 
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XeAwovvriois oUK Tv TÓ BovÜscov. Tfjs 0€ moÀtop- 
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&vvmepBAjrov, voÀÀà ovvém ToUs KapxrnBoviovs 
ko.orra ety «ai üpácau Oewá. | korà 8e TÓ memTO- 
KÓS rélxos avapávrcov TOv 'If^pwev, ai |ev éri 
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XeAwoDvrtoL vop.tzovres GAlokeota. TT)v móhw 
karerÀáynoav, kai rà Teiy" Awróvres karáà às 


1 30 Wurm, ároAopi8joec0 as Pt, moMopijoeot a. F, croMop- 
necoÜ a. cef. 


278 


BOOK XIII. 56. 1-6 


Acragas, and others to Gela and Syracuse, asking 409 s. 
them to come to their aid wath all speed, since their 
city could not withstand the strength of the enemy 
forany greattime.  Nowthe Acragantin and Geloans 
waited for the Syracusans, since they wished to lead 
their troops as one body against the Carthagmians ; 
and the Syracusans, on learning the facts about the 
siege, first stopped the war they were engaged in with 
the Chaleidians and then spent some time in gathering 
the troops from the countryside and makmg great 
preparations, thinking that the city might be forced 
by siege to surrender but would not be taken by 
storm. 

Hannibal, when the mght had passed, at daybreak 
launched assaults from every side, and the part of the 
city's wall which had already fallen and the portion of 
the wall next the breach he broke down with the siege- 
engmes. Me then cleared the area of the fallen part 
of the wall and, attacking m relays of his best troops, 
eradually forced out the Sehnuntians ; it was not 
possible, however, to overpower by force men who 
were fighting for their very existence. Both sides 
suffered heavy losses, but for the Carthagimans fresh 
troops kept taking over the fighting, while fox the 
Selinuntians there was no reserve to come to their 
support The siege continued for nine days with un- 
surpassed stubbornness, and in the event the Cartha- 
ginians suffered and inflicted many terrible injuries. 
When the Iberians mounted where the wall had fallen, 
the women who were on the house-tops raised a great 
cry, whereupon the Sehnuntians, thinking that the 
city was being taken, were struck with terror, and 


270 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


, A ^ ^] 3 / / M 
eioDoÀàs T(Àv oTevcmOv àÜpóowv cvvioravro, kaL 
Tàs ji€v 0000s OtowKoOopuetv éveyeipmoav, roUs 8€ 

/ 
moÀegtovus émi moÀ)v xpóvov Tuovovro.  Pialo- 
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vaucQv kai maiócv édevyov és Tàs oik(as, kai 
/ / A A / » 5 V A 
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? LEA, A A 7 € / 
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kakóüs damójAÀarrov, ovre mepuríjva. Ovvdpevot 
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» 5 *$ 5» ww / N A 5 A 
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5 ^ 5 / $5 2 A / ^ M 
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/ / ^ 

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piv dei mÀe/óvev eis Tv TÓÀw PumwurTÓvTOv, 
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cuudopás év óQÜ0aAuots éyovres mepibeets fjoav, 
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ZieAwvovvrimv, o9rou uév évratÜo. uayópuevot srávreg 
E] / € 3 / / 3 
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óÀqv TTv TÓÀw TTv u€v év rais oiktous e0OQuuoviav 
cuvfpmacav, ràv Oé éykaraAndÜévrov' ocuárov 


! So Reiske. orevàv rómrov. 
? So Wurm : éykaraAeujévrov. 


280 


BOOK XIII. 56. 6—57 2 


leaving the walls they gathered 1n bands at the en- 409 ».c 
trances of the narrow alleys, endeavoured to barricade 
the streets, and held off the enemy for a long time. 
Ánd as the Carthagimuans pressed the attack, the 
multitudes of women and children took refuge on the 
housetops whence they threw both stones and tiles 
on the enemy For a long time the Carthaginians 
came off badly, being unable either, because of the 
walls of the houses, to surround the men in the alleys 
or, because of those hurling at them from the roofs, to 
fight it out on equal terms. However, as the struggle 
wenl on until the afternoon, the mussides of the 
fighters from the houses were exhausted, whereas the 
troops of the Carthaginians, which constantly relieved 
those which were suffenng heavily, continued the 
fighting in fresh condition. — Finally, since the troops 
within the walls were bemg steadily reduced in 
number and the enemy entered the city in ever- 
increasmg strength, the Sehnuntians were forced 
out of the alleys. 

57. And so, while the city was bemg taken, there 
was to be observed among the Greeks lamentation and 
weeping, and among the barbanans there was cheer- 
ing and commingled outeries; for the former, as 
their eyes looked upon the great disaster which sur- 
rounded them, were filled with terror, while the latter, 
elated by their successes, urged on their comrades 
to slaughter The Selinuntians gathered into the 
market-place and all who reached it died fighting 
there ; and the barbarians, scattermg throughout the 
entire city, plundered whatever of value was to be 
found m the dwellings, while of the inhabitants they 

281 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


& pév! rats oikioug ovykarékaLov, Tv Ó' eis ràs 
ó8o)s PuaLopévew o) Owkpivovres ovre vow ov6' 
ZÀucav, dÀA' Opoiws at(Oas vnriovs, yvvoikas, 
mpeoflóras édóvevov, o)0egíav avumáÜewv Aag- 
dvovres — vkpor)píalov Oé xai ToUs vekpo)s 
karà TO mürpiov éÜos, xat, Twvés uev xeipas a0póas 
mepiéóepov Tois ocojuaoi, Tiwwés OÓé kejaÀàs émi 
TV yaiocov kai rÀv cavvicv àvametpovres éepov. 
ócas 8e rÓv yvvaikü perà rékvov eis TOUS vaoUs 
cvujumedevyvias koareAápDavov, mapekeAeUovro uj) 
dovejew, kai rasTaus Lóvaus Triovi:w éOocav. ToUTo 
O' émpa£av o) ro)s à&kAÀnpoÜvras éAeotvres, àAÀX 
ejAaBoUnevo:, Üümore T?)v oc«wTT)piav ai yvvaikes 
ámoyvoücau karakajDococi TOÜS vaoUvs, kai gg?) 
OvvpÜdocu cvÀfca. T)V £v a)roig kaÜwpcouévgv 
ToÀvréAeuav.  TocoUro yàp córyru( Oiéóepov ot 
BápBapou TOv dAÀÀcv, core rÀv Aovráv éveka roO 
u8év àceDetv eis TO Oauuówov OuuccoLóvrcw To0s 
eis Tà Lepà karamedevyóras Kapym8óvwot roivav- 
Tlov üméoyovro TÓv moÀepiwv, ÓmcSs TOUS TÜV 
Ücóyv vao)s ovAjceuxv. 107 86 vvrrós odons 7) uev 
TÓÀus Ovjpraoro, rv 8. oikiQv ai pév karekaó- 
Üncav, ai 06 kareokádoav, rás 0. "jv TÓvOS aiua- 
ros kai vekpOv mTÀ2pnys | é£akwwyiua pév mpós 
Tots uupiows eUpéÜn a«uora. vezrcoórTa, kai yc- 
pis acypdÀcora. ovvijyOn met 7v «revrakeaytÀtov 
58 Qewpotvres O6 Tvv ToD Diov uerapoA"v oi 
rois Kapxv9oviow "EAAgves ovppaxotvres yAéovv 
T?)v TOV GkÀnpotvrov TÓxqv. ai pév yvvatkes éove- 
! éy after uév deleted by Hertlein. 


eemper tier m er e TW e a p s n rr e t t n e nn ati htt ee nae i i a e i i a e 
—— 


! Cp. Book 5. 29 foi the custom of the Gauls of preserving 
the heads of warriors thev had conquered. 


282 


BOOK XIII. 57. 2—58. 1 


found in them some they buined together with the 4109 5c 
homes and when otheis struggled into the streets, 
without distinction of sex or age but whether infant 
children or women or old men, they put them to the 
sword,showing nosignofeompassion They mutiated 
even the dead according to the practiceof their people, 
some carrymg bunches of hands about their bodies 
and others heads which they had spitted upon their 
javelins and spears.! Such women as they found to 
have taken refuge together with their children in the 
temples they called upon their comrades not to kill, 
and to these alone did they give assurance of their 
hves. This they did, however, not out of pity for the 
unfortunate people, but because they feared lest 
the women, despang of their hves, would burn down 
the temples, and thus they would not be able to make 
booty ofthe great wealth which was stored up in them 
as dedications. To such a degree did the barbanans 
surpass all other men in cruelty, that whereas the rest 
of mankind spare those who seek refuge in the sanctu- 
anes from the desire not to commit sacrilege against 
the deity, the Carthaginians, on the contrary, would 
refrain from laying hands on the enemy in order that 
they might plunder the temples of their gods. By 
nightfall the city had been sacked, and of the dwell- 
ings some had been burned and others razed to the 
ground, while the whole area was filled with blood and 
corpses. Sixteen thousand was the sum of the in- 
habitants who were found to have fallen, not counting 
the more than five thousand who had been taken 
captive. 

58. The Greeks serving as alhes of the Cartha- 
ginmans, as they contemplated the reversal m the lives 
of the hapless Selinuntians, felt pity at theirlot — The 


283 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


puuévou Tfs ovwjüous rpu$fjs év voÀegiov bDper 

wvukTépevov, Omopévovoau Oewdgs TaÀawro pias: 
dv éwau Üvyarépas émwyápovs Óp&v vjvaykáLovro 
zaGo0yoUcas oóx oiketa Tíijs vÀuas. 7) yàp pap- 
Bápwov ópór$s o)re maiOwv éAcvÜ£pov oüre map- 
Üévov deióouévg 9ewás Tois Yjyvxynkóow mapíiora 
cuMdopás.  Oumep aL yvvatkes avaAoyilópevat 
npév v»v év vjj Awgóg uéMovoav a)Ta(s &oeoÜa. 
GovÀe(av, Üecipoóca. 9" aórás dpa Tois Tékvows év 
&TuAU. Kat mpommAakuoquQ Ocozoróv àvayxatonévas 
ÜmaKoUew, ToDTOovs Ó. OpÓcau. do/verov pév TT/v 
duwíáv, 0npuó0«q 86 rÓv TpÓmov éyovras, Trà év 
COvra TÓv Tékvwv émévÜovuv, kai kaÜ' éxaoTov 
TÓV eis raÜUTQa vapavounuárcev otovei vvypoUs eis 
T?v ivy)» Aaufávovcau mepvraÜeis éyivovro kai 
ToÀÀA Tv éavTÓv TÜXYQv karcO)Upovro: ro)g 0€ 
vOTÉépas, éru 6€ dOeAQois, ot OuvycwviLópjuevow Trepi 
Tf maTpíGos érereAevrijkeway," éuakápuLov, oo0&v 
àváfiov éwpakóras Tfjs iOlas Qperfjs. oi 80€ c" 
aixp,aAc otav Ouapvyóvres Ziejuvovrtot, róv üpiüuov 
Ovres éfakóoto, mpós Toig Ow xiAows, OvecodÜnoav 
eis 'AÁkpáyavra kat mávreov érvyov vÓv duÀav- 
Üpexrcv: ot yàp 'Akpayavrivou ovronerpr)cavres 
a)Tois Onuooíq OiéOÓcokav karà Tàs oikias, mpa- 
KeAevoduevou Trois iOwoTO4s kai a)Drois svpoÜUnow 
o0. xopmyetv rà mpOs TO Lv &mavra. 

59. "Ana. 06 roUrous mpavrojévous eis TÓv ' Akpá- 
yavra karfvryCa» OTparuiOTOL TQLUOXÜALOL  TrO.pO. 
2:vpa.oatcv émriAekrou, mpoaseoTa Ap évou kaovrà omrov- 
Oyv émi T?v Boxe.  mvÜópnevou 86 m» móAw 

! So Dindorf- rpoófs. 
? So Dindorf: cereAevrjkaow. 


284 


BOOK XIII 58 1—59 1 


women, deprived now of the pampered life they had 4 sc 
enjoyed, spent the mghts 1m the very nmudst of the 
enemies' lasciviousness, enduring terrible mdignities, 
and some were obhnged to see their daughters of 
marriageable age suffernng treatment improper for 
their years. Forthesavagery of the barbarians spared 
neither free-born youths nor maidens, but exposed 
these unfortunates to dreadful disasters.  Conse- 
quently, as the women reflected upon the slavery that 
would be their lot in Libya, as they saw themselves 
together with their children in a condition in which 
they possessed no legal rights and were subject to in- 
solent treatment and thus compelled to obey masters, 
and as they noted that these masters used an unm- 
telhgible speech and had a bestial character, they 
mourned for the living children as dead, and receiving 
into their souls as à pieraàng wound each and every 
outrage committed against them, they became frantic 
with suffernng and vehemently deplored ther own 
fate ; while as for their fathers and brothers who had 
died fighting for their country, them they counted 
blessed, since they had not witnessed any sight un- 
worthy of their own valour. The Selinuntians who 
had escaped capture, twenty-six hundred m number, 
made their way in safety to Acragas and there re- 
ceived all possible kindness; for the Acragantini, 
after portioning out food to them at public expense, 
divided them for billetng among their homes, urging 
the private citizens, who were indeed eager enough, 
to supply them with every necessity of life 

59. While these events were taking place there 
amnved at Acragas three thousand picked soldiers 
from the Syracusans, who had been dispatched in 
advance with all speed to bring aid — On learning of 


285 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


À ^ / 3 / À À ^ Mi 
qÀcivtav, mpéoBew axéoreiAav mapakaÀobvres óv 

5 ^ N 
'Avviav Tos Te aiypaÀorovs dToÀvrpóca, kai 


e^ ^ ^ e 3565 / 
2 rdv Üedv To)s vaoüg éücoi. O O' '"AvviBas dm- 


Ct 


/ A A / N 9j 
expiÜ, ToOs pév IieAwovvriovs pq» Ovvaguévovs 
Tnpeiv T1)v éAevÜepiay mreipav 7íjs GovAe(as AvjlieoO04, 
ToUg Oé Üeo)s ékrós 2Zievotvros otyeoÜaw mpoo- 
kóWavras Tols évouoücw. Ojos Oé TOv medev- 
yórcov "Epmreüiova  mpeopevriv  amooreiávrow, 
roUrq uev ó 'ÀvviBas ràs ovoiías dmokaréorqgoev: 
dei yàp rà KapywOovicw Tv veópovnkdos kat mpó 
rfjs moAwopkias rois mroAtraus avjeBovAevkcos! ur) 
moÀeuetv Kapyn8oviovs: éyapicaro 0' avr moUs 
Gvyyeveis ToDs Ovras év mois aixuaAoTow, kai 
rois ékTedevyóoi 2ieAMvovvriow éOwkev é£ovo(av 
TJ)V vÓÀW oikKeiv kai T?)v xopav yeopyetv eAotvras 
dópov rois Kapx"n8ovtois. 

Aor uév ov t) qóAs dO Tüs kTícecsg oikm- 
Üetca, ypóvov ér&v Owakociov Teocapákovra Ovo 
édÀc.  ó 86 'AvviBas mepueAov à ceíym TfÍjs 
MeAwoüvros àvétíevíe perà máovs Tfs Ovváueos 
émi T?v 'luépav, émiÜuudv uá&Awra ra)TQv kora- 
cda, Tv TÓMv. Ou vrabTQv yàp Ó uév mar» 
aUToU $vyàs qv, O O4 mpomárop 'Àukas mpós 
raóry karaorparmynÜcis $ró l'éAovos dvgpéOm, 
KaL per. aUTOU Trevrekaióeka, jyvptáóes orpovaráv 
àvppé0ncav, &AÀAat 66 oUk éA&rrovs rovrov Jyua- 
«yríoÜncav.  Owép Gv ome/v0cv Twwopíav Aaetv 
'AvviDas rérpact pupidow oOk^ àroÜev rfjg vróAecs 
émí Twwv Aójov kareorparoméOevoe, rjj 89. dÀMm 
Ovvdue, 7ráom vepweorparoméóevoe T?)v mróAw, mrpoa- 
yevopévev. dÀÀMov vapá Tre IlukeÀQv kai Zucaváv 
! So Reiske: ovwredomykos * o)k added by Hertlein. 
286 


BOOK XIII. 59. 1-6 


the fall of Selnus, they sent ambassadors to Hannibal 409 s.c 
urging him both to release the captives on payinent of 
ransom and to spare the temples of the gods. Han 
bal rephed that the Sehnuntians, having proved 
incapable of defending their" freedom, would now 
undergo the experience of slavery, and that the gods 
had departed from Selinus, having become offended 
with its inhabitants. However, since the fugitives 
had sent Empedion as an ambassador, to him Hannibal 
restored his possessions ; for Empedion had always 
favoured the cause of the Carthaginians and before 
the siege had counselled the citizens not to go to war 
against the Carthaginians. Hannibal also graciously 
dehvered up to him his kinsmen who were among the 
captives and to the Selinuntians who had escaped he 
gave permission to dwell in the ety and to cultivate 
1ts fields upon payment of tribute to the Carthaginians. 
Now this city was taken after 1t had been mhabited 
from its founding for a period of two hundred and 
forty-two years.  Ánd Hannibal, after destroying the 
walls of Sehnus, departed with his whole army to 
Himera, being especially bent upon razing this city 
to the ground. Forit was this city which had caused 
his father to be exiled and before its walls his grand- 
father Hamilear had beenout-generalled by Gelon and 
then met his end, and with him one hundred and 
fifty thousand soldiers had perished and no fewer 
than these had been taken captive. These were the 
reasons why Hannibal was eager to exact punishment, 
and with forty thousand men he pitched camp upon 
some hills not far from the city, while with the rest 
of his entire army he invested the city, twenty 
thousand additional soldiers from both Siceh and 


i Cp. Book 11. 21 f. 
287 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


7 Dopsuptasy arparuoráv. oT(cas 8 Hox avàs TÓ 
Tétyos karà TÀetovas TÓTOUS éodAeve, kai ToAAQ 
vA Üec Dua cov, puevos ék Oo oxfjs kaTemrOve,. TOUS 
vroALopkovjevovs, &re kaL TÓV orpariaTáv emp- 

8 pvo TOS eürVX Laus  ÜmmpurTe O6 xai rà TeUyn, 
KaL £UAows Ümjpeióev, àv éurpnoÜévrcov Tax moÀ9 
pépos Tob Teiyovs émeoev. | éyÜa. O1) avvéBoauve kap- 
TepoTáTrQv páyqv yiveaÜ0au, rÀv uév Buatopévov 
évrós ToÜ TeLyovus mapevomeoeiv, TOv 0€ dopov- 

9 uévev jy) TaUTO. TüÜwow Trois XeAwovvr(ow 010 
kai TOV éoyarov ày&va Tieuévov aDrÓOv Dmép 
TékVOQV KGi 'ovéov kai Tf Tepuuaxyyrov To. 
vorpios, éfecoÜ«cav ot DdpDapou kai Tax) TO 
|iépos rob rebxovs QVWQKo ójcav. mapeyevijUnaav 
O' a)Tois eis Tov BoríBevay ot T €É "Akpdyyavros 
Zwpakóotot kaí Twwes TüV dAÀÀcv cv pxov, oc 
mrávres eis rerpakuayiMovs, Qv AwokAfs ó Xwpa- 
KÓotog eiye TV Tyyepiovtay. 

60. Tóre uév ov vukTós àdelopévns TV eni TÓ 
mrÀéov $uAoveutay éÀvcav TV mroALopktav- áp. o 
")épQ Tois 'luepatow &Oofe gf) mepiop&v abroUs 
gvykeKAeuopévous  àyevvós, kaÜdmep Tovs leAÀ- 
vovvriovs, émi 0e rÓv rewyiv dAakas karérarrov, 
TOUS o GAÀovs oTparuáyras o)v ToÍS graporyeyovóat 

2 ovp xot e&ryayov, Óvrag epi poptovs. ámpoo- 
OokYres &c Tos o epLots  amavrcavres eis 
enne Tyayov ToUs  Bapfdápovs, vopitovras 
T|kew TOUS gvpup.áxovs Tots mroAvopkovp.évois TroAD 
Oc ToÀs TOLL cus Ümepéxovres kai TOS eoxeupiaus, 
Kai TÓ éywToV, pág éXmi&os eis awTwypiav bmo- 


1 So Reiske : 7 zÀéov P, 7 mAelow cet. 


288 


BOOK XIII. 59 7—860. 2 


Sicam having jomed him Setüng up his siege-engines 409 s.c 
he shook the walls at a number of points, and since 
he pressed the batile with waves of troops 1n great 
strength, he wore down the defenders, especially since 
hus soldiers were elated by their successes — He also 
set about undermining the walls, which he then shored 
up with wooden supports, and when these were set on 
fire, à large section of the wall soon fell. Thereupon 
there ensued a most bitter battle, one side struggling 
to force 1ts way insidethe wall and the other fearing lest 
they should suffer the same fate as the Sehnuntians 
Consequently, since the defenders put up a struggle 
to the death on behalf of children and parents and 
the fatherland which all men fight to defend, the 
barbarians were thrust out and the section of the wall 
quickly restored To their aad came also the Syra- 
cusans from Acragas and troops from them other 
alhes, some four thousand in all, who were under the 
command of D:ocles the Syracusan. 

60 At that juncture, when night brought an end 
to all further striving for victory, the Carthagimans 
abandoned the attack. And when day came, the 
Himeraeans decided not to allow themselves to be 
shut 1n and surrounded. im thus 1gnominious manner, as 
were the Sehnuntians, and so they stationed guards 
on the walls and led out of the city the rest of their 
soldiers together with the allies who had arrived, 
sometenthousandmen.  Andby engaging the enemy 
thus unexpectedly, they threw the barbanians into 
consternation, thinking as they did that allied forces 
had arrived to aid those who were penned in by 
the siege. And because the Himeraeans weie far 
superior in deeds of daring and of skill, and especially 
because their single hope of safety lay in their pre- 


VOL. V D 280 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


keuuévis eL TÉ ux kparjaeuav," ce0Ü)  TroUs 
"porous O7ocTrávras davetÀov. ToU O6 mÀnüÜovs 
rÀv Bappápwv cvvrpéxovros €v ara£íe moÀÀf) Ou 
TÓ pm9émor àv eria TOUS cvykekAewopiévovs 
r»AwaBra, roApijoew, o) perpios TÀarTobvro: eis 
va. yàp TÓTov Ókrc) uvpiáOcv ovvópauovodv àrá- 
«ros ovvéBawe To)s DapBápovs aàAMjAÀow éumí- 
7TeW kai TÀe(ova srüoxew 0o  éavrüv Yjmep omo 
-Àv ToAeuicv. ot 6  luepatot Üearás éyovres dzró 
TÓV T€JwxOV yoveis kat maiOas, érv O6 roUs oiketous 
dravras, à$eiÓs éypóvro Tois iOíow copaociw 
eis T)v kou? oc«Tnpiav.  Aaumpüs 9. a)TÓv 
àycviouévev ot BápBapov rás 7e rÓAuas kai TÓ 
mapd8Bofov karaAayévres pos Qvy)v érpámmoav. 
roUrQv O. oj0evi kóop« devyóvrov mpósg ToUs émi 
rÀv Àódov orparomeGevovras, émmkoAoUÜovy GAAÀT,- 
Àois mra. pakceAevópuevot pn9éva Corypeiv, kai mrÀetovs 
üvetÀov TÓÀv éfakwyiAGov, cs Tias, cs 9 


6 "Edopós $q9o:, Owpvpiov. ó 8 'Avvifas ópóív 


ToUs iOtovs karazovovpuévovs, kareDiDaoe ToUg éri 
TÓv Àódwv  kareorparomeOevkÓvas, Kai mapa- 
BorÉ7jcas TOLS cAarrovuévots kaéAafe ToUs "Iue- 
paiovs. év oX8epuG TáÉe, TOV Ovarypóv mou upiévovs. 
yevop.évis 96 uáyns kaprepás TO uev. vÀfjQos 
TÓV 'Iuepatcv pos $vynv cppwrnoe, puo xLÀwo, 8' 
axrÀy ÜrocTávres Tv TÓV apxn8ovicv OUvaw, 
kai ToÀÀQ Opdcavres, à darovres avnpé8ncav. 

61. Tfs 8e Háxms raUrTS 7/8 TéÀos eXoUons 
karémevaav TpOÓs Tv pépav mévre "pos. TOS 
eiKooL Trpvjpeiws rapa, Tv 2ukeÀworóv, ás mrpórepov 

a E after xparijaevv deleted by Reiske. 


? ópnumgoc] ópuqoav PEJ, dppwoev cet. 
200 


BOOK XIII. 60 2—961. 1 


vailing 1n the battle, at the outset they slew the first 109 » c 
opponents. And snce the multitude of ihe bar- 
barians thronged together 1n great disorder because 
they never would have expected that the besieged 
would dare such à move, they were under no httle 
disadvantage ; for when eighty thousand men 
streamed together without order into one place, the 
result was that the barbanians clashed with each other 
and suffered more heavily from themselves than from 
the enemy. The Himeraeans, having as spectators 
on the walls parents and children as well as all their 
relatives, spent ther own hves unsparingly for the 
salvation of them all. And since they fought brilh- 
antly, the barbarians, dismayed by their deeds of 
daring and unexpected resistance, turned in flight. 
They fled in disorder to the troops encamped on the 
hills, and the Himeraeans pressed hard upon them, 
crying out to each other to take no man captive, and 
they slew more than six thousand of them, according 
to Timaeus, or, as Ephorus states, more than twenty 
thousand. But Hannibal, seeing that his men were 
becommg exhausted, brought down his troops who 
were encamped on the hills, and reinforeimng his beaten 
soldiers caught the Himeraeans in disorder as they 
were pushing the pursuit In the fierce battle which 
ensued the main body of the Himeraeans turned in 
flight, but three thousand of them who tried to oppose 
the Carthaginan army, though they accomphshed 
great deeds, were slain to a man. 

61. This battle had already come to an end when 
there arrived at Himera from the Sicihan Greeks the 
twenty-five trnremes which had previously been sent 


201 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


uév ámeoráAkewav Tols AakeOaiuoviow émi ov- 
paxtav, TÓre 8. àvéorpelav àmó Tfjs orporeías. 
0uc000 0€ xai d"juy Tis karà Tv mOÓÀw ÓmL 
Xwpakóoio pv wavónuei perà TÓV Ocvupuáxov 
zopevovrau. Tois 'luepaíow Boqüetv, 'AvviBas 86 
péAAou Tàs év Moriy vpu]pew mÀnpoüv rÀv kparí- 
oT«v vOpOv kal sepurAeocas émi 2vpakovcas 
épnuov T)v vóÀw TÓÀv àpuvvouévov karaAapécOa.. 
OLÓmep AuokAfjs Ó rÓÀv év 'luépa orpaTwyOs ovv- 
eBoAevoe rois vavápxouws T?]v raytorqv éxmrÀety. eis 
Xwpakoócas, tva p ovuBfj xarà kpdros àÀdvat 
T? TólÀw, QAmTÓvrov. év Tf Wáyy TÓv kpaTioTOv 
ávOpOv.  Ouómep éQaívero ovudépew a)rois éxA- 
Tely T")v TÓAtv kat ToUs uev 7)uioeus eis Tàs Tpufipeus 
éupuBáca.—rabras yàp karakouuety aDross, uéypi 
&v ékrós Tfs uepaías yévovrau xycpas—, Tots 
9' fuiceo. Topetv, és àv váÀw ai Tpu/pews émi- 
orpéjwow | ràv 9. 'Ipepaíow oxerAatbóvrov uv 
éri Tots Aeyopévow, o)k éxóvrowv 86 6 mpáfeuv 
érepov, ai pév Tpwjpeus vukTOs émÀmpotvro xarà 
oTovórv àvapgié yvvawucdv Te kai maiómv, érv 86 
TÓVv dÀMov occpárov, émi robrov ümomAeóvrov 
cs émi Meoorvqv: AvokAijs 8é ro)s iO(ovs oTpa- 
r«0rTas àvaÀaBov kat roUs seoóvras €v vf) uáym 
karaAvmrov, epojumoev és otov Tr)v mope(ay Troto)- 
pevos.  soÀÀoi 06€ TéGv 'luepaíev pugrà Tékvwov 
kai yvvauüv é£ópproav o)v vois srepi TÓóv AvokMjy, 
UT) 9vvauévo xwpfjsau TOv cpuíjpov TrÓv ÓyAov. 
62. Ot 8' év rfj «óAec karraAeubÜEvres Guevukré- 
pevov uév év rots ÓwÀow émi rÀv rewGv dua 8 
L ázóvrcv Wurm: dámoAcAóreow. Vogel suggests móAw. 
&moÀoAóTov 8. év rf ju 7 k. ávüpóv édaívero k7À 
909 


* 


BOOK XIII. 61 1—62. 1 


to aid the Lacedaemonians ! but at this time had re- 109 s.c 
turned from the campaign. — And a report also spread 
ihrough the ety that the Syracusans en masse to- 
gether with their alhes were on the march to the aid 
of the Himeraeans and that Hanmbal was preparing 
to man his triremes 1n Motyé with his choicest troops 
and, sailing to Syracuse, seize that city while it was 
stripped of its defenders. Consequently Diocles, who 
commanded the forees 1n. Himera, advised the ad- 
mirals of the fleet to set sai with all speed for 
Syracuse, in order that 1t rmght not happen that the 
city should be taken by storm while its best troops 
were fighting a war abroad. They decided, therefore, 
that their best course was to abandon the city, and 
that they should embark half the populace on the 
trremes (for these would convey them until they had 
got beyond Himeraean territory) and with the other 
half keep guard untl the trremes should return. 
Although the FHiimeraeans complained indignantly at 
this conclusion, since there was no other course they 
could take, the triremes were hastily loaded by mght 
with a mixed throng of women and children and of 
other inhabitants also, who saied on them as far as 
Messené; and Diocles, taking his own soldiers and 
leaving behind the bodies of those who had fallen m 
tbe fighüng, set forth upon the journey home.? And 
many Himeraeans with children and wives set out 
with Diocles, since the triremes could not carry the 
whole populace. 

62 Those who had been left behind in Humera 
spent the mght under arms on the walls ; and when 


! Cp chaps. 34. 4 ; 40. 5; 63. 1 ? 'To Syracuse. 


? kai after ocpdárcov PFK, omitted. cet. Vogel suggests 
kai . GTéTÀ€OV. . 


203 


b» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


jp epa TÓV Kapxyn8ovicov mepwrrparromeOevodyrav 
T?)v vóÀw kai vuKvàs TpooDoÀas sotovuévov, ot 
kayraAeupÜvres TÀv dpepataov ades qycvüovro, 
mpooSokOvres Tv TÓV Veüv mapovaiay. eketynv 
uev 00v Tv Tuépav Gwkaprépnoav, Tfj O. Dorepaia. 
TÓV Tpuijpav émijawopévey jo" avvéBauve TÓ Lév 
Telyos mreGcety UmO TOW nxavàv, rovs 9. "l8mpas 
aÜpóovs zrapeuameaety eis TÜv zóAw. TOV Oé Bap- 
Bápov ol iiv 7uOvovro ro)s zapaBonÜoüvras rÀv 
"Inepaicv, oL Óé karaAapavópevoi TÀ Tei" map- 
eOéyovro TOUS (Otovs. KaTü kpáros 09v GAosons TÍS 
TrÓAecs, é eni ToÀvv xpóvov ot DápBapoc srávras edó- 
vevov roUs koraAauBavopi.évovs Goujmo Ds Tob O 
AvwíBo Corypety mrapojyyelAaros o p.év dóvos eAn- 
ev, 7 Ó. ek TÓv oikudv cüóauuovía OLedopetro. o! 
"AwiBas TÓ uev iepá, cvjoas KG TOUS karra.duyóv- 
Tas Lkéras àmoomácas évémpmoe, kai T? TÓÀw els 
&Baos karéakoibev, oiKioÜetcav érr) DLakócua TEeG- 
capáxovra- TÓV o aix pao TOv yvvatkas kai. gat- 
Oas OuaOoUs eis TÓ OTpaTÓTeO0V mapeóiAarre, TÓV 
o avüpáv TOUS GAóvras eis TpwryVAMovs OvTAOS Tra.p- 
fyyaryev émi TÓV TÓTOV év Q mpórepov 'AuíAkag Ó 
TámTOSs G)TOU 0-0 léAcovos àvgpéÜm, kai mávras 
alivodquevos korréadaéev. perà 0€ rara OvaÀUcas 
TÓ orpozómreóov, TroUs pév àrró 2ukeAias Gujd ovs 
améoTetÀev eis ràs mrarpióas, ue0" dv kai Kagravoi 
cwvnkoAosncay eykaAotvres* Trois Kapynóoviois 
ds aiTL.COTO.TOL uev TÓV eonpieprjur oov yeyernuévot, 
ok icon 06 xápvras eiÀmóóres rÓÀv mempaypévov: 


«ai PAF, re xal cet. 


? pev after éykaAoüvres deleted by Dindorf: Wurm sug- 
gests uévroL 


204. 


* 


BOOK XIII. 62. 1-5 


with the coming of day the Carthaginians surrounded 409 s «. 
the city and launched repeated attacks, the remaining 
Himeraeans fought with no thought for their hves, 
expecting the arnval of the ships. For that day, 
therefore, they continued to hold out, but on the next, 
even when the trremes were already in sight, it so 
happened that the wall began to fall before the blows 
of the siege-engines and the Iberians to pour imn a 
body into the city. Some of the barbarians thereupon 
would hold off the Himeraeans who rushed up to bring 
aid, while others, gainmg command of the walls, would 
help their comrades get 1n Now that the city had 
been taken by storm, for a long time the barbanians 
continued, with no sign of compassion, to slaughter 
everyone they seized. But when Hannibal issued 
orders to take prisoners, although the slaughter 
stopped, the wealth of the dwellings now became 
the objects of plunder. Hannibal, after sacking the 
temples and dragging out the suppliants who had fled 
to them for safety, set them afire, and the city he 
razed to the ground, two hundred and forty years 
after its founding. Of the captives the women and 
children he distributed among the army and kept 
them under guard, but the men whom he took 
captive, some three thousand, he led to the spot where 
once his grandfather Hamilear had been slain by 
Gelon ! and after torturing them put them allto death 
After this, breaking up his army, he sent the Sicilian 
allies back to their countries, and accompanying them 
also were the Campanians, who bitterly complained 
to the Carthaginians that, though they had been the 
ones chiefly responsible for the Carthaginian successes, 
the rewards they had received were not a fair return 


T Cp. Book 11. 92. 
205 


6 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ M M 
o 9 'AvviBas eig Tác pakpàs vabs kai doprqyoUs 
éufuBácas Tüv O/vapuwv, kai To)s LxavoUs Tots 
cuphiAyous droÀvmov oTparuTas, éfémAevoev ék 
^ ? 5 M 5 ? / / 

Tfs XuxeMas. émet 0. eis Kapynóóva karémAevoe 
X ^ Pi » / 5 — / 8 
perà, zroÀÀQv Aadpov, dàrüvrov abr(Q Távres Óe- 

c^ / 
fu óuevou: kai TruuOvres cs év OAyo xpóv« piei- 
Lova wpácavra TrÓVv mpórepov oTpaTwyóv. 

63. Eis 96 c9» XukeMav karémAevoev 'Eppo- 
Kpárns ó 2Ziwpakóotos. oóros O. év pév TQ mpos 
'AÜünvaious soAÀépq orparwy5coas kai moAÀAÀÀ Tjj 

^ / 
vaTpió. xprjotuLos yevóp.evos mÀelorov toyvoe mapà 
rois 2iupakootots, uera, 0e rara, vavapxos mrejdÜOets 
cov Tpudkovra mévre rpv)peot AaieBauoviowg ovjs- 
pox"ücov 9-0 TÓÀv dvrwroAvevouévov kareoTa- 

/ ^ 
oudio09, kal dvyfjs uév éyevi)Ür karádukos, vróv 8€ 
oróÀov mapéOwckev év lleAomovwáoo! Totg émi Tv 
Oia8ox"jv &ooraActow | abrÓs 9. ék rfjs orpore(as 

AL Ld Ml ') / 1 ^ II ^ 
diAav éycov mpós GOapváfBalov rov TrÀv llepoów 

/ M ? , ^ A / , 
carpáTmv éAaBe zap' ajroU0 moÀÀA yprjuara, pe0 
Qv eis Meoojvqv karamAevcas mévre uév évavmrí- 

/ 
ynce rpwjpews, y.Movs 9. éuuaÜ caro arparworas. 
TapaAaBov 8é kal rÀv ékmemrokórov 'Iuepaicov 
/ 
Qs xywAovs, ézexyetproe puév eis Xivpakovoas kareÀ- 
Üctv cvvaryevilouévow abrQ T&v diÀAov, dvorvyow 

M ^ ^ ^ 

96 rfs émuBoMjs Gppumoe Ou Tíjs peooyetov, kai 
/ "^ -- 

karaAafóuevos rÓv XieAwoüvra! víjs móAecs uépos 

5 H 

éreiywoe kai mavraxyóÜev karekáAe, oos OuaccoLo- 


* [IeAorroviijoo] "EAXjomóvrqo (cp. Xen. JTell. 1. 1 81) Wes- 
seling. * xai after XeAwotvra deleted by Reiske. 


206 


BOOK XIII 62. 6—63. 3 


foi their accomplishments Then Hannibal embarked 409 ».«. 
his army on the warships and merchant vessels, and 
leaving behind suffiaent troops for the needs of his 

alles he set sail from Sicily. And when he arrived at 
Carthage with much booty, the whole city came out to 

meet him, paying him homage and honour as one who 

in a brief time had peiformed greater deeds than any 
general before him. 

63. Hermocrates the Syracusan arrived im Sly. 
This man, who had served as general im the war 
against the Athenians and had been of great service 
to his country, had acquired the greatest influence 
among the Syracusans, but afterwards, when he had 
been sent as admiral 1n. command of thirty-five tri- 
remes to support the Lacedaemonians, he was over- 
powered by his pohtical opponents and, upon being 
condemned to exile, he handed over the fleet in 
the Peloponnesus? to the men who had been dis- 
patched to sueceed him — Ánd since he had struck 
up à friendship with. Pharnabazus, the satrap of the 
Persians, as a result of the campaign, he accepted 
from him a great sum of money with which, after he 
had arrived at Messené, he had five trnremes built and 
hired a thousand soldiers — Then, after adding to this 
force also about a thousand of the Himeraeans who 
had been driven from their home, he endeavoured 
with the aid of his friends to make good his return to 
Syracuse ; but when he failed in thus dengn, he set 
out through the middle of the island and seizmng 
Selnus he built a wall about a part of the city and 
called to bim from all quarters the Sehnuntians who 


* Cp. ehap. 34 4 
? Kenophon (Zell. 1. 1. 31) states that the new com- 
manders took over the Syracusan ships and troops at Miletus 


VOL. V RC. 20'7 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 pévovs rÀv Xelvovvriov. | roAAoos 0é kai üMovs 


ÜmoOexyÓj.evos eis vOv TÓnov ovvjyaye OUvajuv émi- 
Aékrov. dvOpiv éfakwoyuMov. | évreüÜOev 8' Oppó- 
pevos mpóTov pév Tv TOv Morvqvàv émópÜmoe 
ycpav, kai ToUs émefeMvras ék íjs vóAeos 
páym «parcas oÀAoUs qiév dvetÀe, To)s 9 
&AAovs ovveOLoéev évrós ToÜ Teiyovs.  puerà 8é 
rabra T5» vàv llavopuvrüv xoópav AÀegAor/cas 
avapiÜuYjrov Àe(as ékvpievae, rv 8é llavopuvróv 
cavOónnei Taparaé£auévov mwpó fs srÓÀewng eis 
T€vrükoctovus pév aDrOv Avelàe To)s O. dÀAovus 
cuvékAewev évrós rv TeuyOv.  mapamAnoics 8é 
kai r2)v GÀAqv xopav àmacav T)v $m-0 Kapyn- 
Ooviovs o?cav sopÜGv éraívov vmapà rois ZukeAuo- 
rais érvyyavev. 005 O6 kai rÀv Ilwpakooiov oi 
mAetoro, uerepeAj0ncav, üàva£ios Tíjs iGias dpertjs 
ópQvres TeQvyaOevuévov Tóv 'Epuokpárqv. 8i 
ka, mep,. a)TOU0 voÀÀÓv Aóycov ywopévcov év maig 
ékkAmoiaus, Ó uév Ofjuos davepós 9v BovAónevos 
koraBéxeoÜDa,. róv àvOpa, 0 8. "Epuokpdras dkovwv 
v?v epi ajroU dmjumv év rais ZwvpakoUcaus map- 
eckeválero mpós Tiv a)roÜ xáBoOov éruiueAQs, 
ei0cs To)s AvrvroAvrevopévous. ávrvrpá£ovras. 

Kai rà uév kavrà 2ZukeMav év rovrois jv 

64. Karà 8é v)v 'EAA40a Opac)fovAos sreu- 
$Üeis map 'AÜmvaiov perà ve&Ov mpikkovra kai 
ToÀÀQv oOmÀvrüv ov Lmmebow éxarÓv karémAevoev 
eis Tzv "Edeoov: ékBugácas 8é r)v Ovvajuv kará 
OUo rómovs mvpocDoÀas émovjcuro | 7v 8 £y8ov 


! So Reiske: uáyp re. ? So Eachstadt: m» 7€ 
? So Dindorf: aro9 FJK, airs P, act cet. 
208 


BOOK XIII. 63. 4—64 1 


were still ahve.! He also received many others into 409 s c. 
the place and thus gathered a force of six thousand 
picked warnors. Malang Selimnus his base he first laid 
waste the territory of the inhabitants of Motyé ? and 
defeating in battle those who came out from the city 
against him he slew many and pursued the rest within 
the wallofthe cdty ^ After this he ravaged the tern- 
tory of the people of Panormus ? and acquired count- 
less booty, and when the inhabitants offered battle en 
masse before the city he slew about five hundred of 
them and shut up the rest within ther walls | And 
since he also laid waste 1n hike fashion all the rest of 
the terntory m the hands of the Carthaginians, he 
won the commendation of the Sicihan Greeks — And 
at once the majority of the Syracusans also repented 
of their treatment of him, realizing that Hermocrates 
had been banished contrary to the merits of his 
valour Consequently, after much discussion of him 
in meetings of the assembly, it was endent that the 
people desired to receive the man back from exile, 
and Hermocrates, on heanng of the talk about him- 
self that was current 1n Syracuse, laid careful plans 
regarding his return from exile, knowing that his 
politieal opponents would work against it. 

Such was the course of events m Sicily 

64 In Greece Thrasybulus,* who had been sent out 
by the Athemans with thirty ships and a strong force 
of hophtes as well as a hundred horsemen, put in at 
Ephesus ; and after disembarking his troops at two 
ponts he launched assaults upon the city The in- 


* Hermociates 1s carrying on his own war against that 
part of Sicily held by the Carthaginians. 

* Cp. chap 54. 5. 3 Modern Palermo. 

* "Thrasyllus, according to Xenophon, 77e!l. 1. 2. 6 ff. "The 
account 1s resumed from the end of chapte1 53. 


200 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éme£eMIóvrow kaprepàv ovvépmy uáynv ocvorífvaw 
mavómuei 86 cÀv '"E$eoieov aywowwapévov cerpa- 
/ A ^ » / y 1 5 UA 

Kócio, uév TÀv ' AÜqvaiov érecov, rovs 0. àAAovs 
ó GpaoífovAos ávaAapov eis ràs vaüs éfémAev- 
? / € A M / M ^ 
9 ocv eis Aéofov oí 86 mepi KüLucov Ovres TÀv 

$ / M À / 3. ps À / 
AÓmvaiev orparwyoi mÀeUcavres émi XaAknoóva, 
XpvaómoAw Qkwav ópo/piov kai Tr»v ikavrv aDTQ 
KaréAvmov Odvapuv Tots O. émi ToUTo» karacTa- 
Üctc. mpocéra£av Oekdrwqv mpdrreoÜo, To)s ék roO 

/ / M M ^ / 
3 [lóvrov mÀéovras. | perà 986 -Taó7ra OwAouévov 
aürÓv ràs Ovvápew, Cmpapévms uév perà mevrá- 

^ / / / 
xovra veQv kareÀe(d0« coAwpkYjoov | XaAxn8óva 
xai, BvLavriov, GOpaovBovAos O6 epi GOpdimnv 
veudÜeis ràs év roUrows rois TÓTOis TÓÀeiw mpoc- 
4 qyáyero. '"AAkiwidógs 96 rÓv OpaciDBovAov uerá 
TOv TpidÁkovra veQv dmoÀócasg  émzÀevoev els T?v 
$70 GapvaBaLov xyópav, kai kowj moAÀM) aj- 
Tfs vopÜ/5cavres TroUs Te oTparwóTas évémAmoav 
GóeÀeias kai abTol wproTa ocvv/yayov ék cóv 
Aad/pov, BovAóuevow kovoíco. TÓv Ofov cTóv 

eicdopóv. 
5  AakeOauuówwou 06. mvvÜavópevou mepi Tóv 'EA- 
Ajomovrov Omápyew üàzdoas ràs TOv 'AÜmvatov 
/ ; / 

Ovvápiews, éorpdrevoav émi YlóAov, jv Meoovwot 


! dmoÀócas] àoXjjas Palmer, àzoxaMocas Reiske 








! Cp p 299, n. 4. 

? On the Hellespont opposte Byzantium. 

* Editors have been troubled by dmoAMocas (cp. critical note), 
here translated as "" give a separate command," by pressing 
the meaning of the word in the sense of ** dismiss," whereas 
both Aleiàiades and Thrasyllus were later engaged together 


2300 


BOOK XIII. 64 1-5 


habitants came out of the city against them and a 409 s.c 
fierce battle ensued ; and since the entire populace 
of the Ephesians Joined m the fighting, four hundred 
Athenans were slain and the remainder Thrasy- 
bulus ! took aboard his ships and sailed off to Lesbos. 
The Athenian generals who were in the nexghbour- 
hood of Cyzicus, saihng to Chalcedon,? established 
there the fortress of Chrysopohs and left an adequate 
force behind ; and the officers 1n charge they ordered 
to collect a tenth from all merchants sading out of 
the Pontus. Aftertlus they divided their forces and 
Theramenes was left behind with fifty ships with 
which to lay siege to Chalcedon and Byzantium, and 
Thrasybulus was sent to Thrace, where he brought the 
cities in those regions over to the Athenians. And 
Alcibiades, after giving Thrasybulus ! a separate com- 
mand? with the thirty ships, sailed to the territory 
held by Pharnabazus, and when they had conjointly 
laid waste a great amount of that teriitory, they not 
only sated the soldiers with plunder but also them- 
selves realized money from the booty, since they 
wished to reheve the Athenian people of the property- 
taxes 1mposed for the prosecution of the war. 

When the Lacedaemomans learned that all the 
armaments of the Athemans were 1m the region of the 
Hellespont, they undertook a campaign against Pylos, 
which the Messenians held with a garnson ; on the 
in the raiding of Persian territory. But the word can also 
mean no moie than '' sepa1ate," as when a man "' separates " 
(divorces) his wife. Xenophon (Hell. 1. 2 15 ff.) states that 
the troops of Alcibiades refused at first to join with those of 
Thiasyllus because the latter had just suffered defeat before 
Ephesus, but later agreed to the union of the two arnues after 
the suecessful raids What Alcibiades probably did was to 


send Thrasyllus ahead, and the generals operated sepa1ately 
for a time. 


301 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


$povpa Kameéixov, kara, pev Üá&Aarrav érOeka. vau- 
otv, &v Tfjicav ai pév dmO 2uccAas sévre, é€ Oc 
eK TÓV moAvrav cemÀnpojiévav — meo 52 TQp- 
fyoryov KO) Osvapuv, kai mrepworparomeócUoarres 
TO dpoUpuov émrópÜovy" aja. kai kar yf Kai karTà 
ÜiAarrav. à OT, mrvÜpevos o0 TÓV "A8nvaicov 
Ofjuos é£oméoreAe TOÍS mroÀtopkovjévois eis Borj- 
Üe.av vaüs rpuárkovra, kai or pomriyóv " Àvvrov TOv 
"AvÜepiovos. obros pev oóv ércrAevoas , kai Ou 
TwaGs xewuLOvas o) Ovv9Ücis róv MaAéav káuwo:, 
dvémAevcev! eig 'AOWvas.  éQ' ois ó név fos 
OpywoÜeis kal karavriacáj.evos a)ToU TpoOocíav, 
neréorqoev eis kpigw: o0 9. "Avvros ioGxupós kww- 
OvveUov éppócaro xpraci Tiv iOíav wWvycüv, kai 
mpáyros ' AÜnvaicov 9oket 9ucaaTty)piov GcpoSoxkfjaa. 
oi €. év rjj IIvÀo Mecovjvtoc uéypu uév Twos ávc- 
eiyov, mpooOokQvres mapà TÓÀv 'AOnvaiov oó- 
e.av* cs O. oi uév voÀéguto( Tàs mwpoo[oAàs ék 
Ou.aGoxfs émoioÜvro rv Oé ibicov ot uev €éK TÓV 
pav era àméÜüvqgokov, oi 9' ek Tíjs GvroOeLas 
KkaKQs dm/ÀÀarTOV, omóamov6oL TOV TómOV ee eAc- 
vov. AakeOauuóviot pev. oOv €ykporreis eyévovro 
Tfjs IIiAov, mevrekaióera. enm TÓV "A8nvaiev. o- 
TV kareoynkórov, üdj' órov AquooÜévos abr? 
éreixLo€v. 

65. Tosrav àé mporTopévov Meyapeis uev NGC 
gauay jm '"AÜOmqvaious o9cav etÀov, "Afrvatot 9 à 
adroUs aéoTeuAay Aewrpooióny kai Tisapxov per 
pev. rev Mov, Umm éco óc rerpakocícv. ols oi 
Mevyapets àravrijcavres perà rv ÓrÀcv vavónuci 

l qévre, e£ 66 Wesseling. àx PF, erévre éx cet 


? émópÜow] Capps suggests émáóDovv, Post éroMópkow. 
302 


BOOK XIII. 64. 5—65. 1 


sea they had eleven ships, of which five were from 409 s c. 
Sicily and six were manned by their own cirüzens, 
while on land they had gathered an adequate army, 
and after mvesting the fortress they began to wreak 
havoc! both by land and by sea As soon as the 
ÁAihenman people learned of this they dispatched to 
the aid of the besieged thirty ships and as general 
Anytus ? the son of Anthemion Now Anytus sailed 
out on his mission, but when he was unable to round 
Cape Malea because of storms he returned to Atbens. 
The people were so incensed at this that they accused 
him of treason and brought him to trial ; but Anytus, 
being 1n great danger, saved his own hfe by the use 
of money, and he 1s reputed to have been the first 
Atheman to have bribed a jury. Meanwhile the 
Messenians 1n Pylos held out for some time, awaiting 
aid from the Athenians; but since the enemy kept 
launching successive assaults and of their own number 
some were dying of wounds and others were reduced 
to sad straits for lack of food, they abandoned the 
place under à truce. And so the Lacedaemonians 
became masters of Pylos, after the Athenians had 
held it fifteen years from the time Demosthenes had 
fortified it ? 

65 While these events were taking place, the 
Megarnians seized Nisaea, which was in the hands 
of Athenians, and the Athenians dispatched against 
them Leotrophides and Timarchus with à thousand 
infantry and four hundred cavalry. The Megarians 
went out to meet them en masse under arms, and after 


* Or '"' to press the Messenians hard " (cp. eritieal note) 
* Later one of the accusers of Socrates 
? Cp. Book 12. 63. 5 


? So Hertlein* azémAevoev. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kai mapaAaóvres rwaàs ràv é« 2ieAias, craperá- 
£avro mpós rois Àóóow Tots Képaou xoAovuévow: 
TÀv O0. 'AÜwvaiov Aa;mpós ayewwcauévov, kai 
roÀAamAÀaciovs Óóvras ro)s oAÀeutovs cpelauéveov, 
Meyapécv émecov uév mo0ÀÀot, TOv Oé Aake8a- 
poviv! eikoo. uóvov: ot yàp 'AOsvatow Bapécs 
dépovres émi TQ T)v Néíoouav kareMjóÜoi ToUs 
pev Aakeóoausovious" oük éO(£av, mpós O€ ToUs 
Mevyapets yaAÀerrás Ouaketuevoi sramrAnÜets üvetÀov. 

AakeDauóviot 06 Kparnovurrióav .SAópevot vai- 
apxov, kal sapà rÀv ovppáxov vaüs abTÓv TAÀn- 
pácavres eikocu mévre, mpocéra£av rrapaBorOetv 
rois QupuuáxoUs o0ros Oé xpóvov uév Tiva cepi 
Tv "Ioviav OLérpupev oU02v d£wv Aóyov mpá£asg: 
perà Óé robro. TGp& TÀv ék Xiov óvyáScv AaBov 
xppara karTyoycev aDroUs kai T?]jv &kpórroÀuv TÓV 

&ov kareAdBero. oi 06 kareAÜóvres cv Xiwv 
TOUS dvrwrOÀvrTevouévous ajrots kai Tüjs ékmTÓ- 
cecs aPríovs Ovras eis é£akoatous TOV piov. OÓv- 
TOS évydóevoov. o0To, Oé Tfjs üvrvrépav T)meípov 
Xcopiov " Àrapvéa kaAoUpevov. korreAdovro, copa. 
Tj $ce kaDeorqkós Óyvupóv, kai TÓ Aowróv ék 
ToUrou Tàs djopps éyovres émoAéuovv Tots Xioy 
éyovau. 

66. To)rov à8é mporropévav AArafud8ns kai 
OpaoiBovAos Adpalakcov reuxioavres , éy [ev Tar) 
Tijv (kav?v dva karéMmov, a)Toi 86 uer Tíjs 

! Por Aaxe8ouuovicv. and. AakeBausovious Vogel suggests 
MukceAuurv and ZukeAvóras respectively 

? TOUS dvrumoAvrevopévous Dindorf, airíovs óvras H, rÀv àvri- 
mroAvrevopévary QUTOÍS K T ékmTájoecs eis é&akoatovs cet. 


3 rois Xtov Rhodoman, ró toytov PA, rots 70 toxvov cet. 
* So Palmer (cp. ch. 104. 8) Ad Bàeucov; 


304 


BOOK XIII. 65. 1—66. 1 


adding to their number some of the troops from Sicily 409 s.c. 
they drew up for battle near the hills called '' The 
Cerata."' Since the Athenians fought brilliantly 

and put to flight the enemy, who greatly outnumbered 
them, many of the Meganians were slam but only 
twenty Lacedaemonmans ? ; for the Athenians, made 
angry by the seuzure of Nisaea, did not pursue the 
Lacedaemonians but slew great numbers of the 
Meganans with whom they were indignant. 

The Lacedaemonians, having chosen Cratesippidas 
as admiral and manned twenty-five of their own ships 
with troops furnished by their alhes, ordered them 
to go to the aid of ther alhes — Cratesippidas spent 
some time near Ionia without accomplishing anything 
worthy of mention; but later, after receiving money 
from the exiles of Chios, he restored them to their 
homes and seized the acropolis of the Chians. And 
the returned exiles of the Chians banished the men 
who were their pohtical opponents and had been re- 
sponsible for their exile to the number of approxi- 
mately sx hundred — These men then seized a place 
called Atarneus on the opposite mainland, which was 
by nature extremely rugged, and henceforth, from 
that as their base, continued to make war on their 
opponents who held Chios 

66 While these events were taking place Alcibiades 
and Thrasybulus,? after fortifyimg Lampsacus, left a 
strong garrison 1n that place and themselves sailed 


i "C"DThe Hoins," lying opposite Salamis on the border 
between Attica and Megara (cp Strabo, 9 1. 11) 

? Perhaps here and just below ** Sicilian Greeks " should 
be read for " Lacedaemomans," «nce the latter have not 
been mentioned as bemg piesent (cp. c11tical note). 

$ Thrasyllus (cp. p. 299, n. 4) 


205 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bvvá.ecos e£ émAevoav 7 vrpós Onpapévqv, ós érópOc, 
Tv XoAkn8óva vas pév éxcov éBGourjkovra, oTpa- 
TuoTas O€ mrevrakioyiAovs. aÜpowÜeiadv óé TÓV 
Ovvdpecov eis éva. TÓTOV dmereiyuaaw TÜV Tró!w d TO 
ÜaAárTns eis ÜdÀarrav &vAbveo TeLye.. O0 O. év mij 
TróAeL kaBeorapiévos* DT AakeBaupuoviaov "Imrmo- 
kpdárns vyepov, óv ot Aáicoves áppoordv ekáouv, 
TOUS T' iOLous .Orparidrras mpoojyave KQL TOUS 
XaAnBovtovs Gmrovras. yevopévis óé kaprepüs 
náxns, kai TÓV ,mepi TÓV "AAaBuáony éppooniéveos 
dyevuapévov, Ó T€ "mrokpárns émece Kai TÓv 
Aowr&üv oi pév avppé8gcav, oí 06 karaTrpowÜévres 
Qvépuyov eis TU góAw. perà 06 raóra 'ÀA- 
Buáóns uév eig '"EMWjorrovrov kal Aeppóvngov e£- 
érAevoe, DovAópuevos GU poto. XP'ipara. oL Oé qrepi 
TÓV Onpapérmy Op.oÀAoyíav e émovijaavro mpos XaAk- 
ovious dópov Aaepuávew map a)TÓV ÓcOv kai 
vpóTepov.  évreO00ev 86€ ràs Ovváuew amayayóv- 
TES amrpós Bobávriv | émoAópkovv TÜV mróAw KaL 
perà TOÀÀM?s omovOfs azror evi ew ezexetpoav. 
"AXBiáens àe aÜpoicas Xpisora ToÀÀoUs a)TÓ 
TÓV Opqiáv émeue cvarpareüoa., mrapcAaBe 8e 
kai TOUS Xeppóvnaov oiKoÜvras zayonpet, kai perà 
Táo")s Tfjs? Ovváuecos àvate)fas mpirov nev 2m- 

AvBpiav à mrpoBooías etAev, €£ fjs vroAAd Xp'ipiara. 
mrpo.&ápuevos ev pev Tory d povpav kaTéAvmev, ai- 
TÓs 06 O.à ráyovs f)ke mpOs ToUs cepi Onpapévqv 
eis Bvl&vrvov. GOpotÜe.óv 06 rv Ovvdpuecv, 
obro. pev TÓ, TpOs vr'oÀtopkiav jrouiLovro: TjseA- 
Àov yàp vucoew TóÀw Bápos €yovcav kai yépov- 
cav rÀv Ümép abTís àpuvvopévow: ycpis yàp TÓv 

! So Dindorf: kaÜwrrágevos 


306 


BOOK XIII. 66. 1—5 


with their fo1ce to Theramenes, who was layimg waste 409 1.c 
Chaleedon with seventy ships and five thousand 
soldiers. And when the armaments had been brought 
together into one place they threw a wooden stockade 
about the city from sea to sea.! Hippocrates, who 
had been stationed by the Lacedaemoniaans in the 
city as commander (the Laconmans call such a man a 
" harmost "5, led against them both hus own soldiers 
and all the Chalcedonians. A fierce battle ensued, 
and since the troops of Alcibiades fought stoutly, not 
only Hippocrates fell but of the rest of the soldiers 
some were slain, and the others, disabled by wounds, 
took refugein a body in the city. After this Aleibiades 
sailed out into the Hellespont and to Chersonesus, 
wishing to collect money, and Theramenes concluded 
an agreement with the Chalcedonians whereby the 
Athenians received from them as much tribute as 
before Then leading his troops from there to 
Byzantium he laid siege to the city and with great 
alacrity set about walhng :t off[ And Alcibiades, 
after collecting money, persuaded many of the 
Thracians to join his army and he also took into it the 
inhabitants of Chersonesus en masse; then, setting 
forth with his entire force, he first took Selybria? by 
betrayal,in which, after exacting from 1t much money, 
he left à garnson, and then himself came speedily 
to Theramenes at Byzantium When the armaments 
had been united, the commanders began making 
the preparations for a siege ; for they were settmng 
out to conquer a city of great wealth which was 
crowded with defenders, since, not counting the 


! '* From sea to sea," £.e from Bosporus to Propontis. 
* O1 Selymbi1a, modern Silivri, on the Propontis 


* Tíájs added by Dindorf. 
307 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Botavriev, voÀÀQv Ovrov, KAéapyos ó  Aake- 
Oauióvios dppooTTs etye woAAoUs év Tí] wÓÀew TÓV 
IIeAonovvqoiv kai puoÜ8oóópovs.  uéxpu pév ov 
Twos TpocDoAàs sroto)pevow, kakOov oj0év dfió- 
Aoyov Opáwvres Tros évOov ÓveréAovv émet 8. 0 Tfíjs 
TÓÀecs émiorárgs amijA0e vpos QapváBaLov, ores 
Adfm xpüpara, TqvukaÜürdá Twes vÀv Bvlavriow, 
pucoóüvres TO ápos Tís émwrac(ias—?"v yàp ó 
KAéapxos xaAemós—, mpoj8ckav Tv mÓAwv rois 
cepi TOv AÀkiudOmv 

67. Oro. 86 às Adcovres T)v vroAvopkiav kai ràs 
Ouvduew dmáfovres eis 'lowvíav 8e(Àys rais vavoi 
Tácaus éfémÀevcoav, kai 7Ó srelbóv orpárevpa. uéypi 
TwÓs dámayoyóvres, cs éméAaBev *v) vUf, máÀw 
ÜméoTpejav kai mepi pécag!" vókras mpocéuu£av 
Tfj TÓÀe«., kai Tàs Mév rpu]peus dmréoreiAav mpoorá- 
£avres àüdéAkew và vÀota kal kpavytrv srotetv, cs 
amáon)s éket ríjs Ovvdpiecs oUo")s, a)roi O6 perà 
ToÜ TeLoÜ ocpareUparos mpós rois Teiyeowv érf- 
povv 7TÓ ovvreroypévov sapà rÀv évàiGóvrov ovo- 
onuov TOV Ó év rais rpvpeou zrowodvrov TÓ 
vpooTaxÜév, kai r&v sÀoicv và uév ovvrpupóvre»? 
Trois éuBoAais, rà Ó' dmoomáv mewopévov? rais 
ciómpats xepotv, ér. 0€ Dorv é£aisiov voto/vrov, 
oí pév karà T?v TóAwv Ovres lleAomovvrow kai 
vüvres oi Tyv üATárwqv üyvoolüvres éfeBovYÜovv émi 
ToUs Auuévas.  Oiómwep oi cv mÓMw mpoOiQóvres 
7pav TO o/conuov dO ToÜ Te(yovs kai szapeóé- 
Xovro ToUs vepi TOv 'AAkwidómv Oià TOv kuá- 


! ràs after uécas deleted by Dindo1f 
? So Wesseling : ovvrpwufópueva. 
* ümoomüv veuptouévov. Vogel: dmó TOv ypopévov. 


* 


308 


BOOK XIII. 66. 5—67. 3 


Byzantines, who were many, Clearchus, the Lace- 409» c. 
daemonan harmost, had 1n the city many Pelopon- 
nesians and mercenanxres. Consequently,though they 
kept launching assaults for some time, they continued 
to mnflict no notable damage on the defenders ; but 
when the governor ! left the city to visit Pharnabazus 
1n order to get money, thereupon certain Byzantines, 
hating the severity of his administration (for Clearchus 
was a harsh man), agreed to dehver up the oty to 
Alcibiades and his colleagues 

67 The Athenian generals, giving the impression 
that they intended to raise the siege and take their 
armaments to Ionia, sailed out in the afternoon with 
all their ships and withdrew the land army some 
distance ; but when mght came, they turned back 
again and about the muddle of the night drew near 
the city, and they dispatched the triremes with orders 
to drag off the boats * and to raise a clamour as if the 
entre force were at that point, while they themselves, 
holding the land army before the walls, watched for 
the asgnal which had been agreed upon with those 
who were yielding the city — And when the crews of 
the triremes set about carrymg out their orders, shat- 
tenng some of the boats with their rams, trymg to 
haul off others with their grappling irons, and all 
the while raising a tremendous outcry;? the Pelopon- 
nesians in the city and everyone who was unaware of 
the trickery rushed out to the harbours to bring aid. 
Consequently the betrayers of the city raised the 
»ignal from the wall and admitted Alcibiades' troops 

! Clearchus. * , e the boats of the Byzantines 


$ Xenophon (Zell. 1. 3. 141ff.) does not mention this 
action 1n the harbour. 


309 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Kev karà moAÀNXv àcQdÀeuav, cs àv ToU mÀvÜovs 
éri TOv Awuuéva cuvóeOpauwmkóros. oi Oé lleAo- 
zovvücio, TruÜÓuevou TO yeyovós TO jév mpÓTov 
ToUs Ticeug émi ToU Auuévos améAwrov, mois Oé 
Aovrois karà orzovónv é£eBowÜovv émi Trà kare- 
Anpuéva Tebyn. 709 90€ oxeO00v máowns Tíjs Ovvá- 
peos TrÀv 'AOmqvaicv mapevomemrokvías, Óuws o) 
KaremAdymoav GÀÀA oAÀÓv wpóvov üvriwoTávres 
eüpóorws To)s 'AÜmnvaiovs T)uóvovro ovvayaw- 
bouévov TÀv BvCavriov. | xat sépas ok àv. éxpá- 
Tucav 'AÜnvato, Tfs TóÀecs Ouà uáxyns, eb 
cwvvo:oas TOv koupóv '"AJA«iáoógs ék"pvfe um- 
Oév dOicmua otty Toís BvLavriow- o)rc yàp 
oL TroÀerwco, jerafaAAóuevou Toos. IleAorrovvqotovs 
"ovovro. O0ev oi mÀetoro, uév aóràv àvppéÜncav 
ebyevüs Aycvwdpevo,, oi 86 mepueujÜévres eis 
Tevrakocious karéQvyov mpós To)s év To(s lLepois 
PBepuoss. oí 3' 'AÜmvato,. rots guév Bvtavriow 
àTéÓ0ekav T»v TÓAw, cvpudyovs abroUs mowjod- 
pevoi, mpós Oé roUs émi rots Dwjots Óvras ikéras 
óuoÀoyías éÜevro, rà uév ÓmÀa capaAafetv, rà 
óé cóparo eis '"AÜijvas kouicavres? émvrpédau 7d 
One epi abTÓv 

68. o8 9' érovs? 8weAM0óvros ' AÜnvato, uà Eà- 
kr'juovt mapéódnkav Tv ápy)v, '"Pepato: 8" onzá- 
rovs karéornoav Mápkov llamípwv ai £wmrópiov 
Nasrwv, 'Olvumiàs 8' éyévero rpírQ mwpós mais 
évevjkovra, kal" Tv évixa. aoráótov Eüfaros* Kvpn- 
vatos. epi üé roUrovs ro)s ypóvovs oi rÀv ' Afn- 
vaiov orpaTw»yoi BvLavríov kvpwcavres émíiAÜov 


! 86 added by Reiske. * kopicavres PÀ, koputcavras cet. 
? roírov after érovs added by Dindoif, Vogel. 


210 


BOOK XIII. 67. 3—68. 1 


by means of ladders 1n complete safety, since the 409 sc. 
multitude had thronged down to the harbour When 
the Peloponnesians learned what had happened, at 
first they left half their troops at the harbour and with 
the rest speedily rushed back to attack the walls 
which had been seized. And although practically the 
entire force of the Athemans had already effected an 
entrance, they nonetheless were not panic-stucken 
but resisted stoutly for a long while and battled the 
Athenians with the help of the Byzantines. | And in 
the end the Athenians would not have conquered the 
city by fighting, had not Alcibiades, perceiving his 
opportunity, had the announcement made that no 
wrong should be done to the Byzantines ; for at this 
word the citizens changed sides and turned upon the 
Peloponnesians. Thereupon the most of them were 
slam fighting gallantly, and the survivors, about five 
hundred, fled for refuge to the altars of the temples. 
The Athemans returned the city to the Byzantines, 
having first made them allies, and then came to terms 
with the suppliants at the altars: the Athenians 
would take away the arms and carrying their persons 
to Athens turn them over to the decision of the 
Athenian people. 

68. At the end of the year the Athenmans bestowed 495 a c 
the office of archon upon Euctemon and the Romans 
elected as consuls Marcus Papinus and Spurius 
Nautius, and the Ninety-third Olympiad was cele- 
brated, that in which Eubatus of Cyiené won the 
" stadion." About this time the Athenian generals, 
now that they had taken possession of Byzantium, 


* EdBaros] Eofóras Xen Ilell. 1. 2. 1. 
511 


C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


N e / A A ? * ^ jA AT 
TOv '"EAXWjosovrov kaií vràs €év abrQ mÓÀes mv 
e ^ 7 
"ABvàov vácas eiÀov.  perà Oé rara AuOmpov 
s X ^ € ^ 7 
«a. Mavrieov émeNQras perà víás tkavíjs Svvá- 
pecs karéAvrov, a9rot Oé pera TÓÀV vedv kai róv 
A / » À 5 "AQ / ÀA M M »! 
adUpucv émAeov eis "vas, voÀÀà kai peydAÀao 
^ * ? X 0 
KoTetpyacpévou. Tfj maTpió.. «xs OÓ  éyy)s fjocav, 
^ A ^ / 
o Ofji.os Gras dmrüvra Tepuyapr)s émi rots eUrnpuepij- 
pac cuvéópapuov Ó' eis Tóv lleuouéa. soAAot kai 
TÀV ÉÉvcov, éru 06 maiócv kat yvvaukcQv. — etye yàp 
^ ^ / 
ToÀA)v karámÀmÉtv cv ovparQydv Ó karámAovs 
7yov yàp rv fAÀwckvuv veÀv oük éAdrTovs 91a- 
Kocicv, aipuaAoTov 06 dvOpüv kai Aadpov 
Af5,0 * oé X OL 7 e À ? 
TÀfÜos: elyov Óé màs iOías Tpvw)pews ÓmÀows émi- 
/ ^ 
Xpocow kai oTeQávow, ér. 86 AadUpoiw xai rois 
dÀAows &ract émuueÀADs kekoounuévas — mÀetoToi 
, LEA A *AÀ / Ü 7 / 95 Sv M 
0. émi T7)v KiBu&Oov Üéav cvvéGpauov émi ro)s 
AuLévas, doTe mvavreAOs épquoÜfva. Tv móv, 
cu duAoruovuévov Tots dAevÜ£pow TOv. SosÀcv. 
? / 
kaT' ékelvovus yàp To)s xpóvovus obrc ocvvéfm 
ÜavpacÜSve. -Tóv dvOpa -Toürov, do0' oi gév 
jmepéyovres TÀv 'AÜwvaiov uóyw évópalov ebpm- 
kéva, OvvarOv üvOpa TOv $aveps kal Üpacécs 
&vriráfaoÜa,. TQ O9nuw Bvváuevov, ot 9 dmopo 
jmeuvoewav cvvayoworr)v é£av &pworov vÓv ámo- 
vevonuévaos ovvrapá£ovra jv gólw kai 1v éavriv 
éravopÜd ovra Teviav — Üpácew yàp mvoAv Owdepe 
TÓV GAÀcYv, kai Oewórarros Tjv eizretv, kai icovTà. uv 
Tz» orparwyyiav' dpwros, karà 06 2v TÓÀuav 
mpakrikoramos* jv àé kai Tv Ow kaD* ózepBoAv 
eUmpemTs kai T?v wvxnv Aampós kai weyaAermi- 
!* rov Hertlem . robürov 
? So Dobraeus, orpareiiv P, orpareíav cet 


3129 


BOOK XIII. 68 1-5 


proceeded against the Hellespont and took every one 408 x.c. 
of the cites of that region with the exception of 
Abydus. "Then they left Diodorus and Mantitheus 
in charge with an adequate force and themselves 
sailed to Athens with the ships and the spoils, having 
perforned many great deeds for the fatherland. 
When they drew near the city, the populacein a body, 
overjoyed at their successes, came out to meet them, 
and great numbers of the ahens, as well as children 
and women, flocked to the Peiraeus. For the return 
of the generals gave great cause for amazement, in 
that they brought no less than two hundred captured 
vessels, a multitude of captive soldiers, and a great 
store of spoils ; and their own triremes they had gone 
to great care to embellish with gilded arms and gar- 
lands and, besides, with spoils and all such decora- 
tions But most men thronged to the harbours to 
catch sight of Alcibiades, so that the city was entirely 
deserted, the slaves vying with the free. — For at that 
time 1t had come to pass that this man was such 
an object of admiration that the leading Athenians 
thought that they had at long last found a strong 
man capable of opposing the people openly and 
boldly, while the poor had assumed that they would 
have in him an excellent supporter who would reck- 
lessly throw the city into confusion and relieve their 
desttute condition. For in boldness he far ex- 
celled all other men, he was a most eloquent speaker, 
in generalship he was unsurpassed, and m daring he 
was 1nost successful ; furthermore, 1n appearance he 
was exceedingly handsome and in spirit brilliant and 


1 'The Lacedaemonian base. 
3138 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


6 BoÀos «aÜóÀov 8é crqAwabreQv órróAqjw ebxov 
Ümép abro Gxe80v &mavres, coo" apo. TÍ kelvov 
kaBóóq kai T? TÓV erpa;yypuáreov eÜrvyiav eis TT 
TÓÀw w*|kew OveA&pflavov — mpós 0€ roUrows, óomep 
AakeGautóvio, rovrov ovvaycvuopuévov mpoerépovv, 
oUros éavroDs müÀw karopÜcoewv TAÀmLov oUp- 
paxov éyovres TÓv ávOpa. rofrov. 

69. "Ezrei 9' oóv karémAevoev 0 oTÓAos, éméorpeve 
TO mÀfjÜos émi T)v ' AAifiáOov vatv, é£ 5s éxBávra 
TÓv &vàpa. TrávTeS cüectobvro, TOÍs eUnpepnuaotv 
quo. kai Tf kaÜó8« cvyxaipovres. 0 89 domaocá- 
j.evos TÓ m8 dukavÜpdrmcos ékkAnotav gvviryarye, 
Ka Toà TÓYV kaÜ' éavróv GmroAoyradpievos. eis 
Toca)T"v eUvouav TOUS OxÀovs T'yovyev c)oT€ Ópo- 
Aoyetv srávras Tv srÓAwv. adríav vyeyovévaut TÓv kam. 

2 ékeivov UmuóvuopTov. OX mep abr Tcv Te ojoíav 
dTéÓckav Tv éOcevcav, éwevra 86 Tàg omjAas! 
kaemóvr.cav év ais Tiv 7" koaraótkv) kat rdÀÀa rà 
kar ékeivou kvpoÜévra- éjmdicavro 86 kai robs 
EduoAmióas dpot T?» ápàv Tv émowjcavro kac 
aDTroU kaÜ' óv kouwpóv &Go£ev doefetv mepi rà uv- 

3 oT/)pia | TO OÓ€ reÀAevratov aüTÓv oTrpaTTwyÓv kora- 
cT/cavres a)Trokpáropa kai karà yfv xai kardà 
Ü&AanTrrav, &Tácas ràs Ovvápews éveyeipicav abri. 
eiAavro! 8é kai oTpaTwyoUs érépovs oUs éketvos' 
TlÜ0cAev, 'AOeiuavrov kai GpaodBovAov. 

4 'O 89' 'AA«fiá8ns éxarov vaüs mAnpocas éÉ- 
érrÀevoev eis "AvÓpov, kat karaAaBóuevos l'apuoy? 
$poópiov ére(yusev — é£eAÜóvrov 06 rv 'AvBpiov 


1 So Reiske: 8ikas * éy als jv 3j Dobraeus: év 8' tos. 
?* So Vogel, etAovro Dindorf, eAoro P, etAero cet 
* So Dindorf- éxetvos os. 


814 


BOOK XIII. 68. 6—69. 4 


intent upon great enterpuses — In a word, p1actically 408 s 
all men had conceived such assumptions 1egarding him 
that they beheved that along with his return from 
exile good fortune in their undeitalongs had also come 
agam to the city.  Purthermore, just as the Lace- 
daemonians enjoyed success while he was fighting on 
their side, so they expected that they in turn would 
again prosper when they had this man as an ally 

60. So when the fleet came to land the multitude 
turned to the ship of Alcibiades, and as he stepped 
from 1t all gave their welcome to the man, congratu- 
latng him on both his successes and his return from 
exile. He im turn, after greeting the crowds kindly, 
called a meeting of the Assembly, and offering a long 
defence of his conduct he brought the masses into 
such a state of goodwill to him that all agreed that the 
city had been to blame for the decrees 1ssued against 
him | Consequently they not only returned to him 
his property, which they had confiscated, but went 
farther and cast 1nto the sea the stelae on which were 
written his sentence and all the other acts passed 
against him ; and they also voted that the Eumol- 
pidae! should revoke the curse they had pronounced 
against him at the time when men beheved he had 
profaned the Mysteries And to cap all they ap- 
pointed him general with supreme power both on land 
and on sea and put in his hands all their armaments. 
They also chose as generals others whom he wished, 
namely, AÁdeimantus and Thrasybulus. 

Alcibiades manned one hundred ships and sailed 
to Ándros, and seizing Gaunum, a stronghold, he 
strengthened 1t with a wall. And when the Andrians, 


1 The sacerdotal family which presided over the Mysteries. 


— 5$ So Rhodoman (ep. Xen. Hell 1 4.922): Kárpiov 
315 


e 


2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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! &pbyv De la Banre, apyi|» AL, kal àpyzv PE, kai 75v àpyi 


cet. ? mapoAafcov after «óAew omitted by M. 
* So Reiske: kai raras TÓs v rais. 





* Cyrus the Younger, whose later attempt to win the 
Persian throne is told in Xenophon's 4nabas?s. Persia had 
finally decided to throw its power behind the combatant 


316 


bOOK XIII 69 4—70 3 


together with the Peloponnesians who were guarding 408 «c 
the city, came out against him em masse, a battle 
ensued in which the Athenians were the victors ; and 
of the inhabitants of the city many were slam, and of 
those who escaped some were scattered through- 
out the countryside and the rest found safety within 
the walls — As for Alcibiades, after having launched 
assaults upon the city he left an adequate garrison 
in the fort he had occupied, appointing Thrasybulus 
commander, and himself sadleed away with his force 
and ravaged both Cos and Rhodes, collecting abun- 
dant booty to support his soldiers. 

70. Although the Lacedaemonians had entürely lost 
not only their sea force but Mindarus, the commander, 
together with it, nevertheless they did not let their 
spirits sink, but they chose as admiral Lysander, a 
man who was beheved to excel all others :n slull 
as a general and who possessed a danng that was 
ready to meet every stuation — Ássoon as Lysander 
assumed the command he enrolled an adequate 
number of soldiers from the Peloponnesus and also 
manned as many ships as he was able. Saihng to 
Rhodes he added to his force the ships which the cities 
of Rhodes possessed, and then sailed to Ephesus and 
Miletus — After equipping the triremes in these cities 
he summoned those which were supplied by Ch1os and 
thus fitted out at Ephesus a fleet of approximately 
seventy ships. And hearing that Cyrus,! the son of 


which could not suppoit a fleet without Persian assistance. 
Cyrus was sent down as '' cazanus (lord) of all those whose 
mustering-plaee 18 Castolus "' (a plam probably near Sa1dis), 
e as goveinor-geneial of Asia. Minor (Xenophon, Zell. 
1. 4. 3) with. abundant funds and ordeis to support the 
Lacedaemonians in the war This decision of the Gaieat 
King was the death-knell of the Athenian Empire. 


817 


DIODORUS OF gp. 


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DK 
? qoAAas] Vogel would he et ad. loc. 


er 


318 


BOOK XIII. 70. 3—71. 2 


King Darius, had been dispatched by his father to aid. 408 à c. 
the Lacedaemonians m the war, he went to hum at 
Sardis, and stirring up the youth's ! enthusiasm for 
the war against the Athenians he received on the spot 
ten thousand daries ? for the pay of his soldiers ; and 
for the future Cyrus told him to make requests with- 
out reserve, since, as he stated, he carr1ed orders from 
his father to supply the Lacedaemonians with what- 
ever they should want. Then Lysander, returnng to 
Ephesus, called to him the most influential men of the 
cities, and arrangmg with them to form cabals he 
promised that if his undertakings were successful he 
would put each group 1n control of its city. And it 
came to pass for this reason that these men, vying 
with one another, gave greater aid than was required 
of them and that Lysander was quickly supplied in 
starthng fashion with all the equipment that 1s useful 
in war. 

71. When Alcibiades learned that Lysander was 
fitting out his fleet 1n Ephesus, he set sail for there 
with allhis ships He sailed up to the harbours, but 
when no one came out against him, he had most of 
his ships cast anchor at Notium;? entrusting the com- 
mand of them to Antiochus, his personal pilot, with 
orde1s not to accept battle until he should be present, 
whie he took the troop-ships and saied wm haste to 
Clazomenae ; for this city, which was an ally of the 
Áthenians, was suffering from forays by some of its 
exiles. But Antiochus, who was by nature an unm- 
petuous man and was eager to accomplsh some 
brilhant deed on his own account, paid no attention 

! Cyrus was seventeen years of age. 

? A Persian coin eontaming about 195 grains of gold, 


worth approximately one pound sterling or five dollars. 
* On the north side of the large bay before Ephesus. 


310 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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EE 
2. Tovrov 96 mparrouévov GOpaosBovAos 6 
zi "Afnvaicov. oTpornyós uer veó mrevrekai- 
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Tífs TÓÀes kai mepi OvaKootous G.UTÓV &vetAev- 
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TOUS QvydOas To)s Tà TÓV 'AÜmvatov $povotvras 
xaraóéxecÜou, kai ópovpàv AaBóvras cvuudyovs 


! ràs added by Dindorf. 
? So Pacehstadt- zpoao- or srpokaAeoágevos 


390 


BOOK XIII. 71. 2—73. 1 


to the orders of Alcibiades, but mannng ten of the 4108 ».c. 
best ships and ordering the captains to keep the others 
ready 1n case they should need to accept battle, he 
sailed up to the enemy 1n order to challenge them to 
battle. But Lysander, who had learned from certam 
deserters of the departure of Alcibiades and his best 
soldiers, decided that the favourable time had come 
for him to strike a blow worthy of Sparta.  Accord- 
ingly, putting out to sea for the attack with all his 
ships, he encountered the leading one of the ten ships, 
the one on which Antiochus had taken his place for 
the attack, and sank 1t, and then, putting the rest to 
fhght, he chased them until the Athenman captains 
manned the rest of ther vessels and came to the 
rescue, but in no battle order at all. Inthesea-battle 
which followed between the two entire fleets not far 
from the land the Athemans, because of the dis- 
order, were defeated and lost twenty-two ships, but 
of their crews only a few were taken captive and the 
rest swam tosafety ashore When Alcibiades learned 
what had taken place, he returned in haste to Notium 
and manning all the triremes sailed to the harbours 
which were held by the enemy ; but since Lysander 
would not venture to come out against him, he 
directed his course to Samos. 

72. While these events were taking place Thrasy- 
bulus, the Athenian general, sailing to Thasos with 
fifteen ships defeated 1n battle the troops who came 
out from the city and slew about two hundred of them ; 
then, having bottled them up in a siege of the city, he 
forced them to receive back their exiles, that is the 
men who favoured the Athenians, to accept a garri- 


* So Wessehng : àvax8d$va: 
VOL. V M 921 


2 


C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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TOis Trpo vAakaís éyyicas, kai PaOicos aDTOUS 
Tpejáp.evos Oud, TO mapáBo£ov, GA yovs pev avete, 
TroUs O' &ÀAovs cvveOicéev €vrós TÓV Tex dv. oL 
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Üvapuv eis $dAayya. TÓ pev Bá6os eis Térrapas 
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oxXe0ó0v ToU Teiyous Dmó cvÓv ToAeuiv Tepuet- 


1 $o Dindorf* ékxrerauévyv. 
329 


BOOK XIII. 72. 2—6 


son, and to be alhes of the Athenians. After this, 4085 c 
sailing to Abdera,! he brought that city, which at that 

time was among the most powerful in Thrace, over to 

the side of the Athemans. 

Now the foregoing 1s what the Athenian generals 
had accomplished since they sailed from Athens. But 
Agis, the king of the Lacedaemonians, as it happened, 
was at the time mn Deceleia ? with his army, and when 
he learned that the best Áthenian troops were en- 
gaged in an expedition with Alebiades, he led hus 
army on a moonless mghtto Athens. Hehad twenty- 
eight thousand infantry, one-half of whom were picked 
hophtes and the other half hght-armed troops ; there 
were also attached to his army some twelve hundred 
cavalry, of whom the Boeotians furnished nine hun- 
dred and the rest had been sent with him by Pelo- 
ponnesians. Ashe drew near the city, he came upon 
the outposts before they were aware of him, and easily 
disperang them because they were taken by surprise 
he slew a few and pursued the rest within the walls. 
When the Athenians learned what had happened, they 
issued orders for all the older men and the sturdiest 
of the youth to present themselves under arms. Since 
these promptly responded to the call, the circuit of the 
wall was manned with those who had rushed together 
to meet the common peril ; and the Áthenian generals, 
when in the morning they surveyed the army of the 
enemy extended in a line four men deep and eight 
stades 1n length, at the moment were at first dis- 
mayed, seeing as they did that approximately two- 
thids of the wall was surrounded by the enemy. 

! "The birthplace of the great Greek physical philosopher 
Democritus. 


? 'The fortress 1n Attica which the Lacedaemonians, on the 
adviceof Alcibiades(cp. chap. 9. 2), had permanently occupied. 


8528 


7 


Le 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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Aáynoav. 
! JrTuuévov M, $rroguévov cet. 
* 8o Hertlean*. éfaywvícaota:. 
! Cp. Book 12. "70. 
324. 


BOOK XIII. 72. 7—73. 2 


After this, however, they sent out the cavalry, who 408 sc. 
were about equal 1n number to the opposing cavalry, 
and when the two bodies metin a cavalry-battle before 
the city, sharp fighting ensued which lasted for some 
time. For the hne of the imfantry was some five 
stades from the wall, but the cavalry which had en- 
gaged each other were fighting at the very walls. 
Now the Boeotians, who by themselves alone had 
formerly defeated the Athenians at Delum, thought 
1t would be a termble thing if they should prove to be 
mfenor to the men they had once conquered, while 
the Athenians, since they had as spectators of their 
valour the populace standing upon the walls and 
were known every one to them, were ready to 
endure everything for the sake of victory.  linally, 
overpowering their opponents they slew great num- 
bers of them and pursued the remainder as far as the 
line of the infantry. After tlus when the infantry 
advanced against them, they withdrew within the 
city. 

7 9. Agis, deciding for the time not to lay siege to 
the eity, pitched camp in the Academy,? but on the 
next day, after the Athenians had set up a trophy, he 
drew up his army in battle order and challenged the 
troops 1n the city to fight it out for the possession of 
the trophy. The Athenians led forth their soldiers 
and drew them up along the wall, and at first the 
Lacedaemonians advanced to offer battle, but since 
a great multitude of missiles was hurled at them from 
the walls, they led their army away from the city. 
After this they ravaged the rest of Áttica and then 
departed to the Peloponnesus. 


? "The grove of olive-trees, where Plato later had his school, 
&ix stades north-west of the Dipylon Gate. 


895 


3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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mÀeUcas eis Küpav jevóets aiias éméppule ois 
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apmáca. TV xdpav. kal TÓ uév mpxrov TroAÀ v 
alxpaAdyray OCOJu dT OV kvpieóaas ámijyev! émi rds 


4 vaOs: ek BoÜnodvreov 06 rÓÀv Éék Tíjs mróAecs Tay- 


5 


6 


Onpuel kai mpooeaóvrav azrpooOoki)reos , Xpóvov pv 
Tid Óekaprépovv oL Trepi TOV "AXifuáóny, peTá 
06 TraUra Tois Kuopaiows mpooyevopévcv | ToAAQv 
TOv ék Tíjs vmÓÀecs kai Tíjs xopas TvaykdoO0n- 
cav karaAvrÓvTes TOUS aüUypaÀoTOovs karadvyety 
émi ràg vaüs. óÓ O 'AAkipidOms émi mois é£AaT- 
TOpoci mep.aAyms yevópevos éx« MurvAivns ner- 
eméjjaro o)ós OwAvras, kal mpOo fs mÓÀeos 
éxrácas TT)v O)vapuv TpoekaÀe(ro ToUs Kunatovs 
eig jdm ob6evós 9' é£ióvros Ópccas T" xycpav 
GmémAevoev € éri MurvAjvqv. | Kupatov 92 mrepajáv- 
TOv eis 'AOfvas mpeofeiav kai kaTwyopoovrOv 
"AAkiBiáSov, Suórv oUp[.uoxov. móAw. o206y. àGuc- 
cacav émópÜwnoev: éyívovro 86 kai dÀÀou moAAai 
OiaBoAai kar! abdroU0: cÀv yàp év Zu Twés 
cTpaTu.oTÓV dÀÀorpieos T wpos a)rOv éyovres 
érAevcav «is 'AÜfvas, kai karqyópucav év éx- 
kAnotq Ko "Aàkifudbov, ÓTL ur AakeDauuoviov 
dpovet kai pos OapvdBabov &yeu duMav, OU s 
eAmribet karaAÀvÜévros roO qoÀAéuov karaOvvaoTev- 
cew TÓV TroÀvTÓY. 

74. Tax? óé To miijBovs vOTE€UOVTOS Talis OLa- 
BoAaís, 7j pev repu AArifuiay cÜpa:ero oó£o. ou 
TÓ T€pi TV vaut. tay cAárropa. KGi rà epi TrTv 
Kóugv "ipapripeva. o0 06 vOv 'Afmvatov ofj.os 
Óoopcevos T7] rávópós rÓÀuav Béka oTparwyoUs 
326 


BOOK XIII. 73. 3—74. 1 


Aleibiades, having saied with all his ships from 1085. 
Samos to Cymé,'! hurled false charges agamst the 
Cymaeans, since he wished to have an excuse for 
plundering their territory. And at the outset he 
gained possession of many captvves and was taking 
them to his ships ; but when the men of the city came 
out en masse to the rescue and fell unexpectedly on 
Alcibiades' troops, for a time they stood off the attack, 
but as later many from the city and countryside rein- 
forced the Cymaeans, they were forced to abandon 
their prisoners and flee for safety to their ships. 
Alcibiades, being greatly distressed by hus reverses, 
summoned . his hoplites from Mitylené, and drawing up 
his army before the city he challenged the Cymaeans 
to battle ; but when no one came out of the city, he 
ravaged its territory and sailed off to Mitylené. The 
Cymaeans dispatched an embassy to Athens and de- 
nounced Alcibiades for having laid waste an alhed city 
which had done no wrong ; and there were also many 
other charges brought against him ; for some of the 
soldiers at Samos, who were at odds with hum, sailed 
to Athens and accused Alcibiades in the Assembly of 
favouring the Lacedaemonian cause and of forming 
ties of fnendship with Pharnabazus whereby he hoped 
that at the conclusion of the war he should lord 1t over 
his fellow citizens. 

74. Since the multitude soon began to believe these 
accusations, not only was the fame of Alcibiades 
damaged because of his defeat in the sea-battle and 
the wrongs he had committed against Cymé, but the 
Athenian people, viewing with suspicion the boldness 


! In Lydia. 








| gqaífyev PM, &mijyayev cef. 


? So Dindorf: spós. 
2397 


t» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


€LAaTO, Kóvava, Avocíiav,. Auop.éovra, I epucAéa, 
Tipós 3: Tocrous ' Epaocwionv, "Apwrrokpármv, " Apxé- 
orparov, ITowrópaxov, OpacUBovAov, "ApiaTo- 
yévqv: ék óc TOUTGV zrpokptvas Kóvcova TO yécos 
é£énequje Tap. "AAriiáBov TÓ VOUTUCOV mra paAmbó- 
pevov. AAkiBuóns 06 mfi Aapyfjs ékxcoprjaas TÓ 
Kóvow kai ràs Dvvájueus mapabovs, Tv pév eis 
"Aljvas émávoOov dméyvo, pera, e Tpujpovs pas 
elis Hakrónv Tíjs Opdkns ürrexdprjae Xc»pis yàp 
Tfs ToO vÀÜovs ópytfs kai Tüs emeviveypévas 
aDrQ Oikas eDÀAapet?ro. «oÀAot yàp Decpotvres a2- 
TÓV kai depóp.evov émeviyóxeway éykMnavra 
7roMá: péywTov ó jv TÓ Trepi TÓYV imma», Teruum- 
pévov raAávrov OkrO. AuogijBovs yáp TiVOS TÓV 
$iAcov cvyrréuavros avrà TéÜpurrirov eis. "OAvwrüav, 
Ó "AAiBidoTs KoTà TThV dmoypaddy* TV eicoÜviüay 
yiveata. TOUS LTHTTOUS iOiovs &mreypdijorro," kai 
vuc)cas^ TÓ TéÜpwmrmov Tv T. ék Tfjs vikos 9ófav 
aDTÓs dmQvéykaro kai TOUS UmaOUS oUkK dméOcke 
TÓ muaTeUcart. rara. 0v) vrávra OLavoojpevos 
édofletro, pírmore Kaupóy AaBóvres - AÓnvaitot TUJACO- 
plav émóo epi mávraV Gv eis aoroUs é£juaprev: 
a)TOS 00v? aDroU karéyvo vy. 


1 $o Palmer (ep. ch 101. 5): Avcavíav. 

? $0 Schafer : omoypadrjv. 

? So Schafer (cp. Const. Eve. 2 (1), p. 9333; Plut. 4lc. 19): 
bmeypdila.ro 

* vuejcas Const. Éwe, l.c. , Stepbanus, vucjoavros P, vucj- 
cavras cet. Vogelsuggests vucócavros TOÜ TeÜpirrmov. 

* oiv added by Stephanus. 


! "This should be Thrasvllus 
? Aleibiades had aequired castles here and at Bisanthé 
against some such contingency as this 
3 Cp. Isocrates, On the Team of Horses 


328 


BOOK XIII. 74. 1-4 


of the man, chose as the ten generals Conon, Lysias. 408 5c 
Diomedon, and Pericles, and in addition Erasimdes, 
Arnsiocrates, Archestratus, Protomachus, Thrasybu- 
lus, and Anistogenes. Of these they gave first place 
to Conon and dispatched him at once to take over 
the fleet from Alcibiades. After Alcibiades had re- 
hnquished his command to Conon and handed over his 
armaments, he gave up any thought of returnmg to 
Athens, but with one trireme withdrew to Pactyé?in 
Thrace, sce, apart from the anger of the multitude, 
he was afraid of the law-suits which had been brought 
against hum. For there were many who, on seeing 
how he was hated, had filed numerous complaints 
against him, the most important of which was the one 
about the horses, involving the sum of eight talents. 
Diomedes, it appears, one of his friends, had sent in 
his eare à four-horse team to Olympia, and Alo 
biades, when entermg it in the usual way, listed the 
horses as his own ; and when he was the victor in the 
four-horse race, Alcibiades took for himself the glory 
of the victory and did not return the horses to the man 
who had entrusted them to his care? As he thought 
about all these things he was afraid lest the Athenians, 
seizing a suitable occasion, would inflict punishment 
upon him for all the wrongs he had committed against 
them. Consequently he himself condemned himself 
to exile.* 


* ** Feared and distrusted in. Athens, Sparta, and Persia 
alike, the most brilhant man of achion of his generation, whose 
judgment of pubhe policies was as unerring as his personal 
aims, methods, and conduct were wrong, found outlet for his 
restless eneigy only in waging private war on the * kingless ' 
Thracians. Had Athens been able to trust him he might 
have saved her Empire and destroyed her hberty." (W.S 
Ferguson in Camb. Ame. Hast. 5, p. 354.) 


VOL. V M 2 390 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


J A M] N M * ? ^ 

75. IIpooeréÜq 66 xal ovvepis karà T?) abTT)v 

"OAXuperidóa kai vapo, Aa«eBauovio:w lIAewróva£ 
» ) / 
o [fociAeós éreÀeUrqoev àp£as éry) mevrw0Kovra, 
/ M X kl M 7 "^ » 

Ovadefdjuevos 9é Tiv àpyTv llavcavias Tpof£ev éro 
rerrapaka(óeka. oí 0€ Tzv 'Pó8ov vijoov xaToi- 

^ Ml ? * b , M J 
Koüvres kai 'ImÀvoóv kai Atóov kai Kdpewpov 

/ ? / / A ^ J 

perokioÜnoav eis pav TÓAw TQv vOv kaAovuévnv 
Pó8ov. 

€ / hu c b /, ? À M] M ? 

Eppokpdár)s 9. ó Zwpakóotos àvaAaBow vo9s er 
a)roÜ ocTparevovras cOppmoev ék  XeAvobvros, 
Kai ^Qpayevópnevos  mpos Tiv  'luépav — kar- 
eorparoméOevgev év olg wpoaoTeiow  Tíjs üva- 
Terpapuuévns vóÀens. OwmvÜOpevos à. ày i TÓmQ 
vaperáxyÜncav oi Z:wpakóciow, à TrÓÀv TereAevTa- 
«órov OcTR cvv/Üpowe, mapackevdcas 0. dudéas 
voÀvTreAÓÀs kekooumnuévas, érmi roTov qapekópuaev 
a)rà émi Tv Xwpákovcav.  a)jrós uv ov émi 
TÓv óÓpcov' karéuewe Ou TÓ kwÀ/ecÜot.  roOs 
$vyábas v0mO TrÀv vópcv ovwévau! ràv Bé uer 
aUToÜ Twas dTéoTeLAev, oi vàs apd£as mapexó- 
p4cav eig ràs 2ivpakovcas.  ó O0  'Epuokpárus 
TaÜUra émparTev Omwcs o uév MokAfás àvrvmpárrow 
abrQ Tepi rfs kaÜóOov Ooxóv Ó. avrios etvac ToU 
7epiecop&oÜat! Tos rereAcvr)) kÓóras &rádovs, mpoo- 

^ / 

Kóija, rots mÀjÜeow, adrós 8€ duAavÜpayros roro 
cpocevexÜeis émoyáyov TO mAfÜos eis T? mporé- 
pav eUvouav.  TÀv oUv OGTÓv sapakouucÜévrov 

/ , A / / ^ 
évémzeoev eis Trà mÀvÜn oráow, ToÜ uév AwkAéovs 


1 So Wesseling : ópóv. ? guwévai] etoiéva, Wesseling. 
* So Reiske, mepiepakóros PL, sepiewpaxévaa cet. 
330 


BOOK XIII 75. 1-5 


75. The two-horse chariot race ! was added in this 408 ».c. 
same Olympie F'estval? ; and among the Lacedae- 
monians Pleistonax, their king, died after a reign of 
fifty years, and Pausanias succeeded to the throne and 
reigned for fourteen years. Also the inhabitants of 
the island of Rhodes left the cities of Ielysus, Lindus, 
and Cameirus and settled in one city, that which is 
now called Rhodes. 

Hermocrates, the Syracusan, taling his soldiers 
set out from Sehnus, and on arriving at Himera he 
pitched. camp in. the suburbs of the city, which lay 
i» ruins. And finding out the place where the Syra- 
cusans had made their stand, he collected the bones 
of the dead * and putting them upon wagons which he 
had constructed and embellished at great cost he con- 
veyed them to Syracuse. Now Hermocrates himself 
stopped at the border of Syracusan terntory, since the 
exiles were forbidden by the laws from accompanying 
the bones farther, but he sent on some of his troops 
who brought the wagons to Syracuse. Hermocrates 
acted 1n this way 1n order that Di1ocles, who opposed 
his return and was generally beheved to be respons- 
ible for the lack of concern over the failure to bury 
the dead, should fall out with the masses, whereas he, 
by his humane consideration for the dead, would win 
the multitude back to the feeling of goodwill in which 
they had formerly held him. Now when the bones 
had been brought into the city, civil discord arose 
among the masses, Diocles objecting to their burial 

i Until thus üme the only chariot race had been that with 
teams of four horses (cp Pausanias, 5. 8. 10). 

? "The ninety-third, 408 s.c 

3 "The narrative 15 1esumed fiom the end of chap. 63. 

* Cp chap. 61. 6. 

* So Dindorf* érayáyg. 
331 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kcÀovros Üdmrew, rÀv Oé soÀÀAQv ovykarart- 
Üeuévowv. | TéÀos 9' oi Zvpakóocto éÜojáv 7€ Tà 
Acübava TÓ rereAevrnkóroy kai vavónuel TY? 
ékdopàv éripmoav. KüL O JLéV Awokfjs éóvya- 
DeU0n, TOv O. Eppokpártv oUO. Os mpoocóésavro: 
Ünrdvmrevov yàp T") TávBpós TÓÀLAV, wirore TUXOV 
Tyyeuovias àvaOeibo éavróv TÓpavvov. OÓ uév ov 
"Eppokpár)s TÓTre TÓV kaipov ovy OpóOv eUÜerov 
eis TO P.daaoÜo4, vráMw àveyopnoev eig 2ieAwotvra.. 
perà Gé Ttva, Ypóvov TÀv diÀov a)rÓv perameuro- 
péveov cppwnoe perà TpuoxiAieov oTpaTuwoTÓv, Kai 
TopeuÜeis Ói& Tfs l'eAgas Tke vvkrós émi TÓv 
cvvreraypévov TrÓmOv. o) OvvnÜévrov O6 dmáv- 
TUV GKoAovOfjaa TÓV OTpQOTuOTÓV, O Lev 'Eppo- 
Kpárs per! óAMyov mpoocDav TÓ kara Tv 
"Àxpaówr mvAÀGw, kai TÓÀv div. TIVÓS eópav 
TpokareiAvupévous Tro)s Tómovs, dveAápfave ro)s 
aevarepobvras- oí 8é 2ivpakóotoL TÓ yeyevnpévov 
GKobcavres gov Tois ÓmAÀows TÀÜov eis Tv ayopáv, 
kaÜ' fv werà TroAAot TA) Üovs émupavévres TÓV Te 
"Eppokpárqv kai TÓV cvm par Tóvrov aDTO TOUS 
TÀeloTOUS üTÉkTewav Tos oc ávO TÍS uáyms 
O.a0coÜévras ueU.orávres eis kpiow d$vyf karreóí- 
kaov Orómep Tivés aUTÓV rroM ois mepumeoóvres 
TpaUpacw «Sg |TereAevr)kóres OmÓ TÓV cvy yevóyv 
vapebóUnaav, ó ÓTrCoS Hi TÍ ToU mijÜovs ó ópyfj rapa- 
9o0Qaw, cv v Kai Auovócios ó perà raÜra TÓV 
Xvpakoaciov rupavvrjaas. 

76. Tàv Ó€ xarà TÓV cvua TOV TOÜTOV zpáSeov 


TéÀos éyovoOv 'AOfjvnou uév '! Avrvyévus 73v. üpytv 
1 éQojdv re Dindorf: 0djavres. 


332 


BOOK XIII. 75. 5—16. 1 


and the majority favouringit. Fmally theSyracusans 
not only buiied the remains of the dead but also by 
turnng out en masse paid honour to the burial pro- 
cesaon — Diocles was exiled ; but even so they did 
not receive Hermocrates back, since they were wary 
of the dang of the man and feared lest, once he had 
gained a position of leadership, he should proclaim 
himself tyrant. Accordingly Hermocrates, seeing that 
the time was not opportune for resorting to force, 
withdrew agam to Selhnus. But some time later, 
when his friends sent for him, he set out with three 
thousand. soldiers, and making his way thiough the 
territory of Gela he arnved at night at the place 
agreed upon. Although not all his soldiers had been 
able to accompany him, Hermocrates with a small 
number of them came to the gate on Achradiné, and 
when he found that some of his friends had already 
occupied the region, he waited to pick up the late- 
comers But when the Syracusans heard what had 
happened, they gathered in the market-place under 
arms, and here, snce they appeared accompanied by 
a great multitude, they slew both Hermocrates and 
most of his supporters. Those who had not been 
killed im the fighting were brought to trial and sen- 
tenced to exile ; consequently some of them who had 
been severely wounded were reported by their rela- 
tives as having died, 1n order that they might not be 
given over to the wrath of the multitude — Among 
their number was also Dionysius, who later became 
tyrant of the Syracusans.! 

76. When the events of this year came to an end, 
in Athens Antigenes took over the office of archon and 


1 405-367 s.c. 


? àv]év ots Vogel, efs Cobet 


338 


4085ncC€ 


407 B C. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mapéAafe, "Popato 9 Ümárovs kaTéornocav Ddtov 
Md»tov AipiAuov xai lov , QsaAMépiov Tepi O€ 
robrovs rois ypóvovs Kóvcv ó rv ABnvatav oTpa- 
"yyós, eme mapéAafe Ts Ovvdjeis év Xue, 
TáS T€ mapojoas TÀY veOv éfnpr/ero kai càg 
Tapà TÓV GUJAUÁxcov T0po.ce, o7mej0cv édája4A- 
Àov karagkeváaat TÓv oTÓÀov Tails TÓYV ToAÀeuLov 
vavotv. oL Oe 2uapriürat, T Avoávopo OwÀn- 
AvOOros jj ToU Tíjs vavapyias xpóvov, KaAA- 
«poríónv émi rjv OvaóoxTv óméoreiAav. obros Oé 
véog piév jv mavreAOs, diakos 86 kai T?]v VuxTv 
&mÀoOs, oUmc cÓÀv Éfevucdv TvÜOv memewpapévos, 
Ouauóraros Oé XmapriwrÓv: ópoÀoyovpévos 9e 
Kai karà. Tr) üpy"v o)0év émpafev dOwukov oUr 
eis TÓAuwv ojr eig (OwoTQv, àÀÀaà kal rots émwyei- 
poücw a)róv OuadÜe(pew xpruacu xyaÀemós édepe 
Kai Gikqv Tap' a)brOv éAdupavev.  obros kara- 
vÀeUcas «is "Edeoov mapéAafe às vabs, pera- 
mepojápevos oe kai Tüs Tra pá TÓV OCUMAÓycv 
vas" Tàs máoas cÜv Toís TO pà Avaáyopov TGp- 
cAafev ékaTÓv Teooapákovra.. év 06 7f Xíwv 
xopq. AeÀdivov kaceyóvrov ' AÓgvaíov, émi rorovs 
émAevoe juerà qacoÓv TÓÀV veüv, kai moAw/pkety 
émexeiprjaev. ot à "A&nvaiou qepi mevraKootous 
Ovres karemAdyyoav TO p.éyeÜos TÍjs Ouvápiecs, 
«aL O.c£cAóvres e£ éAumov. TÓ X«ptov vmóoTovOo,.! 
RoAAkparíóas 8e TO v dpojpuov mapaAafàv 
karéokoiev, ém; 86 "Tuíovus mAejcas kat vukrós 


! kai karà AF KR, koi P, xarà cet. 

? gé P, omitted cet, 

* kai Tüs rapà rv cvuuáxwv vaüs added by Oldfather from 
suggestions of Stroth and Vogel. 


334. 


BOOK XIII 76 1-4 


the Romans elected as consuls Gaius Manius Aemilius 40r s c. 
and Gaius Valerius. About this time Conon, the 
Athenian general, now that he had taken over the 
armaments in Samos;,! fitted out the ships which were 
in that place and also collected those of the allies, 
since he was intent upon malung his fleet a match 
for the ships of the enemy. | And the Spartans, when 
Lysander's period of command as admiral had expired, 
dispatched Calheratidas to succeed him. Callicratidas 
was a very young man, without gue and straight- 
forward in character, since he had had as yet no ex- 
perience of the ways of foreign peoples, and was the 
most just man among the Spartans ; and it is agreed 
by all that also during his period of command he com- 
mitted no wrong against either a city or a private 
citizen but dealt summarily with those who tried to 
corrupt him with money and had them punished. He 
put in at Ephesus and took over the fleet, and since 
he had already sent for the ships of the allies, the sum 
total he took over, including those of Lysander, was 
one hundred and forty. And since the Athenians 
held Delphimium i the territory of the Chians, he 
sailed against them with all his ships and undertook to 
lay siege to it. The Athenians, who numbered some 
five hundred, were dismayed at the great size of his 
force and abandoned the place, passing through the 
enemy under a truce. Callicratidas took over the 
fortress and levelled it to the ground, and then, sailing 
against the Teians, he stole inaide the walls of the city 
1 Cp. chap. 74. 1. 


* So Wesselng: iróomovàov. 


c 


b» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mapewmTeooy évrós rÓv Tex v Oujpmroce Tiv TÓÀw. 
perà Oé rabra mÀevoas eis Aéofov, rfj MoÜjuvm 
mrpooéBaAe peràü Tfs Ovvápewos sap "Almvaiov 
éyovom ópovpár. grov]oápevos 8é ovvexyeis mTpoo- 
poAàs év apxf uev oQ8€y Tvve, ner oMyov óé 
TOV évOOvTOV ari Tv nóÀw capetaérmeaev évrós 
TÓV TéUÓv, Kai ràs pév krojceis Ouipraoe, TÓV 
O' àvópOv Qeurduevos dzéO«Ke Toig MrÜvuvaiois 
Tiv TÓhv.  TroDTov é mrpa.xXÜévrcv émi T)v Mi- 
rvA^vov cppnoe, kai ro)s pév ÓómAéras GQOcopaki 
TQ ÁakeOnutovie srapaOovs ékéAevoe eif karà 
oTovOTv émetyeoÜni, rais O6 vavciv abrOs Trap- 
émAevaev. 

TT. Kóvov 8' 0 rv 'AÜnvaiov ovpar(yos cixye 
uev éBGoujkovra. vabs oorcs é£nprvuévags rà. mpos 
vavpaxiav cs oU0eis érepos TÓw TrpóTepov oTpa- 
TyyGv Jv Kareaievoaucoós. ÉruXe pév oüv dmágaus 
dvryyp.évos émi rv BoxBeway Tíjs Mn600uvns- ,cópov 

€ adrov Tcu TÓre pév wqUoAio0n vrpós TUL 
Váo«q TÓV "Exaróv kaAovuévov, aua 9. Tuépq 
koravorjgas. Ts TÓV TOÀeju cov vabs mpogrAeovaas, 
TO uev ab)roQ) O.avavp.a ety ékpuvev émwodaAés 
elvai mpós OvrÀaa(as Tpwpeus, Owvoetro 0€ eo) 
mÀécv dvyeiv ica mpocerurmaaápevós Tias TÓV 
vroAepieo TpUfjpcov vaya. Trpos TÍ MurvMjvy*- 
oUr«s y&p UmeAáp Bave VAK QV pev eeu avaorpoomv 
eis TO Otókew, Typrdopevos. 9 eis TÓV AuLévo. KaTa- 
dei£ecÜa. dp BiBdoas* oUv TOUS oTporiórras émet 
oxoÀaícs ais ecipeataus ypouevos, Oros ai TÓv 


! 74] 66 Vogel. ? TO Dindorf ' TÓTC 
? So Wesseling a)ToUs. 
* So Reiske: 7v MvrvXjvqv. 


336 


BOOK XIII. 76. 4—77. 3 


by night and plundered it. After this he sailed to 407 s.c. 
Lesbos and with his force attacked Methymné, which 
held à garrison of Athemans — Although he launched 
repeated assaults, at first he accomplished nothing, 
but soon afterward, with the help of certain men who 
betrayed the city to him, he broke inside its walls, 
and although he plundered its wealth, he spared the 
lives of the habitants and returned the city to the 
Methymnaeans After these exploits he made for 
Matylené ; and assigning the hophtes to Thorax, the 
Lacedaemonian, he ordered him to advance by land 
with all speed and himself sailed on past Thorax with 
hus fleet. 

TT. Conon, the Athenian general, had seventy ships 
which he had fitted out with everything necessary for 
making war at sea more carefully than any other 
general had ever done by way of preparation. Now 
1t so happened that he had put out to sea with all his 
ships when he went to the aid of Methymné ; but on 
discovering that 1t had already fallen, at the time he 
had bivouacked at one of the Hundred Isles, as they 
are called, and at daybreak, when he observed that the 
enemy's ships were bearing down on him, he decided 
that it would be dangerous for him to join battle in 
that place with triremes double his in number, but he 
planned to avoid battle by saiing outmide the Isles 
and, drawing some of the enemy's triremes after him, 
to engage them off Mitylené — For by such tactics, he 
assumed, in case of victory he could turn about and 
pursue and in case of defeat he could withdraw for 
safety to the harbour — Consequently, having put his 
soldiers on board ship, he set out with the oars at a 
leisurely stroke in order that the ships of the Pelopon- 


5 So Rhodoman : éxfifáocas. 
8387 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/ 2 7 € Y ) 
ILeAomovvqatev | éyyiowow. | ot 06. Aakeóauuóviot 
mpootóvres GT) LaAMov Thavvov Tàs vabs, éAmiLov- 
TES olprjoew TÓS éoxáras TÓV mroAepieov Tof Ó€ 
Kóvavos $Smoycpotvros oi Tàs dpioTas €xovres 
vaüs cÀv IleAomovvqoicw xarà oovOornv éOóokov, 
KaL ToUS pev épéras Ou T?|v avvéyeuxv fs eipeotas 
567 * A b b ^ 3; ; / 
e&éAvoav, a)DroL 06 vroÀ) TÓY GAÀAcv GmeomáoUrncav. 
à On ovuóov ó Kóvev, ds 7jom TÍs Murvjvns 
Tyyeeov, 1j Tjpev àmró Tfjs LOLas eds dovuta. robo 


5 yàp cóconuov Üwo TOls Tpip&pyors. Siómep aL pev 


Ut» 


vaüs, rÀv mo epjicov e&amropuévow, é£aióvns 7 pós 
€va, kaipóv éméorpejav, kai TO pév mwÀíjüos éma- 
&vicev, ot 66 caAmukrat TÓ voAÀegukóv. éov)jumvav: 
oi 8é IleAozovwáoto( karamAayévres éri v4 wye- 
yovór. vüxécg émeyeipovr ávrwraparürrew! Ts 
vaüs, ToU koupo0 Ó. àvaoTpoo? o) Oióvros ob- 
TOL Lév év moAAQ Popófiqo kaPewoT/kewcay Ou TÓ 
TÜS ddvorepoícas vas T?]v eiÜwspévmv. AeAovirévas 
Tü£w. 

78 'O 8é Kóvov Seftds TQ kowpQ xpnoduevos 
€U)s évékevro kal rjv rapára£w abróv OwioAvev, 
üg év Tvrpo)oKQv, Qv 0é roUs rTapooUs apacpcav. 
vÓv uév otv karà rÓv Kóvova raxÜewóOv oj9cuía 
Tpós Qvyryv éméorpejev, àÀÀà mp)nvav àvakpovó- 
pevou Biekaprépovv, zpooóexoj.evat Tàüs Qd$vore- 
poUoas: ot ó€ TÜv eócvup.ov Cxovres vá£w 'AOnvatot 
rpeli&uevou roUs Kap GDTOUS ÉTrÉkeivTO duloruió- 
Tepov éri mroÀUv ypóvov Owokovres. 7]0n Óé maadv 
TÓv veOw ots ILeAomovvrjotots 7j0povopévav, o 
uev Kóvov eXAafinBeis TÓ nAfÜos TÓV moAepicov 
Tob uév Owókew áméorm, pera reocapákovra Ó€ 


3 veQv ümémÀevoev eig MurvMjvqv. | co9s 86 89wo- 


388 


BOOK XIII. 77. 3—78. 8 


nesians might draw near him. And the Lacedae- 407 s.c. 
monians, as they approached, kept driving the 
ships faster and faster in the hope of seizing the hind- 
most ships of the enemy. |. Ás Conon withdrew, the 
commanders of the best ships of the Peloponnesians 
pushed thepursurt hotly, and they wore out the rowers 
by their continued exertion at the oars and were 
themselves separated a long distance from the others. 
Conon, noticing this, when his ships were already near 
Mitylené, raised from his flagship a red banner, for 
this was a signal for the captains of the triremes — At 
this his ships, even as the enemy was overhauhng 
them, suddenly turned about at the same moment, 
and the crews raised the battle-song and the trum- 
peters sounded the attack — The Peloponnesians, dis- 
mayed at the turn of events, hastily endeavoured to 
draw up their ships to repel the attack, but as there 
was not time for them to turn about they had fallen 
into great confusion because the ships coming up after 
them had left the: accustomed position. 

78. Conon, making clever use of the opportunity, at 
once pressed upon them, and prevented their estab- 
hshing any order, damaging some ships and shearing 
off the rows of oars of others. Of the ships opposing 
Conon not one turned to flight, but they continued to 
back water while waiting for the ships which tarned 
behind ; but the Athenians who held the left wing, 
putting to flight their opponents, pressed upon them 
with increasing eageiness and pursued them for a long 
time. But when the Peloponnesians had brought all 
ther ships together, Conon, fearing the superior 
numbers of the enemy, stopped the pursuit and sailed 
offto Mitylené with forty ships — Asfor the Athenians 


! So Wessehng : dvrempárrew. 


930 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


favras 'Afmvatovs ai TOv lleAowovvQotov vas 
dmaca,. mepuyvÜetoau karemAvtavro, kai Tfs émi 
Tv mÓAuw émavóOov OuakAeicaca, dvyetv mpós TTv 
yfv éfuáoavro. | émukewuévov 86 rÀv lleAosov- 
vQoiv Tdácaws Tails vavotv, 'AOnvatow Üecpobvres 
unySepiav acrnpiav àÀAqv. jmokewuévyy, karéjvyov 
Tpos TT)V yfv, kai karaAuróvres TÀ okáQ» Oweoc- 
Óncav eis MvrvArjymv. 

KaoAAukparióas 86 rpu&kovra veOv kvupiebcas TÓ 
|y VAUTLKOV cÜccipei TÓV qToÀeuitv karaAeAv- 
pévov, neLf) 0€ TOUS ayóvas Trev DroAetireoÜa. 
Ouómep oüros Lév émi rfjv mÓAw OvémA«,, Kóvav 9 
dua TQ karoamAeücas gpocóeyÓj|evos TT" r0À- 
opkiav, Tà mrepi TÓV etomAovv Tob Au&évos kar- 
eakeba ev: eis Lev yàp Tà Bpáxn TOU Auévos TrÀota 
pukpà, vmÀQpocas Acv karenóvrue, vpOs Oé mois 
BáBeow odas kaBdppueev otcas JAuodópovs. 
oL juév otv" AOnvato, kat rÀv MurvÀAqvaiov óyAos 
TOÀUS ék TOv dypOv Oià Ov vróleuov avveAnAvÜcs! 
TGYÉcS kareokevaoe rà zrpós c)v groAtopk(av. Ó 8e 
KaAAikporíGas éxBuBácas ro)s ovrporuras eis rÓv 
vÀngoiov Tífs mÓÀecs aiyuaAóv émowjcaro mapeufo- 
AXv, kai TpÓzaLov ümÓ Tí vavuaxías éorqQoev. 
Tj O9 Dorepaig màs kparioras TÀv veOv émiéfas 
KaL mGpakeAevadjuevos pr) dmoÀebGreoÜ0au. Tfjg (olas 
veos, àv/xÜn, omev0nv eis TrÓv Auuéva mAe0cai 
kai Àóca. TO Duiópayua TÓÀv moAeuiev.  ó 8é 
Kóvov To)s pév eis ràs Tpwjpews évepüpaoe* kai 
Karà TOV OiékvÀovv àvrwmrpopovs karéornQoe, ro)s 
9' émi rà ueyáAa mAÀoia Oiérafe, rwàs 8 émi vàs 
xuyAàs ToU Ausévos mrapémejujev Ómcs mavrayó0ev 

! So Eiehstadt. 8uAgAv0os. 
840 


BOOK XIII. 78. 3-6 


who had set out in pursuit, all the Peloponnesian ships, 407 s.c. 
swarming around them, struck terror into them, and 
cutting them off from return to the city compelled 
them to turn m fhght to the land. And since the 
Peloponnesians pressed upon them with all their ships, 

the Athenians, seeing no other means of dehverance, 

fled for safety to the land and deserting their vessels 
found refuge in Mitylené. 

Callicratidas, by the capture of thirty ships, was 
aware that the naval power of the enemy had been 
destroyed, but he anticipated that the fighting on land 
remained. Consequently he sailed on to the city, and 
Conon, who was expecting a siege when he arnved, 
began upon preparations about the entrance to the 
harbour; for n the shallow places of the harbour he 
sank small boats filled with rocks and in the deep 
waters he anchored merchantmen armed with stones.! 
Now the Áthenians and a great throng of the Mity- 
lenaeans who had gathered from the fields into the 
city because of the war speedily completed the pre- 
parations for the siege — Calheratidas, disembarking 
his soldiers on the beach near the city, pitched à camp, 
and then he set up a trophy for the sea-battle. And 
on the next day, after choosing out his best ships and 
commandimg them not to get far from his own ship, 
he put out to sea, being eager to sail into the harbour 
and break the barrier constructed by the enemy 
Conon put some of his soldiers on the triremes, which 
he placed with their prows facing the open passage. 
and some he assigned to the large vessels,? while others 
he sent to the break waters of the harbour in order that 


! Carried on the yard-arms. 
? Presumably the merchantmen mentioned above. 


? $So Dindorf: ávefiBaoev. 
941 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


7j meópoyuévos kai karà yfv kat xarà Ü&Aarrav. 

7 aDTÓs Lev otv o Kóvov ràs Tpwjpew €yov évav- 
páxew, mÀQpeooas TÓv pera£o TÓTOV rÀv Oiajpay- 
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éméppulav raís rÓ «oAÀepv vavci roUs dO TÓV 
kepauQv Ailous: ot O. éri rais xyqÀats ToU Agévos 
rerayjuévou vekc)Avov rovs dmoroAuóvras eis Tv 
yf àmofaivew. 

79. Oc 8e IleAomovw(row Tí TÓÀv 'AOmvatov 
diAoTustas  éAetrovro  o)0év. Tails "yàp vavoiv 
áÜpóaus émwrAeUcavres, kai To)s àpicTovs àvOpas 
éri Tà küraoTpopara rá£avres, TT)v vavpay(av dua. 
ka rreLv érrovotvro uáxv: BuaLópevow yàp! eis às 
TÓÀv üvrvreraypuévow vabs vraís mpQpous éméDauvov 
reroÀwnkórcws,! ds o)y Domoorncouévov TÓ Óewóv 

2 TÀV TpoQyrrquuévov. oi 9. AÜ8nvato. kai MuvrvAn- 
vato, pav Ópójvres dmoÀevro|évqv ocrqpíav Tv 
ék Tfjs vikns, eüyevOs doÜvyjokew é&arrevOov vmép 
TOÜ ju) Avrretv rjv rü£w. | karexovans 8€ duAorwuscas 
àyvmrepBAvyrov rà. orporómeóo, moA0s éyévero dóvos? 
&ráyTcev àbei8ds TY, o«)juvra, Tois KkwOUvow mapap- 

3 purrÓvrov. oL uév yàp émi TOV karaoTpcp.drov 
bro ToU mA"Üovs rÓwv eis ajroUs epopévov BeAàv 
KüTeTrWTDQOKOVTO, Küi TiéS pv émwkatpos mÀn- 
yévres émvumrrov eig Tv ÜdAarrav, mrwég 9' o)k 
aicÜavópevou Üeppuv. érv Tv mÀqyóv ojoóv 8i- 
qycmvilovro: v Àetoro, 9. 9mo ràv Aodópcov repaudv 
émwrTOV, c9 üv é£ Omepoetiev rómov DaAMvrov 

4 AtBovs weppseyéDew rv " AÜnvaicv. o9 uv àMà 
Tfs uáx")s émi moÀ)v ypóvov yevopévns kai sroÀAÓv 

l fialópuevot uév yàp ága MSS.; pév deleted by Dekker, 
&pga by Wesseling. 

349 


BOOK XIII. 78. 6—79. 4 


the harbour might be fenced in on every side, both by 407 s.c. 
land and by sea. Then Conon himself with hus tri- 
remes joined the battle, filling with his ships the space 
lying between the bairiers ; and the soldiers stationed 
on the large ships hurled the stones from the yard- 
arms upon the ships of the enemy, while those drawn 
up on the breakwaters of the harbour held off those 
who might have ventured to disembark on the land. 
79. The Peloponnesans were not a whit outdone 
by the emulation displayed by the Athemans.  Ad- 
vancing with their ships 1n mass formation and with 
their best soldiers lined up on the decks they made 
the sea-battle also a fight between infantry ; for as 
they pressed upon their opponents' ships they boldly 
boarded their prows, 1n the behef that men who had 
once been defeated would not stand up to the terror 
of battle. But the Athenins and Mitylenaeans, 
seeing that the single hope of safety left to them lay 
in their victory, were resolved to die nobly rather than 
leave their station. Ánd so, since an unsurpassable 
emulation pervaded both forces, a great slaughter 
ensued, all the participants exposing their bodies, 
without regard of risk, to the perils of battle. The 
soldiers on the decks were wounded by the multitude 
of missiles which flew at them, and some of them, who 
were mortally struck, fell into the sea, while some, so 
long as their wounds were fresh, fought on without 
feehng them ; but very many fell victims to the stones 
that were hurled by the stone-carrying yardarms, 
since the Athenians kept up a shower of huge stones 
from these commanding positions. The fighting had 
continued, none the less, for a long while and many 





? 5o Dindorf: reroAynkóres. 
? $o Madvig : TrÓAepos. * So Dindorf: àró. 


343 


5 


6 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cap üjdjorépow damoMwpuévov, 0. KaMukpor(Gas 
&vekaAécaro Tfj oGdÀmwyyi To)s oTpaTtTas, Dov- 
Aópevos aroUs OuavamaÜcou. erà Oé mwa, kaupóv 
Trá Au mAypdocas TS vadis, Kai moÀUv Duorycovuaá.- 
pevos. Xpóvov, póyw TÓ! T€ "Be. TÓV veÀv kai 
7j po TV émfaráy e£ écone To)s '"ÁÜmvaiovs 
Qv cvpuQvyóvrav eis TOV Év TÍ TÓÀe,. Auuéva, &ié- 
TÀevoe rà Oiadbpáypara kai kaDwppio0n mÀnotov 
Tfs TÓÀeos TÓv MurvÀAqvatov. | ó yàp etomAovs 
jmép oO OwyoviLovro Awuuéva gév etyeé kaÀóv, 
ékrOóg O6 Tfjs mÓAeÓs éoTrw. *Y) uév yàp dpyaía 
TÓÀ pAKpà vfjoós éoTw, 17) O. DoTepov crpocot- 
«ucÜeica Tí Aàvrwrépav éori AéoBov: àvà puécov 
9' a)rÀv éorw eUpuros oTevós kai rovOv TT)v rlw 
óxvpáv. oO 8é KaoaAkpar(óas ékpiBáoas Tv OU- 
vapuv vrepweoTrpaToméOevoe Tv TÓAwv kai mavra- 
xó0ev mpoopoAàs émroté?ro. 

Kai rà pév karà Tr)v Murvrjvqv év covrois jv. 

Korà óé 2uxeAiav Xupakócto véuavreg eis 
Kapyn8óva mpéapeis mepií Te ToÜ moÀéuov kar- 
euépovro kai TÓ Aowróv ")Éiovv macaoÜa, ,Tfjs 
uaÓopüs. ois oi Kapxn8óvtoi TÓs TOkploets 
àuduBóAovs Oóvres, év név víj Aflón eyóAas Tap- 
eoxevdbovro Ovvápuew, émiÜvuobvres à Gmáoas TÓS ev 
Tf vüo« sóÀes karaóovÀcoacÜa. piv 7 06 7à 
orporórreba Seid ew, karaAécavres TÜV TOÀ.- 
TÓV Trwas kai TOv dÀÀcv AwUcv ro)s BovAouévovs 
ékrucav év rjj 2ukeAiq mpós a)rots Tots Üepyois 
vOacu mÓÀw, Ovopácavres Oéppa. 


| nóyws 7 Dindorf: peyiorq. 
* etxe] Vogel suggests éyei 
* eig after xoi deleted by Vogel. 


344. 


BOOK XIII. 79 4-8 


had met death on both ades, when Calleratidas, wish- 407 s.c. 
ing to give his soldiers a breathing-spell, sounded the 
recall After some time he agam manned his ships 
and continued the struggle over a long period, and 
with great effort, by means of the superior number of 
his ships and the strength of the marines, he thrust 
out the ÀÁthenians. And when the Athenians fled for 
refuge to the harbour withm the city, he saied 
through the barriers and brought hus ships to anchor 
near the city of the Mitylenaeans. It may be ex- 
plained that the entrance for whose control they had 
fought had a good harbour, which, however, hes out- 
side the city. For the ancient city is a small island, 
and the later city, which was founded near it, 1s oppo- 
site it on the 1sland of Lesbos ; and between the two 
cities 1s à narrow strait which also adds strength to 
thecity. Callicratidas now, disembarking his troops, 
invested the city and launched assaults upon 1t from 
every side. 

Such was the state of affairs at Mitylené. 

In Sicily ! the Syracusans, sending ambassadors to 
Carthage, not only censured them for the war but re- 
quired that for the future they cease from hostilities 
To them the Carthagimans gave ambiguous answers 
and set about assembling great armaments in Libya, 
since their desire was fixed on enslaving all the cities 
of the island ; but before sending their forces across 
to &eily they picked out volunteers from their citizens 
and the other mhabitants of Libya and founded in 
Sicily night at the warm (fAerma) springs à àty which 
they named Therma ? 


! The narrative 15 resumed from the end of chap. 69. 
? |t was near Himera (Cicero, /n Verr 2. 35), the springs 
are mentioned 1n. Book 4. 23. 


945 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


80 'Táàv 8é xarà roÜrov TÓv éviavTÓv mpá&eov 
TÉéÀOS exovodv "Af7jvno pev mapéAafe TTV py 
KaAMas, év 06 Tf "Pp kareoráOnoav Ürrorrot 
Aeóxwos €Do)pu.s xat YLvatos lloumwMos. — mepi 
06 ToUrovs Tro0s xpóvovus Kapxn8óvwor Tots «epi 
X3u«eMav e)rvy5paou puerecpionevow kai ome- 
Oovres máons Tf wíócov kvpweboow peydAas 
Ovvdquets einéteavro mapaakevábeoDac: éAópuevot 
86 orparwyóv 'Avvifav TÓv karagicdibavra, TÜV T€ 
TOv IieAwovvricowv kai Tr5v TrÀv 'luepaicv móAw, 
dmracav a0TQ Tv karà cTÓv mÓÀeuov éf£ovoíav 
émérpejav ^ mapavrovuévov 06 Oi TO yfipas, 
"pockaréorqcav kai GÀÀAov oeTparwyOv 'luiAkowa 
TOv "Avvovos, ék Tíüs aDrfjs OÓvra Oovyyeveias. 
oro, Óé kowjj cvveOpe)cavres émepjubdv Tias TOv 
év áfwpari vrapà Tots Kapynooviows Ovrov pnerá 
TOoÀÀOv wpmudrev, ro)s pev eis 'lfmgpiav, ToUs 
9' eis ràs BaAapióas vijmovs, mapakeAevadpievot 
£evoAoyetv os mAÀeiorovs. ajrol O'. émfecav Tv 
Auflónv ko/rarypdiovres oTparruras Aifvas kai 
(oívukas KaL TV ToArwucOv To)s kpariorovs. 
neremépmovro 0e Kai sapà TÓV cop Lao UT 
adrois cÜvdv iai Baca gTporrudyras Mavpov- 
aíovs kai Nopuáóas kai mwas TÓV oiko rry TÀ 
mpós T)v Kopcvqv kekAuuéva guépm.  é« 8é Tfjs 
'"IraA(as puo coodpievo KagiravoUs ouepiBocav eis 
Aufinv- Ti6ewav yàp TÜV pev Xpetav aDTÓ ueydáÀa 
cupuBaAAouévqv, roUs O' év 2ixcAg xaraAeAeui- 








! Gnaeus Cornelius (Livy, 4. 54). The Pompeys were a 
plebeian house and the consulshup was not yet open to 
plebeians. 

? A recently discovered inscription from. Athens, a decree 


346 


BOOK XIII S0. 1-4 


80 When the events of this year came to an end, 406 ».c. 
in Athens Callias succeeded to the office of archon and 
in Rome the consuls elected were Lucius Furius and 
Gnaeus Pompeius! At this time the Carthaginians, 
being elated over their successes 1n Sicily and eager to 
become lords of the whole island, voted to prepare 
great armaments ; and electing as general Hannibal, 
who had razed to the ground both the city of the 
Selinuntians and that of the Himeraeans, they com- 
mitted to him full authority over the conduct of 
the war. When he begged to be excused because of 
his age, they appointed besides him another general, 
Himilcon, the son of Hanno and of the same family ? 
These two, after full consultation, dispatched certain 
citizens who were held in high esteem among the 
Carthaginans with large sums of money, some to 
Iberia and others to the Bahandes Islands, with orders 
torecruit as many mercenarnes as possible. Andthey 
themselves canvassed Libya, enrolhng as soldiers 
Libyans and Phoenicians and the stoutest from among 
their own citizens. Moreover they summoned soldiers 
also from the nations and kings who were their allies, 
Maurusians and Nomads and certam peoples who 
dwell in the regions toward Cyrené. Also from Italy 
they hrred Campamans and brought them over to 
Libya ; for they knew that their aid would be of great 
assistance to them and that the Campanians who had 


of the Council mentioming Hannibal and Himilcon, has been 
published by B. D. Meritt, * Athens and Carthage," Har- 
vard. Studies n. Classical Philology, Supplementary Volume 
I (1940), pp. 247-253. Although the inscriphon is most 
fragmentary, it would appear that heralds from Carthage 
had come to Athens in connection with this mvasion, and 
it 1s certain that the Athenians had sent a mussion to confer 
with Hannibal and. Himilcon 1n Sicily. 


94/7 


ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


p.évovs Raparovous Ou& TÓ mwpookekxodéva, ois 
Kapynoviow! perà TOv 2ukeAwuorOv  TaxÜnoo- 
pévovs. TéÀos Oé TÓW Dvvdpuecov aBpowÜeua dv 
eis KapynBóva. cvvixÜUncav aorots oí TüvTes OUV 
érmeb0ow o0 moÀÀQ mÀeiovs, cS nuév Típouos, TÓV 
Oc)8eka nvpiddcv, os O0  "Eóoopos, Tpikovra 
pupiáóes .? 

Kapyn8óvio. év o$v rà mpós T?» OiudBaow 
érouudLovres Tás T€ Tpvwjpeis doas karüpriov 
kai doprmqyà mÀota cvvüyayov Aet TÓV xiv: 
mpoazoocTe.AAvrov 9. adrÀv eis 3ukeAiav Teocapá- 
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vapazAmoümus vavoiv émedávqoav év rots epi TÓV 


"E / / 8é 7 $n 
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eUÜécs Dua BiBooOrjocoDas. ol Oc TróAets TO gé- 
yeOos Tfs mapaokevís akovovcau. kai evAAoy- 
Cópievau TÓv dyva. "epi TÓv OÀcv écópevov, o) 
perpicos Tyycovicov. ol pev obv Zvpakóoto Trpós 
T€ TOÜS küQT TraMav "EAAvas «ai vpós Aaxe- 
Oauuovtovs  wepi ovpupayias Oveméwmovro — üm- 


1 So Wessehng : rois Kapyn9ovíovs 
? So Wurm : pupiáóov. 


948 


BOOK XIII 80. 4—81. 23 


been left behind in Sicily, because they had fallen out 406 s.c. 
with the Carthaginians, would fight on the ade of 

the Sicihan Greeks. And when the armaments were 
finally assembled at Carthage, the sum total of the 
troops collected together with the cavalry was a little 

over one hundred and twenty thousand, according to 
Timaeus, but three hundred thousand, according to 
Ephorus. 

The Carthaginans, in preparation for their crossing 
over to Sicily, made ready and equipped all the tri- 
remes and also assembled more than a thousand cargo 
ships, and when they dispatched in advance forty 
tnremes to Sicily, the Syracusans speedily appeared 
with about the same number of warships in the region 
of Eryx. Inthe long sea-battle which ensued fifteen 
of the Phoenoan ships were destroyed and the rest, 
when mght fell, fled for safety to the open sea. And 
when word of the defeat was brought to the Cartha- 
gimans, Hannibal the general set out to sea with fifty 
ships, since he was eager both to prevent the Syra- 
cusans from exploiting their advantage and to make 
the landing safe for his own armaments. 

81. When news of the reinforcements which Hanni- 
bal was bringing was noised throughout Sicily, every- 
one expected that his armaments would also be 
brought over at once. Ánd the cities, as they heard 
of the great scale of the preparations and came to the 
conclusion that the struggle was to be for their very 
existence, were distressed without measure. Accord- 
ingly the Syracusans set about negotiating alhances 
both with the Greeks of Italy and with the Lacedae- 


! Cp. chap. 69. 5. 
340 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éoreAAov: 8é kai mpós Tàs év 2iuceAta. srÓAeis? ToUs 
vapopu/covras Tà mXjÜm pos TÓv Ümép Tfíjs 
kowfje éAevÜepías KívBvvov. | 'Akpayavrtvou óé, 
óuopoüvres T$ TÓÀv  Kapyy8oviov émucporeto.; 
8ueAdufavov, Ómep Tv, ém' ajroUs mpoovs TÉew 
TÓ ToU voÀéuov Bápos. éOo£ev ov abrois TÓv T€ 
aÜrov Kai roUs dAAovs kapmoUs, éru Oé ràs krjoeus 
ámácag, dxó Tí xGpas karakopiLew évrós TÓV 
TeuyÓw. kar ékeivovs Óé ToUs kaupoUs T? Te 
vóÀw KaL Tijv xcpav TÓv 'Ákpoyavrivov ouv- 
éBawev. eüÓawiovias. Ómápxew py: epi js ovx 
dváppooróv pou $aítverat ÓvAÜetv. ka yàp áyme- 
A&ves Trois pueyéÜeou. kal v KkdÀÀew Oiadépovres;' 
kal TO TÀetorov Tís xopas éAatms karddovrov, 
é£ fs mapmAnÜf kopaLópevou kaprróv émdAovv eis 

apy«9óva: oUm yàp kar ékeivovus roUDs Xpóvous 
Tí Auljóns mejvrevuévgs oi T$v 'Áxpayavrivgv 
veuóuevo: Tróv ék Tfs Auwp)ns ávribopribóuevo 
vÀotrov ovoías dríorovs rois ueyéÜecw ékékrqvro. 
vroÀÀd. 86 oU mÀoUTov vap' aDrots O.ajuévec ov)peta,, 
epi dw oÀk àvoíkeióv éori Dpaxéa. OveAÜetv. 

82. "H re yàp rÓv iepóv karaokevr) kai uda. 
ó ToU Aus veos épdaiveu rjv ueyaAompésevav TÓv 
róre dvÜpcmov: rÀv uév oov GAAcv iepiv rà uév 
kaekasÜn, rà 06 ceAeios kareokddm Ouà TO qroA- 
Aákis fjÀckévai jv sróAv, 70. 05 "Oloumtov uéMov 
AauBávew T3v Opodmv ó móAeuos ékcoAvoev: éÉ 

* $o Ithodoman: ézéoreAAov. 

* npós after «óAe«s deleted by Khodoman. 


3 óLopoóvres TÍj émupareía Dindorf-* ópóvres Tv . . . 
émupáreuav. 

* Reske would add $eav or ówíápxov; Vogel suggests 
etyov yàp apsreAQvas . . . Quad épovras. 


350 


BOOK XIII. 81. 2—82. 1 


monians; and they also continued to dispatch emis- 406 s c 
saries to the cities of Sicily to arouse the masses to 
fight for the common freedom. The Acragantini, 
because they were the nearest to the empire of the 
Carthaginians, assumed what indeed took place, that 
the weight of the war would fall on them first They 
decided, therefore, to gather not only their grain and 
other erops but also all them possessions from the 
countryside within their walls. At this time, it so 
happened, both the city and the terntory of the 
Acragantin enjoyed great prosperity, which I think 1t 
would not be out of place for me to describe. Their 
vineyards excelled in their great extent and beauty 
and the greater part of their territory was planted m 
olive-trees from which they gathered an abundant 
harvest and sold to Carthage ; for since Libya at that 
time was not yet planted in frui-trees,! the in- 
habitants of the termitory belonging to Ácragas took 
in exchange for the products the wealth of Libya and 
accumulated fortunes of unbelievable size. Of this 
wealth there remain among them many ewvidences, 
which it will not be foreign to our purpose to discuss 
briefly. 

89. Now the sacred buildings which they con- 
structed, and especially the temple of Zeus, bear 
witness to the grand manner of the men of that day 
Of the other sacred buildings some have been burned 
and others completely destroyed because of the many 
times the city has been taken in war, but the com- 
pletion of the temple of Zeus, which was ready to 
receive its roof, was prevented by the war; and after 


* But cp. Book 4. 17. 4 where we are told that Heracles 
planted much of Libya in vineyards and olive orchards 


5 ojv Vogel: yáp. $ 706 0. Vogel: ró 9' otv. 
251 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ob Tfs móAews karaokadeians ovOéÉmoTe Dorepov 
(GXUCQV "Akparyavrüvou TéÀos embetvo, rois olKO- 
Oopuaciw &or 0é O veas éycv TÓ pév ufjkos 
Tó0as rpuakogiovs reocapdkovra, TO Oé mÀáros 
é&/kovra, vrÓ Oé vios ékarOv eucoou xcpis ToO 
«pnmiGeparos  péywTos O0. dv TÓv év 2ukeMa 
kai TOls ékrOs o)k QGÀÓyws àv ovykpiívovro kar 
TO puéyeÜos Tíjs Ümoorácecs: Kai yàp ei u!?) TéÀos 
Aaféiv cvvépn Tv émipojv, 3 ye mpoaipeaus 
Ümápxe Qavepá TÓVv Ó à Mov 1) 7) pera mrepvr ev v? 
TOUS vecs oikoOopnoUvTOv T) KÜKÀq koci ToUs 
c"ko)s* vepuapavóvrov, oóros ékarépas Toórcov 
peréxyeu Tv. 0qooTrácecov | ovvqkoOopoÜvro yàp 
TO(s Tolxyois oi küoves, 飫Üev uév omrpoyyAo,, 
TO Ó' évrOs ToÜ vec) Éyovres Terpáycvov: kai roO 
pév ékvós pépous éoTiv arÓv 1) sepibépeiua mroOdv 
e&koot, kaÜ" Tv eis rà, &ua£dojuara. Obvoara, àvÜpo- 
T'LV OV évapjuó beUo. cp, TO! Ó' évrOs roO 6o- 
Oeka. Tv Óé oToÀyv 7ó néyeÜos kai TÓ bios 
é£aíotov exovoáv, ev pev TÓ TOS éo) pepe TV 
yvyavrop.ox tay érovjcavro y)véais kal TÓ peyeüe. 
kai TÓ) KdÀÀeL Suagepoacus ' ey ó€ TÓ Trpós Svopás 
TTV dAocw Ts Tpoías, ev $ TÓy Y)po0cv €ékaoTov 
ieiy € éorw olelcos TÍs meépuoráaeus Bebrovpyr- 
uévov. Tv 9é kai Aum kar! éketvov TÓv xpóvov 


: ; 9 Reiske : vrpouatpeots. 

? nerà mrepureix av Capps, peTá ToíXtv Reiske, pera Üpvy- 
Kd Dindorf, uéxo. reydv Or cwvexeéb roí(yo Vogel: péyg 
voy 

KÜKÀq Kiogt Wesselng : 7j KUkÀoots. 
s Reiske : oLkous. 
$ So Dindorf: oi rotyot rots kioow. 

$ 70] ro$ Dindorf. 

* So Dindorf, Guadepoveas PAK, 8iadépovoav cet 
352 


BOOK XIII $2. 1-5 


the war, since the city had been completely destroyed, 406 s.c. 
never in the subsequent years did the Acragantini find 
themselves able to fimsh their buildings. The temple 
has a length of three hundred and forty feet, a width 
of sixty, and a height of one hundred and twenty not 
including the foundation? And being as it is the 
largest temple in Sicily, 1t may not unreasonably be 
compared, so far as the magnitude of its substructure 
is concerned, with the temples outside of Sicily ; for 
even though, as 1t turned out, the design could not be 
carried out, the scale of the undertakmg at any rate 1s 
clear. And though all other men build their temples 
either with walls forming the sides or with rows of 
columns. thus enclosing their sanctuaries, this temple 
combmes both these plans; for the columns were built 
in with the walls, the part extending outside the 
temple being rounded and that within square ; and 
the cireumference of the outer part of the column 
which extends from the wall is twenty feet and the 
body of a man may be contained in the fluting, while 
that of the inner part is twelve feet The porticoes 
were of enormous size and height, and in the east 
pediment they portrayed The Battle between the 
Gods and the Caants in sculptures which excelled in 
size and beauty, and in the west The Capture of Troy, 
n which each one of the heroes may be seen portrayed 
in a manner appropriate to husróle There was at that 


1 The actual dimensions of this great Olympieum are in 
English feet (c. 5 mm. longer than the Atte foot): length 
excluding steps 361 ft. ; breadth 1731; height of columns 
with capitals 622 (?); diameter of columns at bottom 14. 

? 4.6. they were engaged o1 half-columns , see the frontis- 
piece of this Volume. 


VOL. V N 358 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ / » 1 
ékrós Tíjs mÓÀews xetpomouros, éyovca cTv Tepí- 
7 3 ^ 
perpov aTaOíov émrá, roO 06 DBáÜos eUxoou moxyàv: 
3 / ^ 
eis fjv émayopnévew j0drov édiloréyvgoav mAf0os 
^ ^^ / N / 
ixÜscv év a)ríj wovijoas ravrotov eis ràs ónpootas 
€ 7 / ^ 
éoTi&ceis, ueÜ' dv ovvüiérpiBov  kÜkvou kai Tv 
^ tj 
dÀAcv ópvécv moÀv vÀfjüos, Dore nueyàAqv Trépibw 
capackeudLew Tots Üecpévow. | OrAot 06 T)v mpv- 
^ m / 
drjv avÓv kai T) voÀvréAeu. rÀv. uvrevov, à wá 
pev Tois àÜAmrais WO kareokeDacav, miwwà, 86 
^ ^ / 
Tois Ov TÓv mapÜévowv kat sraiówv év otq Tpedo- 
t / 
p.évows opywiÜaptow, à Tüavos écpakévat ó90t péypi 
^ M 
ToU kaÜ' éavróv Diov Ówuévovra. kai karà Tv 
/ M P4 ? / 7 3 7^ 
vporépav 6é raosr2s 'OÀuymiába, Gevrépav érri rais 
? 
évevijkovra, vucjaavros '"E£owérov ' Akpayavrivov, 
» d 
koTiyyayov a)TOv eis TtV TÓÀw éd! &puaros: owv- 
eróumTevov 9. aUrTQ xcopis vrÀv ÓGAAÀcv avvopíoes 
TptGkócuau ÀAeukdv Umrmov, mca, map! abrÀv TÓV 
? / 06A 8é M N 3 M 3 b 
ÁAkpayavrüive.  kaÜóAov O6 kai ràs dycyàs e000s 
? ^ e^ 
ék maiówv émoto0vro Tpuóepás, mv T' éoÜ0fra 
A A » € A M 
paAakv dopobvres ka0" OmepDBoÀrv kai ypuvaodo- 
potüvres, ér. 06 orÀeyy(oU kat AqkUÜow dpyupais 
T€ kai ypucats Xp«opJ.evot. 
83. "Hv? 8é rv ' Akpayavrtvowv ayeo0v sÀAovau- 
raros kar éketvov TOv xpóvov TleAMas,; ós karà 
H ^ ? ^ 
TTv oük(av fevÀvas éycew mAe(ovs mpOós Tas vrÓAous 
/ T 7 
éraTTev oiKéTas, ois mapmwyyeAévov Sv dmavras 
b 7 ^ , / M X M y^ 
ToUs Éévovs kaÀetv émi fevíg. moAAol 06 kal cÀv 
Ld 2 7 ? 7 A / 
&AXcv 'Ákpayavriveov  émotovv TÓ  mapomAjotov, 


! g7Àeyytot À, ori yeow P, oveyío: cet. 
? 3v Madvig: 0o. * So Dindorf: l'eas and below. 
854 


BOOK XIII. 82 5—83. 1 


time also an artificial pool outside the city,seven stades 406 s.c. 
in cireumference and twenty cubits deep ; into this 
they brought water and 1ngeniously contrived to pro- 
duce a multitude of fish of every variety for their pubhe 
feastings, and with the fish swans spent their time and 
a vast multitude of every other kind of bird, so that 
the pool was an object of great dehght to gaze upon 
And witness to the luxury of the inhabitants is also 
the extravagant cost of the monuments which they 
erected, some adorned with sculptured race-horses and 
others with the pet birds kept by girls and boys in 
their homes, monuments which Timaeus says he had 
seen extant even in his own lifetime.!  AÁnd in the 
Olympiad previous to the one we are discussing, 
namely, the Ninety-second, when Exaenetus of Acra- 
gas won the '' stadion,"* he was conducted into the 
city in a chariot and in the procession there were, not 
to speak of the other thungs, three hundred chanots 
each drawn by two white horses, all the chariots be- 
longing to citizens of Ácragas. Speaking generally, 
they led from youth onward à manner of hfe which 
was luxunous, wearing as they did exceedingly deh- 
cate clothing and gold ornaments and, besides, using 
strieils and oil-flasks made of sdver and even of 
gold. 

83. Ámong the Acragantmi of that time perhaps 
the richest man was Tellias, who had in his manson 
a considerable number of guest-chambers and used to 
station servants before his gates with orders to invite 
every stranger to be his guest. There were also many 
other Ácragantin: who did something of thus kind, 

* Timaeus died c. 250 5 c. 

? He was vietor not only 1n the Ninety-second Olympiad 


(419 s.c. ; chap 34) but also 1n the Ninety-first (416 s.c. ; 
Book 12. 82). 


855 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


5 —^ M / e ^ / 
dpyaucds kal duAavÜpcres OpiAoDvres: Oumep 
kai "EpmreóokAfjs Aéyec sept ar, 


/ b ^ / / LÁ 
£eivcyv. ai60tou Auuéves, kakórvyros &meuwpoi. 


KQLi Ov) more T€vrakogcicv Urméov Tapoyevouévav 
/ 
ék Dl'éAas xewuepiov srepworácecs oUons, kaÜárep 
A / b A^ 7 / 7 
Qoi Tüuaws àv rfj vrevrekouGekdrg Bic, mrávras 
a)rOs^ vmeOécoaro, kai mapaxpijua Tow iura 
KaL xvrüvas evOoÜev mpoevéykas éOckev. — kai 
^ e ^ ^ 
IIoA/kAevros év rais ioTopíows éfmyetras mepi ToÜ 
kaTG TT))v oüctav muÜedvos, ÀAéycv cos Oaetvavros 
^ / 
a)ToU T€! orporevouévou év 'Akpáyavrt re8ecpn- 
kóros^* elva, 8 év ajbrQ Tpuakooiovs uev míüÜovs 
é£ a)Tíüs Tfj vérpas rerUmuévovs, ékaoTov ékaróv 
H ^ ^ / b ? ^ 
auPopets ycpobvra: koÀvupjÜpav Oe map! a)rots 
/ ^ » ^ 
UTOpxew kekoviaévnv, xcpoücav &udoopets yuMovs, 
? "^ M e7 X 
é£ je rtv pUouv eis ToUs müÜovs yiveoÜau.  yeyo- 
véva, Óé acu TÓv 'TeAMav TO yuév eiGos eireM 
vavreÀOs, rÓ 0é $Üos Üavpaoróv.  dmooraAévros 
oóv a)TroÜ mpoós Kevropwrívovus karà peofe(av, 
A / 5 M 9? / M A 
kai mapelÀvÜóros «eis Tr)v ékkÀmoíav, TÓ pév 
TÀfjos mpoémeoev* eis dkawov yéAwra, Üecopobv 
1 So Sintenis : adrovs. 
? re added by Capps. 
3 So Capps: ceÜeopmkévai. The text after «eQvos has 


been vai1ously emended. 
* So Dindorf: «poocémeocv. 





* (The famous fifth-century physical philosopher, a native 
of AÁcragas. 


356 


BOOK XIIL s3 1-4 


minghng with others in an old-fashioned and friendly 406 5 c. 
manner; consequently also Empedocles ! speaks of 
them as 


Havens of mercy for strangers, unacquamted with 
evil? 

Indeed once when five hundred cavalry from Gela 
arrived there during à wintry storm, as Timaeus says 
in his Fifteenth Book, Telhas entertained all of them 
by himself and provided them all forthwith from his 
own stores with outer and under garments | And 
Polycleitus ? 1n his Histories describes the wine-cellar 
i» the house as süll existing and as he had himself 
seen it when in Ácragas as a soldier ; there were m it, 
he states, three hundred great casks hewn out of the 
very rock, each of them with a capacity of one hundred 
amphoras,* and beside them was a wine-vat, plastered 
with stueco and with a capacity of one thousand 
amphoras, from which the wine flowed into the casks 
And we are told that Telhas was quite plain in appear- 
ance but wonderful in character. So once when he 
'had been dispatched on an embassy to the people of 
Centoripa and came forward to speak before the 
Assembly, the multitude broke into unseemly laughter 


? —'The third line of the opening hnes of his work On 
Puiifications which run (Frag. 112 Diels?) 


e $t, ol péya &orv karà £av0o0 ' AKpáyavros 
vaier àv' dkpa vóÀeos, áàyalÀv ueAeOruoves épyov, 
Éeivov krÀ 


(* My friends, who make your homes in the gieat settlement 
which forms golden Acragas, up on the heights of the city, 
ye who are careful to perform good deeds," then the hne 
Diodorus quotes.) 
3 A native of Lai1issa and piobably of the generation of 
Alexander the Great. 
* An amphora was about nine gallons. 


85" 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kara deéorepov. Tíjs Trepi oxroO Oóems o à Dmo- 
Aoi eUme qu) Dag ábew év &Üei yàp eivai Tots 
' Akpayyavrivots mpos pév 7às emBó£ovs "róAeis d dmo- 
oTéAAew TOUS Kpa.TioTOUS TQ KdAA«t, TpÓs 8é ràs 
TOTewüs kai Àiav eUreAets Ojvotovs. 

84. O2 uóvov 86 epi róv 'leAMav ovvéfauwev 
elva, ro0 mÀoUrov ueyaÀonpémewav, àÀÀAà kai mrepi 
zoAÀAo0s dAÀovs 'Akpayavr(vovus. 'AvruoÜévns yoOv 
ó ér.kaAoUpevos 'Pó89os yápuovs érvreAGv rfjs 0vya- 
Tpós elaríaae ToUg moÀ/íras émi rÓv orevovrüv dv 
QQICOUV ékagToL, kai CeUym Tj vouon cvvnkoAoUUnce 
melt) Tv OkraKoaiav .Tpós é ToTOLs oU póvov 
oí kar. abry)v TT]v TrÓAuv Urmrets, àÀÀa kai rv doTv- 
yevróvov 70Moi kAnÜévres émi TrÓv yáuov ovg- 
mpoérepajav Tv vóudmv. T€pvTTÓTQTOV oé $aoct 
yevéaOa, TO Trepi Tv Tob $wrós karagkevijy ToUs 
T€ yàp Bepo)s TOUS ÉV TrÓG, Tols tepois kai ToUs év 
Tol oTevarmrots Koo ov TV TróÀw érÀpooe £J- 
Àov, xal rots évi TV épyaonpicov cce" oxibakas 
kai kAnparíGas, mapayyeiAas, € Órav TO Tís áKpo- 
TóÀecos dvadÜj vÜp, dwavras émwreÀetv TÓ mapa- 
mato Qv mouaávrav TÓ mpoorayDév, xa" óv 
kaupóv Tryero 7) vópuen, mpoxyovpévav TTOÀÀ v TÓYy 
Tàs 04Oas depóvrew, f) uev mis eyejLe $xrós, TÓ 
0e cvvakoAovÜoov qAfjÜos 00K éxcpovv ai Oómuó- 
cuu xarà TO éfífjs O00, mávrov cuu QuAoTwuiov- 
uévov TÍj TívOpOs peyaAompemein. kar. éketvov 
yàp TOV xpóvov 'ÀÁkpayavrivoui uév Tfjcav mÀetous 
TÓv Owpvpiov, cÜv Óé rots karowotot £évow oük 
éAdrTTovs rÓv eixoou pupudócv. | aci 06 rÓv " Àvri- 
aÜévqv, émeiód) róv viov écpa. roAekoüvrd, wa. rv 

! éÓcke M, omitted cet, 
358 


BOOK XIII 83. 4—84. 4 


as they saw how much he fell short of their expecta- 106 s.c. 
tion. But he, interrupting them, said, " Don't be 
surprised, for 1t 1s the practice of the Acragantini to 
send to famous cities their most handsome citizens, 
but to msigníficant and most paltry cities men of 
ther sort." 

84. It was not in the case of Tellias only that such 
magnificence of wealth occurred, he says, but also of 
many other inhabitants of Acragas — Antisthenes at 
any rate, who was called Rhodus, when celebrating 
the marnage of his daughter, gave a party to all the 
citizens in the courtyards where they alllived and 
more than eight hundred chanots followed the bnde 
in the procession ; furthermore, not only the men on 
horseback from the city itself but also many from 
neighbounmng cities who had been invited to the wed- 
ding joined to form the escort of the bride. But most 
extraordinary of all, we are told, was the provision for 
the hghting * the altars 1n all the temples and those 
in the courtyards throughout the city he had piled 
high with wood, and to the shopkeepers he gave fire- 
wood and brush with orders that when a fire was 
kindled on the acropolis they should all do the same ; 
and when they did as they were ordered, at the time 
when the bride was brought to her home, since there 
were many torch-bearers m the procession, the city 
was filled with hght, and the main streets through 
which the procession was to pass could not contain 
the accompanying throng, all the inhabitants zealously 
emulating the man's grand manner. F'or at that time 
the citizens of Acragas numbered more than twenty 
thousand, and when readent ahens were included, not 
less than two hundred thousand. And men say that 
once when Antisthenes saw his son quarrelhng with a 


850 


i2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ádypo'yevróveov aévira, KaL B.atLópevov éavTQ TÓ 
aypióuov mcoAfjoau, péxp. Lév civoS énum Mí reu; 
Tfs o embvpias eniragw AauBavovorjs, ,dfjoo. Oetv 
p ameUüew más &Topov 7roujoy TÓV yetrova, GAÀAÀd 
ToOvavriov óOm«cs mTÀovoi0s Umápymn' oUrcs yàp 
abrov émvjcew pév àypobü peibovos, o9 Ovvá- 
pevov 8é mapá ToU yeirovos Tpocoyopácau vOv 
bmdpyovra. sro) Njoew. 

Au&, 8é 70 uéyeÜos Tfjs korà v?)v sróAw. eUmropias 
TocaUrqQv ovvéBawe rpudW]v elvat zapà rois " Akpa- 
yavrivos core uer. oACyov Tíjs moAtopktas ytwo- 
pévns Trovíjoat injjuaga Trepi TÓÀV év rots dvAaketous 

(c yoierepevóvrQv, Ómas Bü Ts exn TÀetov TÜÀwqs 
KaL TrépuoTpoypuaros Kai Kc«OLov kaL Ovety mpooke- 
QaAatav roiaUTas 06 7fjs okÀnporárns or pcs 
bmapxoUou)s, éfeoTi AoytGeata T Karrà TÓV 
Aovróv Diov cpudwv. epi pév o)v ToUTcv obre 
TapaOpauetv TÜeXoapev oUr. émi mÀetov puakpo- 

oyetv, tva. u?j TÀv àvaykatorépov àromimropev. 

85. Ot 86 Kapyóóvio, ràs. Ovvápew. | Gupiuá- 
cavres eis vv lukeAiav àvélevíav émi v»v móAw 
Ty "Axpayavri/ay kai OUo mapeuBoAàs émoujoavro, 
pav. pev. érrt rwv ev. Aódoov, é)* dv TOUS T€ "IBnpas 
kaí TiLvaS TÓV Aufócov cra£av eis rerpakuuptovs 
72v 8. dÀÀqv o)k GrreoDev Tfj TÓÀews grove ópievo 
TáÓpo BoB eia. kat xdpaku vrepiéAapov kai mpó- 
TOV uev àréoreiAay mpéopeus mpós TOUS Akpayav- 
Tivovs Getobvres piáMora. pv cupi oyxety aU)TOts, 
et 06 uj ye, Tjavxéav. yet kai $ilous etvau. Kapyn- 
Oovio:s év eip)jvy pévovras o) mpooOetauévov 96€ 


1 So Wurm: àró yevróvov. 
* So Eichstadt; émémAqrrev PA, érréngrre cet. 


360 


BOOK XIII. 84. 4—85. 2 


neighbouring farmer, a poor man, and pressmg him to 406 s.c. 
sell him his httle plot of land, for a time he 1nerely 
reproved his son ; but when his son's cupidity grew 

more intense, he said to him that he should not be 
doing his best to make his neighbour poor but, on 

the contrary. to make him nch; for then the man 
would long for more land, and when he would be 
unable to buy additional land from his neighbour he 
would sell what he now had. 

Because of the immense prosperity prevailing m the 
city the Ácragantm came to live on such a scale of 
luxury that a little later, when the city was under 
siege, they passed a decree about the guards who 
spent the mghts at their posts, that none of them 
should have more than one mattress, one cover, one 
sheepskimm, and two pillows. When such was the 
most rigorous land of bedding, one can get an idea of 
the luxury which prevailed in their hving generally. 
Now it was our wish neither to pass these matters by 
nor yet to speak of them at greater length, in order 
that we may not fai to record the more important 
events. 

85 The Carthaginians, after transporting the 
armaments to Sicily, marched against the city of 
the Acragantini and made two encampments, one on 
certain hils where they stationed the Iberians and 
some Libyans to the number of about forty thousand, 
and the other they pitched not far from the city and 
surrounded it with à deep trench and a palisade. And 
first they dispatched ambassadors to the Acragantin, 
asking them, preferably, to become their alhes, but 
otherwise to stay neutral and be friends with the 
Carthagimians, thereby remaining in peace; and when 


3 à)! óv M, omitted cet. * So Wessehng : mepiéfaAov. 
VOL. V N 2 961 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ 5 ^ ld N / ? N N ^ 
TÀV év Tfj mÓAe, ros ÀAóyovs, evÜUs và Tíjs vroAMop- 
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eàédo8ov obcav T?)v mÓÀw, 8o mrÓpyous "poo- 
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|a xopiévovs TÜs Ó€ vukTÓs emvyevop.évrs oL kará 
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86 Oi De "epi TOv 'AvviBav o«e/U0ovres xarà 
TrÀAetova nep Tàs vrpooBoAÀáas mrovctaOa., mrapnyyyeuAay 
TOUS OTpATLO'TOAS kaDaupety" TÓ prríjora kai Xxc- 
Mora, karaakevácetw péxp. TÓV TeUyOv. TOXU 8e 
rÀv épyow Ói&, 77v roÀvxeipiav avvreAovuévov. év- 

* énto0c0ncav M, éutoÜcoav cet. 
? " AvriBa. Wessehng, igjtAka PA, 'AuíAka cet. 

362 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


émeoev! eis TÓ orparómeOov «oÀÀ Oewiawuuovia. 
M A ^ / / »y e € ho 
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1 So Dindorf: cvvéreocv ? So Wesseling : kafaipopuévov. 
$ So Wessehng : xaÜaipov. 
4 en] énit P, érei AFJ. 
364 


BOOK XIII. 86. 1-5 


fell upon the army. For it happened that ihe tomb 406 x.c. 
of Theron, which was exceedingly large, was shaken 
by à stroke of hghtmng ; consequently, when it was 
being torn down, certam soothsayers, presaging what 
might happen, forbade it, and at once a plague broke 
out 1n the army, and many died of it while not a few 
suffered tortures and grievous distress. Among the 
dead was also Hannibal the general, and among the 
watch-guards who were sent out there were some who 
reported that in the mght spirits of the dead. were to 
be seen. EKimnlear, on seeing how the throng was 
beset with superstitious fear, first of all put a stop to 
the destruction of the monuments, and then he supph- 
cated the gods after the custom of his people by 
saerifieing à young boy to Cronus and a multitude of 
cattle to Poseidon by drowning them in the sea. He 
did not, however, neglect the siege works, but filing 
up the river which ran beside the city as far as the 
walls, he advanced all his siege-engines against them 
and launched daily assaults. 

The Syraeusans, seeing that Acragas was under 
siege and feaning lest the besieged might suffer the 
same fate as befell the Selinuntians and Himeraeans,? 
had long been eager to send them their aid, and when 
at thus juncture alhed troops arrived from Italy and 
Messené they elected Daphnaeus? general  Collect- 
m their forces they added along the way soldiers 
from Camarma and Gela, and summoning additional 
troops from the peoples of theinterior they made their 

! Tyrant of Ácragas, 488—479 s.c. ; cp. Book 11. 53. 

? Cp. chaps. 57 and 69 respectively. 


?* A Syracusan, later executed by Dionysmss (fra, 
chap. 96. 3). 


2365 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


awparapomrAeouaóy aoro(s KQi TÓV ved Tpuákovra.. 
eixyov" óe TOUS TávTaS mrebous pév mÀeiovs TÓw 
rp.opupicv, imrmeis 0  o)ük éÀdrrovs TÓV mevra- 
Kio yuAleov. 

87 'IniAkov 8é mruÜópevos TÜV TÓy mroAepiieov 
édoOov, dzéoTeuev aDrots ümavráv roUs 7e "Ipnpas 
kat KopuravoUs kai TOv &AÀAov oUk éAdrTovs rerpa- 
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rorauóv OwleDokórwv  aüávrgcav ot DdpDapoi:, 
ka, maparáfewns yevouévgs ézi moÀvv xpóvov évi- 
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dve(Àov. TcAécs 0é O0Àov TO orpoTómeOov OiédBei- 
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vreóeíay, év raóTQ zrapevépaAev. evÜo 86 kal TÓV 
ék Tfjs mÓÀeos arporirrüv émwuyÜévrov kai ro 
366 


BOOK XIII. 86. 5—87. 4 


way towards Ácragas, while thirty of them ships sailed 406 s.c. 
along beside them. The forces which they had num- 
bered in all more than thirty thousand infantry and 
not less than five thousand cavalry. 

87 When Himilcon learned of the approach of the 
enemy, he dispatched to meet them both his Iberians 
and his Campanians and more than forty thousand 
other troops The Syracusans had already crossed 
the Himera River when the barbanrians met them, and 
in the long battle which ensued the Syracusans were 
victorous and slew more than six thousand men. 
They would have crushed the whole army completely 
and puisued it all the way to the city, but since 
the soldiers were pressing the pursuit without order, 
the general was concerned lest Himulear should ap- 
pear with the rest of his army and retrieve the 
defeat. Forheremembered also how the Himeraeans 
had been uiterly destroyed for the same reason.: 
However, when the barbarians were in flight to 
their camp before Acragas, the soldiers in the city, 
seeing the defeat of the Carthagimans, begged them 
generals to lead them out, sayimg that the oppor- 
tunty had come to destroy the host of the enemy. 
But the generals, whether they had been bribed, as 
the report ran, or feared that Himileon would seize 
the city 1f it were stripped of defenders, checked the 
ardour of their men. So the fleeing r»en quite safely 
made good ther escape to the camp before the city. 
When Daphnaeus with his army arrived at the en- 
campment which the barbarians had deserted, he 
took up his quarters there. At once both the soldiers 
from the city mingled with his troops and Dexippus 


* By a disordeily pursuit , ep. chap. 60 ad fin. 


1 etyov Wurm, etyev D, etye cet. * dv added by Post. 
967 


wi 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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eis ékkÀnoiav rà mAWÜn ovvfjÜev, mávrov 9 
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kekparmmkóras TÓV BapBpcov TTV TpoofKovcav 
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yàp orpamtréáv soAÀoL 0.&. TTjv orávw àréÜvrokov, 
368 


BOOK XIII. 87. 4—88 2 


accompanied his men, and the multitude gathered in 406 ».c. 
a tumultuous throng m an assembly, everyone being 
vexed that the opportumty had been let shp and that 
although they had the barbanians in their power, they 
bad not imflicted on them the punishment they de- 
served, but that the generals 1n the city, although 
able to lead them forth to attack and destroy the host 
of the enemy, had let so many myriads of men off 
scot-free While great uproar and tumult prevailed in 
the assembly, Menes of Camarma, who had been put 
in command, came forward and lodged an accusation 
against the Acragantne generals and so incited all 
who were present that, when the accused tried to offer 
à defence, no one would let them speak and the multi- 
tude began to throw stones and lalled four of them, 
but the fifth, Argeius by name, who was very much 
younger, they spared | Dexippus the Lacedae- 
monian, we are told, also was the object of abuse on 
the ground that, although he held a position of com- 
mand and was reputed to be not mexperienced in 
warfare, he had acted as he did treacherously. 

88. After the assembly Daphnaeus led forth his 
forces and undertook to lay siege to the camp of the 
Carthaginians, but when he saw that 1t had been forti- 
fied with great outlay, he gave up that design; how- 
ever, by covering the roads with his cavalry he seized 
such as were foraging, and by cutting off the transport 
of supphes brought them into senious straits — The 
Carthagimians, not darmg to wage a pitched battle 
and being hard pinched by lack of food, were enduring 
great misfortunes lor many of the soldiers were 
dying of want, and the Campanians together with the 

369 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ot Oé Raps mavot pera TrÀv GÀAcv picÜoóopov oxcG0v 
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opkiav: émel 9. aí TOv BapDBápov éXriGes üvékviav 


! ós added by M and Stephanus. 
910 


BOOK XIII. 88. 2-6 


other mercenanes, almost in a body, forced their way 406 s.c. 
to the tent of Himilear and demanded the rations 
which had been agreed upon ; and if these were not 
given them, they threatened to go over to the enemy. 
But Himilear had learned from some source that the 
Syracusans were conveyimg a great amount of gram 
to Ácragas by sea. Consequently, since this was the 
only hope he had of salvation, he persuaded the 
soldiers to wait a few days, giving them as a pledge 
the goblets belonging to the troops from Carthage 
He then summoned forty triremes from Panormus and 
Motyé and planned an attack upon the ships which 
were bringing the supphes ; and the Syracusans, be- 
cause up to this time the barbanians had retired from 
the sea and winter had already set in, held the Cartha- 
ginians in contempt, feeling assured that they would 
not again have the courage to man their triremes. 
Consequently, since they gave httle concern to the 
convoying of the supphees, Himilear, sailing forth un- 
awares with forty triremes, sank eight of their war- 
ships and pursued the rest to the beach; and by 
capturing all the remaining vessels he effected such 
a reversal in the expectations of both sides that the 
Campanmans who were in the service of the Acragan- 
tini; considering the position of the Greeks to be 
hopeless, were bought off for fifteen talents and went 
over to the Carthaginians 

The Ácragantmni at first, when the Carthaginians 
were farmg badly, had enjoyed their grain and other 
supphes without stint, expecting all the while that the 
siege would be quickly hfted ; but when the hopes of 
the barbanrians began to rise and so many myriads of 





? So Wessehng : spooOokowvreov. 
871 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kai Tocabra, pupidoes eis jiav T0poto0noav sólw, 
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vóÀeuov év GAÀÀAg ovorjcacÜa. TÓT«Q  T)v yàp 
Tpodriv ékAurety. | Oiómep ol , OT pommyoi mpójacw 
évéykayres ds O.eAmAiÜaaw oi raxXÜévres Tfjs o7 pa- 
TQyías xpóvoi, Ts Ovvápets üz7Tyyayov émi TOV 
rropÜuóv perà óé Tv Tora àmaMayryv guv- 
eAÜóvres ot oTpaTwyoi juerà TÓv éd' Tyyeuovias 
rerovyuévoov. Géyvocav. é£eráca,. TÓv. év crfj móÀ« 
o(rov: óÓv «epóvres mavTeÀOs ÓMyov éÜedpovv 
Gvaykatov Omápyew ékAÀwreiv Tv  TÓAw. | e000s 
oov émiywopévms Tís vukrOós vap/?yyeAav àva- 
Cevyview Gmavras. 

89. Toco)vrov 8é mAvnBovs àvÓpówv yvvowóv caít- 
Ocv ékAuróvrcv! TT)» srólw dove) 0A0s$ oikrog kai 
Odkpva karetye Tàs oitas. Ga yàp ó TÓV T'0- 
Aepicv é£érÀnrre dófos, dj. 06 9 Tv amrovàny 
rjva-y kd Lovro. karaAumréy eis Buapraryryv Trois Dap- 
Bápois Tar ed ois éavToUs épiaucápuLov: àdau- 
povjévis. yàp Tíjs TÜXTS TV é ovaiav TÓYV otio 
KaÀGv, d/yamrov ryoSvro TÓ copiarra. yotv a$- 
TÓV ÓLaoó ca. o) uóvov O€ rfjs TouaUT"S TÓAews 
evOouLoviav mapfv óp&v &moAevropévqv, àAAà kai 
OQ cov. vÀfÜos. o6 pev yàp év appeooríaus ÓTO 
TÓV olketcov vepiecopüvro, Tfs kaU" éavróv owrn- 
pias ékáoTov $povribovros, oL LE Ta/s TjÀukéaus TOT 
TROBEPUNU ES j7O Tfs ToU y"pos d&oÜeveias kar- 

! ékAvróvrow MSS., ékAvróvros Vogel. 





1 Presumably of Messina. 
T2 


BOOK XIII 88. 6—89 2 


human beings were gathered into one city, the grain 4065 c 
was exhausted before they were aware of it And the 
story is told that also Dexippus the Lacedaemonian 
was corrupted by a bribe of fifteen talents ; for with- 
out hesitation he replied to a question of the generals 
of the Italian Greeks, ' Yes, it's better if the war 
is settled somewhere else, for our provisions have 
failed." Consequently the generals, offerng as their 
excuse that the time agreed upon for the campaign 
had elapsed, led their troops off to the Strait! After 
the departure of these troops the generals met with 
the commanders and decided to make a survey of the 
supply of grain in the city, and when they discovered 
that it was quite low, they perceived that they were 
compelled to desert the city. At once, then, they 
issued orders that all should leave on the next 
night. 

80. Whth such a throng of men, women, and chil- 
dren desertng the city, at once endless lamentation 
and tears pervaded all homes. For while they were 
panie-stricken from fear of the enemy, at the same 
time they were also under necessity, because of their 
haste, of leaving behind as booty for the barbarians 
the possessions on which they had based their happi- 
ness; for when Fortune was robbimg them of the 
comforts they enjoyed m their homes, they thought 
that they should be content that at least they were 
preserving their hves. And one could see the aban- 
donment not only of the opulence of so wealthy a city 
but also of a multitude of human beings For the sick 
were neglected by their relatives, everyone taking 
thought for his own safety, and those who were 
already far advanced in years were abandoned be- 
cause of the weakness of old age ; and many, reckon- 


373 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eAcírrovTo- TroÀAol 0€ kai Tr]v UÀÀavyT]v 7fjs vravpios 
Üavárov Twucuevou Tàs Xeipas éavrots mpooYvey- 
Kay Ómcs Tais vraTpqaus oiK(oug évazomvebocmow. 
oO whv àÀÀà TÓ uev ék Tfj TrÓÀecs euo mAfj0os 
ot oTpariórau perà Tóv Oma mrapémemov eis 
T)v l'éAav: 5j 8' 0800s kai vávra T& "pos TJ 
l'eÀav arokekAuuéva, TfS xcGpas uépm &yepue 
yuvaukAGv KaL mac àvapi£ vrapBvois, ai T)v 
ovi rpvdv eis OOovropiav oUvrovov kai kako- 
váÜeuav 9 bmepá;youcav peraBaAMóuevat Diekaprépovv 
ToU dófov ràs jvxas €vretvovros. ?*. oOTOL Hv oOv 
dodaAs Oo coUévres eis l'élav c ÜoTepov eis A«ov- 
Tivovs Ko/rákoav, Zwpakoaiv a)rOis Oóvrcv TT7v 
7OÀw raüórQV oi) Tjpuov. 

90. 'O 8 uias dpa TÓ juri Ty OUvayuy 
évrós TÀv reuydv mapewoyoyov ,oxe8óv drravras 
TOUS eykaraAeujÜévras" avetÀev: ÓTe Eu kai TOUS 
éy TOlS vaots ,Karamedevyóras dmoonávres oL Kap- 
xn8óvwo, ávijpovv. Aéyera, 8é vOv TeAMav cóv 
mporreUovro. TÓV vroÀwriv vrÀoUTQ kai kaAokdyaDta 
cvvaTuxfjoc. Tfj rro/rpiót, BovABévro. Karadvyeiy 
cÜV TiGlV érépois eis TO TÍfjs "A8nvás i tepóv, vop.L- 
Lovra Tíjs eis Üeovs rrapavopas óé£coÜa, TOUS 
Kapxyn9ovíovs Üecopoüvra. 0€ QUT OV TV GoéBeuav, 
H i] 
épumpfja. TOv veov kai perà. TÓy év TOUT àva- 
Ünudrcv éavróv ovykarakaDca..  uG yàp mpá£e 
OueApi Bawev ádeAéo0a. Üedv ócépeuw, mroÀepicov 
dprayàs moÀÀQv xpuudrov, uéyiwrov éavroO T?)v 


1 T'eàóav PAFK, D'éAav cet. 
? $o Reiske, Madwg, e ékretvovros Dindorf, éyeípovros sug- 
gested by Vogel: érrénvovros. 
3 dwri Reiske: óófo. 
* r7» added by Dindorf. 
97 i 


BOOK XIII. 89 2—90. 2 


ing even separation from their native city to be the 406 c 
equivalent of death, lad hands upon themselves im 
order that they might breathe their last in the 
dwelhngs of their ancestors. However, the multitude 
which left the city was given armed escort by the 
soldiers to Gela ; and the highway and all parts of the 
countryside which led away toward the terntory of 
the Geloans were crowded with women and children 
intermingled with maidens, who, changing from the 
pampered life to which they had been accustomed to a 
strenuous Journey by foot and extreme hardship, held 
out to the end, since fea1 nerved their souls. Now 
these got safely to Gela! and at a later time made 
their home in Leontint, the Syracusans having given 
them this city for their dwelling-place. 

90. Himilear, leading his army at dawn within the 
walls, put to death practically all who had been left 
behind ; yes, even those who had fled for safety to the 
temples the Carthagumans hauled out and slew. Ánd 
we are told that Tellias, who was the foremost ciüzen 
i wealth and honourable character, shared in the 
misfortune of his country : He had decided to take 
refuge with certain others in the temple of Athena, 
thinkmg that the Carthaginians would refrain from 
acts of lawlessness against the gods, but when he saw 
their impiety, he set fire to the temple and burned 
himself together with the dedications 1n 1t. For by 
one deed, he thought, he would withhold from the 
gods impiety, from the enemy a vast store of plunder, 
and from himself, most important of all, certain 


! A httle over 40 miles fiom Acragas. 


5 éykaraAeudÜévras] éykaraAgd0évras Hertlem, Vogel. 
$ 67 Fichstádt: 8é. 


215 


j 


Ct 


- 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


[4 A 2 / A 
eis TO cua. écopéviy Up. ó 0€ IudAkas TÓ 
iepd. kai Tís otk(as cvÀfjoas Kat duorüuos épev- 
vijcas, roca)Urqv OéAeuv owvijüpowev Sov €iKÓs 
éoTw éoxynkévau | sróluv olkovpéviv DT avopdv 
€LKOOL popiádanv, &mópÜnrov 8é dmó Tís kriaecos 
yeyevuuévi, mÀovouoTÓTQV óé oXeOóv TÓV TÓT€ 
EAAqv(ev mÓÀecv yeyevquévqv, xai abra TÓYV 
ev aor duokaAnoávrov els mravrolcov* kaTa- 
OK€UQG[.d TOV mroÀvTéAeuav KQ.L yàp ypadoi TOi- 
mÀmÜcis mbpéÜnoav eis Okpov ékmemovnuévau kai 
mOYTOLV Gypiávreov" PuAoTéxvas Deb puovpyn- 
pévov Umepáycv &piÜuós. à Lev oov mroAvTeAE- 
craTQ, TÓV épycv méoreiÀev eig Kapxn8óva, év 
ots kai rov QaAápióog cvvépDx) kouuvoÜfvav rabpov, 
Thv 6 ' &AAqv cdóéAeuav éAadwporróMoev. ToÜrov 
Oé rov TaÜpov ó lüuatos év rats ioroptaus. Sua Be- 
Bauoaápievos pa) yeyovévaa TO eUvoAov, jm aorfjs 
Tfjs TÜXnS TÀéyyUn- ZXikuriov yàp. DoTepov TOUT 
Tfs dÀdoecos oxye8ov éfckovra xai Ouakoatow ére- 
cw éxmopÜfcas Kapxnóóva ois 'Áxpoyavrivots 
perà rív dANov TÓV Suapiewdyrav mrapà rois Kap- 
xn9ovtois amokoréornae TÓV rabpov, Ós kai TÓVOe 
TÓV lOTOpiÓV ypadopévav 1j 7v év "Akpáyavrt. 

IIept 8€ TOUTOU $uAoTuiórepov eimety mporiyÜnv, 
Ouór, Tüpuasos. o TÀv Tpó y« aóroÓ ocvyypaóéowv 
mikpórara, karQyopfoas xai cvyyvdyum ovbepay 
rois ioTopioypádows dmoAwrav aros copio keraL 
oxeOudbev, év ois páAwa. éavTOv Gmomébaykev 
akpiBoAoyopuevov. Oct ydp, olpaa, TOUS Cvyypa- 
$eis év uév Tots dyvorjuat TyXávew gvyyvouns, 
cs àv àvÜpdvrovs Ovras kai Tíjs év vois mapovyo- 

! So Dindorf. srovroíav. 


376 


BOOK XIII. 90. 3-7 


physical indigmty. But Himilear, after pillaging and 406 ».. 
industnously ransackmg the temples and dwellings, 
collected as great a store of booty as a city could 
be expected to yield which had been inhabited by 
two hundred thousand people, had gone unravaged 
since the date of 1ts founding, had been well-mgh the 
wealthiest of the Greek cities of that day, and whose 
ciüzens, furthermore, had shown their love of the 
beautiful in expensive collections of works of art of 
every deseriphon. Indeed a multitude of paintings 
executed with the greatest care was found and an 
extraordinary number of sculptures of every descrip- 
ton and. worked with great skill The most valuable 
pieces, accordingly, Himilear sent to Carthage, among 
which, as it turned out, was the bull of Phalaris, and 
the rest of the pillage he sold as booty. As regards 
this bull, although Timaeus m his History has main- 
tamed that 1t never existed at all, he has been refuted 
by Fortune herself; for some two hundred and sixty 
years after the capture of Acragas, when Scipio sacked 
Carthage,? he returned to the Acragantim, together 
with their other possessions still in the hands of the 
Carthaginians, the bull, which was still in Ácragas at 
the time this history was being written. 

I have been led to speak of this matter rather 
copiously because Timaeus, who critioized most bitterly 
the historians before his time and left the writers 
of history bereft of all forgiveness, 1s himself caught 
improviemg in the very province where he most pro- 
claims his own accuracy — For historians should, in 
my opinion, be granted charity in errors that come of 
ignorance, since they are human beings and since the 


1 Cp Book 9 18-19. ? In 146 5.c. 


5 , LÀ / , 3 , — 
? savroiov àvOptávrov] savroíav àvópeiav rív P. 


97 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pevous Xpovous aAmUcias oUo)s Ovceupérov, TOUS 
pévrou. ye karà qmpoaipeguw 2) Twyxávovras o0 
dpuBots mpoovKóvras aT yopLas Tvyxávew, ÓTrav 
KoAaKevovrés mwas T) OU exÜpav mucpórepov T;pooc- 
PáAovres GmooQdAAovra Tíjs &AÀmÜetas. 

91 TuiAkas oe ÓKre ufivas mroAwopkjaas Tv 
vÓÀw kai pukpóv TpO Tíjs xeuwepwijs ,rpoíjs 
KvpieUcas ,aoríjs, OUK eus karéokaiev, ÓTCS OL 
Ovvdpeus €v rois oikiais vrapayewudocooiv. Tfjs 0€ 
mrepi TOV "Axpádyavra cvpdopás OuaryyeABelons TOO- 
oDros TV vfjcov karéaxe QóDos, core TÓv Zuke- 
A«rÓÀv ro)s pév eis 2upakovcas ueÜioraoÜau, rois 
06 eis Tov 'lraA(av rékva kai yvvatkas kai TT7v 
dÀÀmv xríjow dTockevdleoÜo.. oi 86 Olavyóvres 
T')v aiypaÀcyotay ' Axporyavrivo, raparyevnÜévres eis 
AwpakoUcas kaTwQyópovv rÓv oTpaTT»yOv, oóáckov- 
TES Ouid TT)v ékelvcov rpoOoaíay. dmroÀcAévat TT)v 7ra.- 
Tpióa | cvvéfawe 8é kai ómó rÀv àAAcv Xucelwo- 
TÓV émvruujoeos. rvyyávew TOUS Zwpakooíovs, ÓTL 
TOLOUTOUS TpooráTGas aipofvras, Ov oUg ároÀécÜa. 
KwOvvevUeu &ca 2ukeAMa. | o9 wv àÀAà ovvaxOeions 
ékkAnoias év Zipakojoaus, kai ueydAov dópuov 
émikpepapuévov, oUÜeig éróApa srepi ToO moÀépuov 
cuupovAeUew. | &mopovuuévov 06 sávrov sapeADov 
Acvovictos 0 '"Eppokpdrous TÓv gév oTparmwyÓv 
Karmyópnoev cs mpoóuQóvrov Tà Tpáyp|ara Tots 
Kapxn8ovtows, rà 90€ m0 mapoé£vve mpós Tv 
abrÀv TwAcpiay, vapakaÀóv p!) Trepwietvau TOv 
KaTà ToUs vópovs Afjpov, àGÀX ék xewpós? ém- 

! So lthodoman * zapovoíav. 
? A5 pov Post xAfpov. 


3 eUÜécs afte1 xe.ós deleted by Kallenbeig. 
2978 


BOOK XIII. 90 7—91. 3 


truth of ages past 1s hard to discover, but historians 406 s.c 
who dehberately do not give the exact facts should 
properly be open to censure, whenever in flattenng 

one man or another or in attacking others from hatred 

too bitterly, they stray from the truth. 

91. Since Himilcar, after besieging the axty for eight 
months, had taken 1t shortly before the winter sol- 
stice,! he did not destroy 1t at once, in order that his 
forces might winter in the dwellings. But when the 
misfortune that had befallen Acragas was noised 
abroad, such fear took possession of the island that 
of the Sicilian. Greeks some removed to Syracuse 
and others transferred their children and wives and all 
their possessions to Italy. The Acragantim who had 
escaped being taken captive, when they arrived im 
Syracuse, lodged aecusations against their generals, 
asserting that it was due to thex treachery that their 
country had perished — And it so happened that the 
Syracusans also came in for censure by the rest of the 
Sicilian Greeks, because, as they charged, they elected 
the kind of leaders through whose fault the whole of 
Sialy ran the risk of destruction. Nevertheless, even 
though an assembly of the people was held in Syra- 
cuse and great fears hung over them, not a man would 
venture to offer any counsel respectüng the war. 
While everyone was at a loss what to do, Dionysius, 
the son of Hermocrates, talang the floor, accused the 
generals of betraying their cause to the Carthaginians 
and stirred up the assemblage to exact punishment of 
them, urging them not to await the futile procedure 
prescribed by the laws but to pass judgement upon 


1 December 92. 


379 


4 


c 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Üctvau Tfjv Oükqv. vÀv 9' àpyóvrov Ünpobvrov 
TOv Auwoviciov xarà To)s vópovs cs ÜopvDobvra, 
QoTos 0 Tràs toTopias vorepov ovyypddas, oU- 
ciav éycv pueyáAqv, é£érwe Trà mpóoruua kai TQ 
Avovvat rrapekeAevero Aéyew oa "potjprjro. KaL 
mpocemevmóvros Ori a0 oq TV Tj épov dy 
bnpaoSv 0éAow, ékricec Tüpypuov Dép asro0, 
TÓ Aowróv Üapp5jcas àvécew cà mÀvÜs, kai Tv 
ékkAmatav cvvrapárrov OvéDBaAAe To)s orparmyoys, 
órv xprja.ou mrevoÜvres éykovréMrov 17)v 7v ' Áxpa- 
yavrivov oc«oTT)ptav. Gcvykaryyópqoe 0é kai rv 
&ÀÀcv TOv émionorárcow soÀvràv, ovviovüs aDToUs 
oiketovs Ovras OÀvyapxias — Owómep  cvveBovAevev 
aipetoÜa, orpomwyoüs uw!) ro9s Ovvorerárovs, àÀÀA 
To)s eÜüvovoTdrovs kai Omuoruko)s uGAÀAov  éxei- 
vovs pev yàp OeororuKÓOs dpyovras TrÓÀV ToÀvTÓV 
karadpovetv rÀv ToÀÀQv, kai Tás TÍj vaTrpiOos 
ovjopás iG(as v)yetoÜau. mpocóGovs, ro)s O6 Ta- 
TeiwvoTrépous oU0€v mpd£ew Tv TowoUTOv, ÓcOLÓTas 
vTv cepi aDroUs doÜÉveuay. 

92 Ilávra 9é wpós T) TrÀv dkovóvrov mpoaí- 
peow kai T?v ióiav émuBoA?v Onunyopíjcas o) pe- 
rpü&os é£fjpe rÓv rÀv ékkAgowalóvrow Üvuóv- ó yàp 
Ofinos kai máÀa. pugÓv TOUS oTpaTwWyo)s Oi TÓ 
Ookety kakó&s? vpotiorao0au. ToU sroAéuov, róre Ou 
TrÓÀv Àóycv sapo£vvÜets vapavrüca ro)s uév &Avoe 
Tfs Gpyfjs, érépovs 0. etÀaro oTpormyojs, év ois 
«ai TOv Auovüctov, ós év rais mpós Kapymn9Ooviovs 


* So Dindorf: cpogpeiro. kai mpooért eimóvros. 
* kak«ós added by Rhodoman. 


380 


BOOK XIII 91. 4—92 1 


them at once. And when the archons, 1n accordance 406 s.c. 
with the laws, laid a fine upon Dionysius on the 
charge of raising an uproar, Phihstus, who later com- 
posed his History, à man of great wealth, paid the 
fine and urged Dionysius to speak out whatever 
he had had in his mind to say. And when Phihstus 
went on to say that if they wanted to fine Dionysius 
throughout the whole day he would provide the 
money for him, from then on Dionysius, full of con- 
fidence, kept stirring up the multitude, and throwing 
the assembly into confusion he accused the generals 
of talking bribes to put the security of the Acra- 
gantini in jeopardy. And he also denounced the 
rest of the most renowned citizens, presenting them 
as friends of ohgarchy | Consequently he advised 
them to choose as generals not the most influential 
citizens, but rather those who were the best disposed 
and most favourable to the people; forthe former, he 
maintained, ruling the citizens as they do 1m a despotic 
manner, hold the many in contempt and consider the 
musfortunes of their country their own source of im- 
come, whereas the more humble will do none of such 
things, since they fear their own weakness. 

92. Dionysius, by suting every word of his har- 
angue to the people to the predilection of his hearers 
and his own personal design, stirred the anger of the 
assembly to no small degree ; for the people, which 
for some time past had hated the generals for what 
they considered to be their bad conduct of the war 
and at the moment were spurred on by what was being 
said to them, 1mmediately dismissed some of them 
from office and chose other generals, among whom 
was also Dionysius, who enjoyed the reputation of 


1 Of Sicily, 1n thirteen. Books (cp. ?n/fra. chap. 103. 3). 
381 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


uáxous dvàpe(g. oó£as BLevqvoxévaa mepiBAesrros 5, jv 

2 vrapd, Tots Zwpakoatots . LO kai pereapuatieis TOS 
eAmici rv épxavijcaro mpós TÓ yevéaÜOa« Tfjs 
mrompiaos. TÜpavvos. pera, yàp TV rrapáAmu Tfs 
üpxfis oUTe evvjópevoev quo TOig OTpaTwyois oU" 
ÓÀcs cvví$v: rara O6 mpárTeov OLeOCOov Aóyov. (os 
Bomrepuropévaoy Q.UTOV mpós TOUS moAepíovs. oUTCO 
yàp pd. qAmuGev eketycov pev mepuauprjaea0o 
TTV c&ovatav, éavrQ Oé nóv«o sepioroew Tv 
oTpoTmytav. 

3  Taóra 9' a)roU mpárrovros ot uév xyapiéoraTot 
rÓv vroÀwrÓüv ÜmamTevov TÓ ywópevov, kai karà 
mácas TÓS avvooovs eBAaodniuovv a)TrÓv, Ó Oé 
Ónporwkós óxAos, dyvodv TTV emfovAt, emijvei 
KQi póyus? &aoke TTV TÓÀw TpooTdTQv e)pnkéva, 

4 BéBauov. o) p aAA noA áxis ékkÀnoias cvv- 
vyopévns sepi Tfs eis TOv mrÓAenov mapaokevís, 
ecoprjaas ToUs 2Zivpakooíovs KaramemAmypévovs 
TOV dTÓ TÓV troAequicov qópov, cwveBoUAeve Kar- 

5 dew TOUS $uyd8as- droTOv yàp ümdpyew ék pev 
'"IraAas kai ILeAomovvijcov peramréumeotas Borj- 
Üewav mapà TÓV GAorpicov, ToUs O6é voÀiras gu 
BovAcoQa. Tpós ToUs iOlovs kivOUvovs cujmapa- 
Aa Bávew, obs—róv ToÀeuicv  peyáÀas Ocpeàs 
ÜmiaXvovjévav, v cugTpareócow—TpodtpetaQa 
pGAXov € éni £évns GAcopiévovs àToÜavetv Tyrep GAAó- 

6 Tpuóv TL koró. TÍjs moTpibos. BovAesoaaQa.. KaL 
yàp! Già màs yeyevnp.évas év Trà TÓÀ« orácews 
$vyóvras, vüv ye rvxyóvras Tarn TÍS cüepyeaías 
vpoÜóucs aywvwetoÜat, Trois eb mowjcacw  drmo- 


! So Reiske: mepiaupeD'jaeaD a. ? uóyis Dindorf: uóAs. 
$ eL after yàp deleted by Reiske. 
382 


BOOK XIII. 92. 1-6 


having shown unusual bravery in the battles against 406 5.c. 
the Carthaginians and was admired of all the Syra- 
cusans. Hawimg become elated, therefoie, imn his 
hopes, he trued every device to become tyrant of 
his country. For example, after assuming office he 
neither participated 1n the meetings of the gene1als 
nor associated with them in any way; and whie 
acting m this manner he spread the report that they 
were carrying on negotiabons with the enemy. For 
in this way he boped that he could most effectvely 
strip them of their power and clothe himself alone 
with the office of general. 

While Dionysius was acting in this fashion, the most 
respectable citizens suspected what was talking place 
and in every gathering spoke disparagingly of him, 
but the common crowd, being ignorant of his scheme, 
gave him their approbation and declared that at long 
last the city had found a steadfast leader. However, 
when the assembly convened time and again to con- 
sider preparations for the war, Dionysius, observing 
that fear of the enemy had struck the Syracusans with 
terror, advised them to recall the exiles; for it was 
absurd, he said, to seek aid from peoples of other 
states 1n Italy and the Peloponnesus and to be un- 
wilhng to enlist the assistance of their fellow citizens 
in facing their own dangers, citizens who, although 
the enemy kept promisng them great rewards for 
their mihtary co-operation, chose rather to die as 
wandereis on foreign soil than plan some hostile act 
against their native land. And in fact, he declared, 
men who were now in exile because of past civil strife 
in the city, if at this time they were the recipients of 
this benefaction, would fight with eagerness, showing 
in this way their appreciation to their benefactors. 


888 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Oi0óvras xápwras. Trpos 8€ Tiv omÓ0cow TaUTYv 
TT'OÀAA Ba AexÜeis oiketa, TOUS mrpáypia ot cvualnipous 
éAaDe ToUs Pwpaucootovs oX0e yàp TÓV gvvapxyóv- 
TOV oUOeis eróApa mepi TOUTQV &vrevretv oid T€ 
T2v roD mA5Üovs Ópj)v kat Oi& TO Üecpetv éavrdQ 
pev aTepiegopLévi]y TT dméxÜeuav, ékeiyo O6 mv 
mrapà, TÓy e)epyermÜévrow xápw.  ToÜUro 5 empa- 
fev ó Auoviowos éXmilowv iOiovs é£ew Tovg dvyá- 
oos, dvÜpdmovs perapoAfs émiÜuuoOvras kai mpós 
TTV émiBeay Tfs Trupavvióos eUÜérws Otaewuévovs: 
TjjueAA ov yàp jocos OieoDau TÓv €éxÜpiv $óvovs, 
queboeus TÓV oUDGtÓv, éavTo(s drokaÜearaquéva TÓ 
xpjpara. kai TéAos kupcoÜeio]s Tfs epi TÀv 
$uydOcv yvopns, oórou pv eUÜUs eis r)jv marpióa 
korfjABov. 

93. 'E« óé ríe l'éAas évexOÜévrowv vypaupudrcov, 
ÓTc)$ üTooTGÀÓOL. GcrpaTuOTOL TÀelovs, éAaev ó 
Awovicios oikeiav édo8ov Tíjs iO(as Tpooupécecs. 
GmooraAeis yàp perà orparuorOv qeLÀv uev Qw- 
xiMev, Wmrmécv àé rérpaKoatav, , 18e GvVTÓILOS 
eis T^v móAw rÀv leÀQov, T cvóÓTe mrapediAoTre 
Aé£ummos ó ó AakeBoupóvios, HRoCUrODeS ded 2Zivpa- 
KocíQv. O0 O ov Atovicios karaAafBov TOUS cÜ- 
moparárovs oracVálovras «pos TÓv Ofjuov, kai 
kammyopnoas. abrüv év éicxoío, kai karakptvas 
GUTOUS uev ümékTetve, TíS ó. oXoías adrÓv éój- 
|evoev, eK 0€ TÓvV xpnprev ToUr«v TOls ev ópov- 
poGat T)v TÓÀw, Ov "yero Aé£vmrmos, Gmébcke 
TOUS ddeshopévovs puoÜo)s- Tots O6 per  abro0 
Tra payeyovóaw ek ZivpakovaOy émyyeiAaro OurAobs 
Towvjcew ToUs puoÜoUs dv 7) mrOAws érafe. Ou 86 


284 


BOOK XIII. 92. 6—93 3 


After reciting many arguments for this proposal that 406 s.c, 
bore on the situation, he won ihe votes of the 
Syracusans to his view ; for no one of hus colleagues 
1n office dared oppose him in the matter both because 
of the eagerness shown by the multitude and because 
each observed that he himself would gain only enmity, 
while Dionysius would reap a reward of gratitude 
from those who had recewved kindness from him. 
Dionysius took this course 1n the hope that he would 
win the exiles for himself, men who wished a change 
and would be favourably disposed toward the estab- 
lishment of a tyranny; for they would be happy to 
witness the murder of their enemies, the confiscation 
of their property, and the restoration to themselves of 
their possess3ons. And when finally the resolution re- 
garding the exiles was passed, these returned at once 
to their native land. 

93 When messages were brought from Gela re- 
questing the dispatch of additional troops, Dionysius 
got a favourable means of accomphshing his own 
purpose. Having been dispatched with two thousand 
infantry and four hundred cavalry, he arrived speedily 
at the city of the Geloans, which at that time was 
under the eye of Dexippus, the Lacedaemonian, who 
had been putin charge by the Syracusans. And when 
Dionysius on arrival found the wealthiest citizens 
engaged m strfe with the people, he accused them 
in an assembly and secured the condemnation, 
whereupon he put them to death and confiscated their 
possessions. With the money thus gained he paid the 
guards of the city under the command of Dexippus the 
wages which were owing them, while to his own troops 
who had come with him from Syracuse he promised he 
would pay double the wages which the city had deter- 


VOL. V o 385 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ToUTOU ToO vpómov TOUS ul év D'éAq orporuáras Kai 
TOUS per o. OroO ads e)voíatg iSlovs KüreokeUaoev. 
empvetro 0€ kat oTO ToO órjpov TOV leÀowov os ai- 
TLOS QÜTOlS yeyevnpévos Tfjs. PAevÜepias TOlS yàp 
OvvaTOTÓTOLS $Üovobvres Tiv ékeivov Umepoymv 
Ocomoreiav ary dzrekdAovv.  Oióep e&émepulav 
mpéopeis TOUS émawovras ev 2ovpaxosaous «ai 
TG Uoéicnara $épovras, év ots. aUDTOv p.eyóAaus 
Dcpeoís ériumcav. O 9€ Awvvotos ereBáAero pev 
TÓv AéÉwrmov sre(Üew kowcovijoa. Tífs émwoAfs- 
émei O0 o) ovykareriÜero, uerà mrÀv iOicv orpa- 
TuoTÓ érouuos Tv dyokápuarrew eis. 2vpakovoas. 
oL óé l'eÀQo: muvÜayóp.evo TOUS Kapxn8ovtovs péÀ- 
Aew perá váons Tíjs Ovváuecs émi mpoTyv orpa- 
TeUe.v Tv l'éAav, éOéovro vo0 XAuovvotov peivat 
Kai iW) TepuOetv a)ro)s Trà a)DTO Tolg '"Akpayav- 
Tivows TraÜóvras. ois émoyyeiAdpevos ó Awovicvos 
cwvrÓpuos T|few perà mÀelovos Ovvápecs, éfópun- 
ccv éx Tíjs léAas uerà vcóv (iOímv oTpaTwoTÓv 
94. (Jéus 9' ovens év raís , Zupakotcaus, ico ra? 
TV dpav Tíjs &mraAÀoyfjs TÓv ék ToU Üedrpov mrapfjv 
eis Tv mów. cvvüpapóvrov 06 rÓv ÓyAov ém 
adróv kai mruvÜavop.évov vrepi, TOv Kapynóovicv, 
d»yvoety. ,arovs, ér, OuÓT, TOV ce coev TroAepuco- 
Tépovs EXovoL TOUS €vOOV ;TÀV kowóv mpoeoróyras, 
ois oi ev mro Niro TOTEÜDOVTES copráLovow, ajroi 
or Dado pobvres TÓ ónpóoto. TOUS OTpaTUOTAOS dui- 
oÜ8ovs memovikagt, KaL TÓy rroÀeuov avvrepBAsj- 
TOUS TrOLOUJLÉVG)V Tós eig TÓV "róAeuuov mapagkevas 
kai ueAÀóvrov éri Zwpakoícas cv Óvvapw. dyew, 


3 ols E1chstadt: ais. 
? karà added by Rhodoman. 


886 


BOOK XIII. 93. 3—94. 1 


mined. In this manner he won over to himself the 406 s.c. 
loyalty not only of the soldiers in Gela but also of those 
whom he had brought with him. He also gained the 
approval of the populace of the Geloans, who believed 
him to be responsible for their liberation ; for in their 
envy of the most influential ertzens they stigmatized 
the superiority these men possessed as a despotism 
over themselves. Consequently they dispatched am- 
bassadors whosang his praises in Syracuse and reported 
decrees in which they honoured him with rich gifts. 
Dionysius also undertook to persuade Dexippus to 
associate himself with his design, and when Dexippus 
would not jom with him, he was on the pomt of re- 
turning with his own troops to Syracuse. But the 
Geloans, on learning that the Carthaginians with their 
entire host were going to make Gela the first object 
of attack, besought Dionysius to remain and not to 
stand 1dly by while they suffered the same fate as the 
Acragantini. Dionysius rephed to them that he would 
return speedily with a larger force and set forth from 
Gela with his own soldiers. 

O4. À play was being presented in Syracuse and 
Dionysius arrived in the city at the time when the 
people were leaving the theatre. When the populace 
rushed in throngs to him and were questioning him 
about the Carthaginians, they were unaware, he said, 
that they had more dangerous enemies than their 
foreign foes—the men within the city in charge of the 
publie interests ; these men the citizens trusted while 
they held pubhe festivals, but these very men, while 
plundering the publie funds, had let the soldiers go 
unpaid, and although the enemy was making their pre- 
parations for the war on a scale which could not be 
surpassed and were about to lead their forces upon 


387 


L5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ToUTQV oj0. fjvrwoüv vowo0vraw dpovrióa. OV 4 

9. airiav ra0ra. mpórTovaw, etoévat Hv KaL Kd 
repov, vüv 0€ cadéorepov aveyvcévau"- "InéAkeova 
yàp mpos a)rÓv dmeoraÀkéva,. k"jpvka, mpódQaoiv 
pev Ómep TÓV alypodrro»v, mapakaAei 9é—nÀi- 
Üos rÀv gwvapxóvra mepvrowjodpevov uyóév TÓV 
mpoTrouévov ToÀonpayuovetv—pY) y àvrwmpár- 
Te., émeiÓT) ovvepyeiv o) Tpoaipetra.. pnkér o0v 
BosAecÜa. oTparwyctv, àÀÀA& mapeiva. T']v àpymv 
dToÜwoópevos: o9 yàp àvekróv eivai, rÓv  &AÀAcv 
TOÀoUvrov Tv marpióa, uóvov' kwOvvedew perá 
TÓv moÀvrÓv Gjua* kai Oófew qereox"kéva, Tíjs 
TrpoOoactas. 

IIapo£vvüévrcewv 96 émi vois puÜüetou xai roO. Aó- 
yov 81 "áems Tfjs Dvvápiecos pvévros, TÓT€ uev 
eis fkaoros dycov.Ov «eig oikov excpía07 Tfj 9 
jorepaíq. avvaxÜeians ékkAnaias év )' rÀv dpxóv- 
TOV To0ÀÀd. karnyoptjoas o) nevpios evOokiumoe, 
Tóv O8 S íjuov kar TÓv oTporTyyÓv rrapoevve, 
TéAos" TÓÀv kaÜnuévov Twés aveBónaay oTpommyóv 
ajróv abrokp&ropa. kaBvorávau kai pü vepuuévetw 
&ypuis àv oi moÀépioL. TOls Te(yeoiv émevoioot 
xpeiav yàp €yew TÓ uéyeÜos ToO mvoAéuov TowioU- 
rov oTpoTQyoU, 9v oO OuvarOv eivat eUmopetv TOlS 
mpáypaciv* rà, Oé mepi rÀv poOorÓv év éxkAnaíq 


rovrov Reiske: rojrov 9. 
So Dindorf - «oi dpevoi. 
áveyvakévas] éyveicévo, Dindorf. 


€ 5 C5 t2 RA 


uj y Vogel: uwjó. 
pi added by Bachstadt, o2 by Reiske before uóvov with 
aAA. for apa. $ áua Vogel: àAAG. 


y 7j deleted by Reiske. : » Oed by Fichstadt. 
? 8&6 after réAos deleted by Bekker. 


988 


BOOK XIII 94 2-5 


Syracuse, the generals were giving these immatteis no 406 5c 
concern whatsoever. The reason for such conduct, he 
continued, he had been aware of before, but now he 
bad got fuller information. lor Himileon had sent a 
herald to him, ostensibly to treat about the captives, 
but in fact to urge him, now that Himileon had in- 
duced a large number of Dionysius' colleagues not to 
bother themselves with what was taking place, at least 
to offer no opposition, since he, Dionysius, did not 
choose to co-operate with him. Consequently, Diony- 
sius continued, he did not wish to serve longer as 
general, but was present in Syracuse to lay down his 
office ; for 1t was intoleiable for him, while the other 
generals were selling out their country, to be the only 
one to fight together with the citizens and yet be at 
the same time destined to be thought 1n after years 
to have shared 1n their betrayal ! 

Although the populace had been stirred by what 
Dionysius had said and his words spread through the 
whole army, at the time every man departed to his 
home fullof anxiety. Buton the following day, when 
an assembly had been convened in which Dionysuus 
won no small approval when he lodged many accusa- 
tons agamst the magistrates and strred up the 
populace against the generals, finally some of the 
members cried out to appoint him general with 
supreme power and not to wait until the enemy were 
storming ther walls ; for the magnitude of the war, 
they urged, made necessary such a general, through 
whose leadership their cause could prosper; as for 
the traitors, theif case would be debated 1n another 

* Or,following Fachstadt and Reiske, '! for itwas intolerable 
for hum, while the rest of the generals were selling out the state, 


not only to fight together with the citizens but also to be 
thought in after years to have shared 1n the betrayal."' 


389 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


érépa. BovAeveaÜau TÀv yàp éveoroTov Kaupóyv 
GAAórpuov elvau* kai mpórepov 0€ KapynSovicv ràs 
TpidkovrO, Lopidóas Trepi Tv Inépav vevucfjoDau 
orporyotvros D cAcovos a)ToKpáropos. 95. TOXÜ 
L TÓY moÀA, coTep euoÜaociw, érmi TÓ Xeipov 
perróvrov, ó Awov?otos ameOcix0r) ovparqyós a)ro- 
Kpárap. émeL 0. otv abrÀ T4À mrpáyp.ara. Korà 
voOv 7koAoste, Vidua. 5ypajje TOUS puoÜobs OL- 
mrÀa.atovs etva, Távras yàp édmoe ToUTOU yevo- 
pévov spoÜvporépovs é&£coecÜa. pós TÓv dyÓva, 
kai mepi TÓv xypnuárcov mapekdAeu urÜév arycwáv: 
&aeoÜa, yàp a)rÓv TÓv mópov pdOvov. 

AwaÀvÜctons 8é Tíjs éicAatas OUK oA y oL TÓV 
2Zwpakoaioy Koryyópovy TÓV mpaxÜévrov, cOTep 
OK aioroi rabra kekvpokóres"" Tois yap Aoywop.ots 
eis éavroUs epxóp.evot T)v écouévqv ÓvvaoTe(íav àv- 
eÜecipow. obTou Lev oy eBaudooa BovAópevo: 
Tv éAevOepíav &AaÜov éavrovs Ocomórsv Tfj ma- 
rpiOos kaÜearakóres: 0 6& Atoviotos TT)v uerávotav 
TÓÀv OxÀov dOdáca. BovAónevos, émelbXmew OU o0 
Tpómou Ssvavro dvAakas airijocac0a. ToO od puaros 
TOÜUTOU yàp cvyxcpnÜévros pates ?neAe Kkupued- 
cew Tfjs rupavvidos. cüÜos o0v mra pipyyeue TOUS 
év TÀukiq vávras écg éràv reocapákovra Aafóv- 
ras émiovriopov TuepOv Tpuükovra karavrüv perà 
Tüv ÓTAÀcwv eis UE avro O J móus TÓTE 
$pojptov 7) v rv 2wpakoociov, mAfjpes Ümápxov $u- 
yáocv kai &évo»y &vÜpc mov.  YÀme yàp To- 
TOUS OUVO/yOVLOTYS eGew, émivuo)vras ueraBoMjs, 
Tüvy 0é Lwpakociov ro)s vAe(oTrovs o0. TÉew eis 

1 


Tajra xekvpoxóres] Vogel suggests rà kexvpopéva merrovg- 
Kóres rabra. 


390 


BOOK XIII. 94. 5—95 3 


assembly, since it was foreign to the present situa- 406 s.c. 
tion ; 1ndeed at a former time three hundred thousand 
Carthaginians had been conquered at Himera when 
Gelon was general with supreme power. 95. And 
soon the multitude, as 1s their wont, swung to the 
worse decision and Dionysius was appointed general 
with supreme power. And now, since the situation 
corresponded to his desires, he proposed a decree that 
the pay of the mercenaries be doubled; for they 
would all, he said, 1f this were done, be more eager 
for the coming contest, and he urged them not to 
worry at all about the funds, since 1t would be an easy 
task to raise them. 

After the assembly was adjourned no small number 
of the Syracusans condemned what had been done, 
as if they themselves had not had their way in the 
matter; forastheir thoughts turned to their own state 
they could imagine the tyrannical power which was to 
follow. Now these men, in their desire to insure their 
freedom, had unwittingly estabhshed a despot over 
ther country ; Dionysius, on the other hand, wishing 
to forestall the change of mind on the part of the 
populace, kept seelang a means whereby he could ask 
for a guard for his person, for if thus were granted him 
he would easily estabhsh himself in the tyranny. At 
once, then, he issued orders that all men of mihtary 
age up to forty years should provide themselves with 
rations for thirty days and report to him under arms 
at Leontmi This city was at that time an outpost of 
the Syracusans, being full of exiles and foreigners.? 
For Dionysius hoped that he would have these men 
on his side, desiring as they did a change of govern- 
ment, and that the majority of the Syracusans would 


! Cp. Book 11. 22. ? 4.6. non-Syracusans. 
301 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


L Eb ^ ? N A 9. V ^ / 

4 Aeovrivovus. o) rv àÀÀa vukrós émi Tfjs xopas 
oTparome8eUcv, kai mpoorowÜeis ériBovAeveoÜa., 
kpavyTv émoígoe kai ÜópuBov Ou vrdÀv (Ov oike- 
TÓVv' roÜro 66 mpá£as ovvédwyev eis T]jv ükpómoAÀw, 
Kai OwevukTépevoe srupà kaiov kai TOUS 'yvcopuc - 

5 rárovs TÓv oTpQaTiTÓV peromeumoópnevos apa 8 
").épa ToU mÀÜovs àÜpowsÜévros eis Meovrivovs, 

A M M ^ » ^ e / 
ToÀÀà pos T^v Tfj émwpoAfjs vróÜeow miÜavoÀo- 
y5sas émewe ToU0s OxÀovs 8otvau jiAakas aDTÓ 
TÓv OTparuoTÓv éfakociovs, oUs àv mpooupfira. 
Aéyerau. 8é roUro mpü£au rÓv Avovóciov àvopupuos- 
1 ; $5 ^ n i $^ 

6 pevov! IHIewotorparov róv 'AÜnvatov kai yàp éket- 

vóv daow éavróv kararpovuaricavra mpocÀÜetv 
* N $ / € ki /, M A 

eis c?v ékkÀmoiav os émipeBovAevpévov, kai Ou 

Tobro jvAakTv Aafetv mapà TrÀv voAwóv, 9 ypn- 

cápevov v ?]v rvpavvióa mepvuremowvfjoDat. kai TÓT€ 

Auovócios Tj TapamÀnoie wnxyavá TO mwAífÜos é£- 

amar/cas év/pyeu rà Tfs rvpavvioos. 

96 E000 yàp cos xpuuárov puév évóeets, Tf 
N ^ ^ * / € M M / 

9é Vy ÜOpacets émuüMas, Ómép -vo)s xiMovus, 

OrÀows re moÀvreÀéc. kaÜdWAwe kai rots pueyt- 

oTO4g érayyeAtaus éperecpie, rovs 6€ uuo0odópovs 

avakaAoUpevos kai duAavÜpayrous Àóyots ypopevos 

(Otovs kareakevaLev — perertÜe. 80€ kai ràs rdéeuw, 

TOÍS TOTOTÜTOLS Tüs Tysjiovias TrüpaOuQoUs, kal 

Aé£vurmrov Tóv Aakeóawuóvov áméAvoev eis rv 'EA- 

Aá8a: Djecpüro yàp rÓv dvüpa ToÜrov, u7) kawpot 

AauBavópnevos | àvakrjonra. — Tots — Xvpakootois 
^ 2A / / N M M El 

T?v éAevÜeptav. — pereméparo Oé kai mo)s év 


302 


b 


BOOK XIII. 95. 4—96. 2 


not even come to Leontim. However, while he was 406 s.c. 
encamped. at nght m the countryside, he pretended 
that he was the object of a plot and had his per- 
sonal servants raise a tumult and uproar; and after 
doing this he took refuge on the acropolis, where he 
passed the night, keeping fires burning and summon- 
ing to him his most trustworthy soldiers. And at day- 
break, when the common people were gathered into 
Leontini, he delivered a long plausible speech to 
further his design and persuaded the populace to give 
him a guard of six hundred soldiers whomsoever he 
should select. It is said that Dionyswus did this in 
imitation of Peisistratus the Athenian ; for he, we are 
told, after wounding himself, appeared before the 
assembly alleging that he had been the victim of a 
plot, and because of this he received a guard at the 
hands of the citizens, by means of which he estabhshed 
the tyranny.' And at this time Dionysius, having 
deceived the multitude by a similar device, put into 
effect the structure of his tyranny. 

96. For instance Dionysius at once selected such 
citizens as were without property but bold i spint, 
more than a thousand in number, provided them with 
costly arms, and buoyed them up with extravagant 
promises; the mercenaries also he won to himself 
by calhng them to him and conversng with them in 
fuendly fashion He made changes also in the mili- 
tary posts, confernng their commands upon his most 
faithful followers ; and Dexippus the Lacedaemonian 
he dismissed to Greece, for he was suspicious of tlus 
man lest he should seize a favourable opportunity and 
restore to the Syracusans their hberty. He also called 


1 Cp. Herodotus, 1. 59 ; Plutarch, Solon, 30 


1 So Reiske: )mojuuovpevov. 
VOL. V o2 303 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


DéAa puoÜoQópous, kai savrayóÜev ovvíjye To)s 
$vyd8as kai &oeBeis, éXriGov 0i rovrov BeBoaó- 
rara T2puÜvoccÜa. Tov Trvpavvióa. o) urv aAA 
TQpayevó|evos eig 2ipako)Ucas kareok")wwooev év 
TQ vavaráÜu«o, davepós abróv üvaOc(£as rópavvov. 
oí 06 Zuvpakóotow Dapéws d$épovres vjvoykdáLovro 
TV fjovxiav £xeur oD0€v yàp. éTi mepatvety 7j95- 
vayro: 7j re yàp aA éyejev OrÀcv £evuciv, ros 
Te Kapynóoviovs é0e0oíkewav rrAkasras éyovras 
Ovvdjuew. | 0 0^ ov Awov?otwos eU0écs éyque Tov 
"Eppokpdrovs Üvyarépa o0 karoamoAeufcavros 

Ünvaiovus, kai Tv dOeÀQmv &Owke IloAvéévo 
Tfs 'Eppuokpárovs yvvawós dàOcÀQQ: Tobro 9 
énpa£e DovAóuevos oücíav émiovuov eis oikeióTT)Ta. 
mpocAaBécÜa, mpós vÓ TT) rvpavviOa movfoau e- 
Baóav. gera 96 rabra ovvayayow ékkAqotav rv 
&vrumpafdvrov avr ToUs OvvaToTárovs! Óvras, 
Aadóvatov kai Acuapyov, aveiAev. 

Atovócios pév o)v ék vypauparécos kai To0 
TvxÓvros iOvTov Tfj peyiorgs vóAecs rÀv 'EA- 
Aqviómv  éyevi0n Tópavvos: Owemrópgoe G8é 0v 
Ovvaore(av üypu Tfjs reAevrf;s, rvpavvijcas éry 0vo 
Aeimovra rÀv Teocapákovra. às 06 karà uépos 
a)roU vpdfew kai vv aD£now Tís àpyfs év cols 
oiKetots xpóvows Oté£uuev: Ooket yàp oóros ueyl- 
cTcY TÀV LoTopoupévov rvpavvioa, mrepuremrovíjo0au 
Ov éavroU kai voAvypovworárqv. 

Ot 8€ Kapynóówwo uerà. 72v. dÀAwotw cíjs vróAeos 
TO u€v QvaO5uara kai roUs &vOpiávras kai rüÀAa 
Tà ToÀvreAécTraTa, perjveykav eis Kapynóóva, 7à 
9' iepà. karakajcavres kai T)v qróAw Ouaprrácavreg 


1 So Reiske: cojs ávrurpá£avras ard) vÀv 8vvarerrárov 


304 


BOOK XIII. 96. 2-5 


to himself the mercenaries in Gela and gathered from «406 s.c. 
all quarters the exiles and impious, hoping that in 
these men the tyranny would fmd its strongest sup- 
port. While im Syracuse, however, he took up his 
quarters in the naval station, havmg openly pro- 
clammed himself tyrant. Although the Syracusans 
were offended, they were compelled to keep quiet; for 
they were unable to effect anything now, since not only 
was the city thronged with mercenary soldiers but the 
people were filled with fear of the Carthaginians who 
possessed such powerful armaments. Now Dionysius 
straightway married the daughter of Hermocrates, 
the conqueror of the Athenians,' and gave his sister 
in marriage to Polyxenus, the brother of Hermocrates' 
wife. 'This he did out of a desire to draw a distin- 
guished house into relationship with him in order 
to make firm the tyranny. After this he summoned 
an assembly and had his most 1nfluential opponents, 
Daphnaeus and Demarchus, put to death. 

Now D:onysius, from a scribe and ordinary private 
citizen, had become tyrant of the largest city of the 
Greek world?; and he maintained his domunance 
until his death, having ruled as tyrant for thirty-eight 
years. But we shall give a detailed account of his 
deeds and of the expansion of his rule in connection 
with the appropriate periods of time ; for it seems 
that this man, single-handed, established the strongest 
and longest tyranny of any recorded by history. 

The Carthagmuians, after their capture of the city; 
transferred to Carthage both the votive offerings and 
statues and every other object of greatest value, and 
when they had burned down the temples and plun- 

! Cp. chaps. 18. 3 ; 34. 4. 


* Probably Syracuse grew to be such before the death of 
Dionysius. $ 405—367 5.c. * AÁcragas. 


805 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


a)ToU zapeye(uaoav.  émi O€ Tv éapuvTv «pav 
rrapeakeváLovro pojxoviipiara Ka BéAn mavroOazd, 
8La.vooUp.evot mporrv sroAopktjoat TT)v TOv Ed 
ruv. 

97 Tosrav O6 mporropévov -A8nvato uev 
kQürd TÓ ovvexés éAorrréóiaot mepwrirrrovres, émrouj- 
cavyro soAÀcras TOUS peroíkovus kai TOV QGÀÀov 
£évov To)s ovÀouévovs ovvoyovicaoÜav /— Tax) 
66 voAAo0 mrÀiQovs moMroypadmÜévros, ot orporn- 
yot karéypadov TOUS €UÜÉrovs eis TV orpareiay : 
TTG: €O Kevácavro 8e vaüg é£"'kovra, kai TO.UTOS Tro- 
AvreÀÓs karapricavres c&évAevoav eis Yápov, év 
7 karéAofov TOUS dAÀÀous oTpaTTyyoUs GO rÓv GÀ- 
Àcv vracv obo kovro. rpujpew TÜpowóras. Oem- 
Bévres 06 xai rv 2auov mpoomÀnpóca Oo. 
Tpuipets, dwix8neav dmáaous TOÁS vavaiy oUvcdus 
ékaróv mevrijKovra Kai karémAevaav eis Tüs Ápyi- 
vovcas vioovs, o7e/U00vres Àüca. Tv MurvAávns 
moÀLopk(av.  ó 0€ rÀv AakeOowuovieov vaUapyos 
KaAAparíóas vÜónevos TÓv karámÀovv  TÓV 
veQv, ézi uév Trfjs moAMopkí(as karéAwrev ' Ereóvucov 
peràü Tüs ebíüs Ovváueos, ajrós 86 mÀnpoocas 
vaüs ékarOv reocapákovra kaorà omovOnv àvcxyOüw 
TV "ApywovaQv mel Ódrepa uépm: ai vfjco TÓT. 
jioav oikoUp.evat Kai moAwqrwoy AioAukóy € exovoat, 
kelpuevaa nera£ó MervAjvgs. kat Kéóuns, dméxovaa. 
Tijs "Jretpov Bpaxv mavreÀOs kai rífs ükpas Tíjs 
Kavios. 

Ocó A6nvato, TÓV L.éV karámAovv TÓYV mroAepiaov 
eUÜécs éyvccav, o) puakpàv opuotvres, 0v. O6 vO 

i grpareíav] grpartày Vogel. 


«ai (xarà P) after àvijy9u deleted by Wesselin 
306 


BOOK XIII. 96. 5—97. 4 


dered the city, they spent the winter there — And 1n 406 s c. 
ihe springtime they made ready every kind of engine 
of war and of missile, planning to lay siege first to the 
city of the Geloans. 

97. While these events were taling place, the 
Athenians, who had suffered a continued series of 
reverses, conferred citizenship upon the meties and 
any other aliens who were wilhng to fight with them ; 
and when a great multitude was quickly enrolled 
among the citizens, the generals kept musterig for 
the campaign all who were im fit condition They 
made ready axty ships, and after fitung them out at 
great expense they sailed forth to Samos, where they 
found the other generals who had assembled eighty 
triremes from the rest of the 1slands. They also had 
asked the Samians to man and equip ten additional 
triremes, and with one hundred and fifty ships in all 
they set out to sea and put in at the Arginusae Islands, 
being eager to raise the siege of Mitylené. When 
Callieratdas, the admiral of the Lacedaemon1ans, 
learned of the approach of the ships, he left Eteonicus 
with the land troops in charge of the siege, while he 
himself manned one hundred and forty ships and 
hurnedly put out to sea on the other side of the 
Árginusae. These islands, which were inhabited at 
that time and contamed a small settlement of 
ÁAeohans, he between Mitylené and Cymé and are 
but à very small distance from the mainland and the 
headland of Canis. 

The Athenians learned at once of the approach of 
the enemy, smce they lay at anchor no small distance 


!* "The narrative 1s resumed from chap. 79. 


3 So Casaubon: xarávios. 


307 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


néyeÜos TÓV mveupdr cov TO pev VQ.U AO. iv dmréyva- 
cav, eis 06 TrT)V eXopévrv Tp.£paw Jrouábovro T T 
TpOÓs TV vavpaxíav, TO QUTO vow Óvrav kal rdv 
AauceBaupioviov, kairep dpiporépois aa yopevóv- 
Tov TÓV pávreov.  TOiS ne yàp aeDoupuoviots 
1) ToO Üspuvros KejaM) kewiévn mapà, TÓV atyLaAÓv 
&$avy)s éyeyóveu, mpookÀóLovros ToD kUÜpaTos: OuÓ- 
mep ó pvTis mposAeye OtÓTU TeAevrijoet VaUJLO Y Qv 
Ó vadapxos o9 puÜévros $aci róv KaAMAkporióav 
eirretv, óTL reAevrij cas Kod, TT) páxnv obv8€ev á8o- 
£orépaw TrovíjaeL T)V Zaráprwv. TV o. "AUrvatcov 
j orpomyós OpaaBovAos, ó Ós du eni Tfjs Tyyepiovías 
ékeivQv TT Tj épov, eióe karà T"?v v)kra ToLaÜ- 
Uia A &Oofev ' Avo ToU Üedrpov mvjovros 
a)0TÓs T€ kai TrÀv GÀÀov orpomnydv da Ürrokpí- 
vea0a, rpoyqtav Edpwribov (Dowíccas: TÓv 9' 
avrwTdAovV ÜmoKpLvoJ.évcov Tràs 'lxérióas 8ó£ai Tv 
Kaóuetav | viknv adrois zrepeyevéoDau," Kai qáv- 
Tas dAToÜavetv pupovpévous Tà mpáypara TÀv émi 
Tüs COWjfBas orparevaávrov. ako)cas 8. Ó  uávris 
TaÜTQ Oiecdde, ToUs érrá TÓYV orparmyáv Qv- 
aupeÜnjaeotaa. TOV Ó tepv depóvrcv vikmv, oL 
orpomyoi vepi uev Tíjs éavrÓvy Gmajelas ékcóÀvoy 
érépois &TQyyéAÀew, «vrepi O6 Tfs €v Tolg Lepois 
viens àvWyyeiav ka8" óAqv Tv OUvauu. 

98 KaAAukpari&as 9 ó vasapyos guvoryoryàv Tà 
Tán xai mrapafapasvas Tots olketous Àóyois, TÓ 
TeÀevralov  etmev: eis TOv Ümép Tfjs marpibos 


KivOvvov oUrcos ciui? mpóÜvkos aDTrÓs, dore ToÜ 
1 kaimep P, kai sap' cét., kavrep rap Wurm. 
* So Hertlemn : mpocyevéaDas., 
* eig. Wesseling : éoriv P, &ori cet. 


898 


BOOK XIII. 97. 4—98. 1 


away, but refused battle because of the strong winds 406 ».c. 
and made ready for the confhct on the following day, 
the Lacedaemonians also doing hkewise, although the 
seers on both sides forbade it. For in the case of the 
Lacedaemonians the head of the victim, which lay on 
the beach, was lost to sight when the waves broke on 
1t, and the seer accordingly foretold that the admiral 
would die in the fight. At this prophecy Callicratidas, 
we are told, remarked, '' If I die m the fight, I shall 
not have lessened the fame of Sparta." And in the 
case of the Athenians Thrasybulus! their general, 
who held the supreme command on that day, saw in 
the night the following vision. He dreamed that he 
was in Athens and the theatre was crowded, and that 
he and six of the other generals were playing the 
Phoemwcian Women of Euripides, while their com- 
petitors were performing the Suppluants?; and that 
it resulted in a '' Cadmean victory " ? for them and 
they all died, just as did those who waged the cam- 
paign against Thebes. When the seer heard this, he 
disclosed that seven of the generals would be slain. 
Since the omens revealed victory, the generals for- 
bade any word going out to the others about their 
own death but they passed the news of the victory 
disclosed by the omens throughout the whole army. 
98. The admural Callicratidas, having assembled his 
whole force, encouxaged them with the appropriate 
words and concluded his speech as follows. ''Soeager 
am I myself to enter battle for my country that, 


1 'This should be Thrasyllus. 

? Also by Euripides. Both plays are on the theme of the 
war of the seven Argive chiefs against Thebes. 

? Cp. Book 11 12 1. 


300 


b» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pávreos Aéyovros 91. TÓY Lepeicov! bp pev Tpo- 
on patvea0aa vikQv, époi ó€ Üdvaov, Ópueos érouLós 
eiut T€eÀevTüv.  eiOcs obv p.erà TÓv TÓYV A:yyepóvov 
Ü&varov? év Üopip«w rà orparómeÓa ywoueva, vüv 
àvaOeucyUc vajJapyov, àv éydo Ti TáÜc, TÓv Oia- 
Oe£óuevov KAéapyov, àvÓpa setpav OcÓ0ckóra rv 
xarà TOv vÓÀeuov épyow. OÓ puév ov KaAAkpart- 
0s Tabr €UT OOV QUK OÀtyovs émoimoe bvnAOoco TÜV 
áperTjv abTOoD kai mpoÜvpiorépovs yevéoÜac mpós 
TÜ)v xmv. rai AaxeBouuóvuot "n zrapakaAoüvres 
&AMjAovs avéBoavov eis ràs vas: oi $ "A8nvatot, 
rapakAÀnÜévres ovÓ TÓv orparmydv eis TÓv ava, 
Korrà oTovOÓTv émA"povv TÀs Tpuijpeis KaL mávTes 
eis ráfiv kaBiaravro TOÜ pév oov Oc£io0 képorros 
OpdácvAAos cyeiro kai llepucMjs 0 IlepuwAéovs ToO 
mpocayopevÜévros xarà crüv Ova 'OÀvumiov: 
evprapéAape Óé kai Onpapévnv eis TÓ SeEtóv 
képas, é$' Tyyenovias Táfas: Os i8wóTns Ov pv 
cvveorpáTeveé TÓTe, mrpórepov' O6 «oAAdkis 7 
á$xympévos Svvdqueanv" TOUS O. GAAovs cTporyous 
map óX]v TTV $dAoyya Oiéra£e, kai Tàs kaAov- 
pévas 'Apywoscas vijoovs ovwrepuéAaDe 7$ TáÉei, 
aTeU0cv Órt srAetoTov Traperretyaa TÓS vaós. Ó 0 
KaoAAuparrtóas avijy 0n TO jév Óeftóv uépos aDrós 
éycv, TÓ O  eÜcvupov mapéouke ,Boworois, Qv 
Opaocdvoas o GOwnBatos rr) wWyeuoviav éoxev. o) 
Ovvdj.evos O6 T)v Táfw éfioÓ ca Tots moAeuiows 
Ou& TO Tràs vfjcovs moÀUv éréyew cÓmov, Oie(AoTo 
Tiv ODvapav, kai O90 vowvjcas orÓAovs mpós ékd- 
1 bepetony ] tepóv Vogel. 


*? xa, after Que omitted by M; Vogel suggests kará 
8ópvBov. 


400 


BOOK XIII 98. 1-4 


although the seer declares that the victims foretell 406 s.c. 
victory for you but death for me, I am none the less 
ready to die. Accordingly, knowing that after the 
death of commanders forces are thrown into confu- 
sion, I designate at this time as admiral to succeed me, 
in case Í meet with some mishap, Clearchus, à man 
who has proved himself in deeds of war " By these 
words Callicratidas led not a few to emulate his valour 
and to become more eager for the battle. The Lace- 
daemomans, exhortng one another, entered ther 
ships, and the Athenians, after hearing the exhorta- 
tons of their generals summomng them to the 
struggle, manned the triremes 1n haste and all took 
their positions — Thrasyllus commanded the right 
wing and also Pericles, the son of the Pencles who, 
by reason of his imfluence, had been dubbed '' The 
Olympian "; and he associated with himself on the 
nght wing also Theramenes, giving him a command. 
At the time Theramenes was on the campaign as a 
pnrvate citizen, although formerly he had often been 
in command of armaments The rest of the generals 
he stationed along the entire hne, and the Argmusae 
Islands, as they are called, he enclosed by his battle 
order, sunce he wished to extend his ships as far as 
possible | Callieratidas put out to sea holding himself 
the nght flank, and the left he entrusted to the 
Boeotians, who were commanded by Thrasondas the 
Theban. And gince he was unable to make his lme 
equal to that of the enemy by reason of the large space 
occupied by the 1slands, he divided his force, and form- 
mg two fleets fought two battles separately, one on 


?* So Vogel. ovveorparevero. 


* TÓre, mpórepov Stroth - mpórepov, róre. 


401 


J 


5 


t» 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


repov pépos Otya Ovycovitero. O10 kai rrapetxero 
peyáXqv kadzÀnfw soAAaxfj Tots Üecouévois, cos 
dv Trerrüpov pév orÓóÀov vavpaxo)Uvrov, TrÓÀv 8é 
vedv cvvnBpowpévav eis £va Tórrov oU TOoAAaÍs 
cAdrTeo TÓV rpuaucootayv: peytorm yàp aUmm pm- 
LoveUerüu vavpayia yeyevquévm "EAMQot mpós 
"EAAqvas. 

99. "Aua 8' ot Te vaapxot Tots caAmyrraás 
vapekeAeUovro ompaivew Kai TÓ TOp. ékorrépois 
vÀfos évaAAAÉ émaAaAdLov éfaiciov émo(e Dorv: 
mávres Óé uer, omrovófjs éAasvovres v0 póOiov égx- 
Aoruuotvro mpós GAMjAous, ékdorov omeóQovros 
vpoTov karápé£acÜa, rfjs uáyns. eurewol re yàp 
?cav TÓV KwOUvav oí mÀelovo, Oià TO ufkos ToO 
TroAéprou kai gmovójv &vumépBAr]rov eiaedépovro' 
9i TÓ! TOUS kporiaous eis* TOV omép TÓV Geo 
àyóva cvvnÜpotaÜa.- TÁvTeS yàp omeAduDavov ro)s 
TaUTa TÍ udxn vucijoavras Tépas embioew TQ 
mroAépap. oU pn GA O KoAukpariBas &KT)KO(OS 
ToÜ pvreos T" Trepi axróv écop.évv TeAevrijv, 
éoTrevóev émijavéorarov cavri ,TepurovijoaoÓo, 
Ü&varov.  Ouówep mpóros émi TT» Jvoiov? ToO 
cTpaTQyoU vaüv émwrAeUcas kai o)v TaÍs dpa 
mÀeovoous Tpwuíjpecwv é£ édó0ov pocas, karéóvoe: 
TÓÀv 9. GÀÀcv às pev TOUS ep BóAous TUTTO &mAovs 
émoíe,, rv O6 TOUS TapcoUs mapaópcov" aX pj- 


4 oTOUS QTeTéAe "pos TÜv páyqv. T0 8€ TeAevratov 


OoUs cupo" Tj ToÜ IepucAéovs TpU/peL Biauó- 
Tepov, Tfs pév Tpvpovs émi sroÀv avéppnée TÓTOV, 
ToU OÓ€ orópros évapptooÜévros cis Tv AakiOa? 

1 


Tois after yeyevquévg deleted by Dindorf. 
? So Hertlein*. éredépovro. 


402 


BOOK XIII. 98. 5—99. 4 


each wing Consequently he aroused great amaze- 408 w.c. 
ment m the spectators on many sides, since there were 
four fleets engaged and the ships that had been 
gathered into one place did not lack many of being 
three hundred For this is the greatest sea-battle on 
record of Greeks against Greeks. 

99. At the very moment when the adnurals gave 
orders to sound the trumpets the whole host on each 
side, raaaing the war-cry in turn, made a tremendous 
shout; and all, as they enthusiastically struck the 
waves, vied with one another, every man being anxious 
to be the first to begin the battle. Tor the majonty 
were experienced m fighting, because the war had 
endured so long, and they displayed insuperable en- 
thusiasm, since it was the choicest troops who had 
been gathered for the decisive contest ; for all took it 
for granted that the conquerors in this battle would 
put an end to the war. But Calheratidas especially, 
sce he had heard from the seer of the end awaiting 
him, was eager to compass for himself a death that 
would be most renowned. Consequently he was the 
first to drive at the ship of Lysias the general, and 
shattermg it at the first blow together with the 
iriremes accompanying 1t, he sank 1t; and as for the 
other ships, some he rammed and made unseaworthy 
and from others he tore away the rows of oars and 
iendered them useless for the fighting — Last of all he 
rammed the trireme of Pericles with à rather heavy 
blow and broke a great hole in the trnireme ; then, since 
the beak of his ship stuck tight 1n the gap and they 


* có added by Stephanus. 
* eis added by M, Stephanus. 
$ So Palmer (snfra, ch. 101. 5) : Navoíov. 
$ mapac)vpov added by Wurm and Cobet. 
? 5o Dindorf: éufoAov. 5 So Dobraeus: d«ióa. 


408 


ct 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


«ai uy) Gvvapévov aürÀv àvakpovcaoÜ0a., llepucMjs 
pev éméfaAe Tfj ToU KoAukparito. voi ciOnpav 
xetpa., pocadÜeions" 9. a)Tfs oi pev " AÜnvator 
mepwrTávres. Tv vabv eio?AAovro, xai mrepuyvÜévres 
ToUsg €v aiTjj rávras üéoQa£av. TOTe OY) aot TOv 
KaAkporióav Aapmpás dycvwodjevov kai oAÀOv 
dvrwoyÓvra. ypóvov, TÓ reAevratov jmó ToU vv Üovs 
zravraxólev rvrpcokópevov karozovnÜfivav) | «s 8€ 
TO cepi rÓv vaUvapxyov éAdvrropa cvudavés éyévero, 
cvvéB« To)s lleAosovvqoiovrs Oeicavras éykAMvai 
ToU 8€ Ge£to0 uépovs rÀv lleAomovvgotov óvyóvros;? 
ot TO AÀeóv éyovres Bowwroi xpóvov uév cmwa 
Ouekaprépovv e0poTos àywewlLóuevov: eAaBotvro 
yàp a)roi re kai oi ovykwevvevovres Eofo«is 
«ai rrüvres oi TOV ' AOnvaiov àdeornkóres, urymore 
' AÜmvatot 7v &pyT)v ávakrqodpevou rucooptav map. 
aDrÀv AáBoociw $mép rfjs ámooTácews: émeiD) 8é 
Tüs TÀelcras vaüs édpov Terpopuévas kai TÓ 
mÀfÜos TOv vuovrov ém' a)bro)ós émwrpadév, 
7vaykácÜncav $vyetv. TÀv uév oov lleAozovvg- 
civ oi puév eis Xiov, ot 0. eis Kupmv 9woo0ncav 

100 Oi 8' 'A8nvato: 8wo£avres éQ' ixavóv ro)s 
7TT7)4€vovs rrávra róv oUveyyvs rórrov Tfjs ÜaAdrT2s 
érnA/pucav vekpóv kai vavayüiov. erà 06 rabra 
TÓv oTparmydv oL uév qiovro Oetv ro)s TereAevra- 
kóras àvawetoÜa. Già rÓ yaAerós OuariÜeoÜa. Tos 
'AOmvatovs émi rois &ráQovs vrepiopi oi ro)s re- 


! So Reiske : mpocayÜetons 
? Waimington suggests xaramovroD vot 
3 $vyórros Fachstadt : Puyóvrav 
* avroi re ko, Wuim-* ajrovUc. 


404 


BOOK XIII. 99. 4—100. 1 


could not withdraw it, Pericles threw an iron hand! 406 s.c. 
on the ship of Callicratidas, and when 1t was fastened 
tight, the Athenians, surrounding the ship, sprang 
upon it, and pouring over its crew put them all to the 
sword It was at this time, we are told, that Calli- 
cratidas, after fighting brilhantly and holding out for 
a long tme, finally was worn down by numbers, 
as he was struck from all directions? As soon as 
the defeat of the admiral became evident, the result 
was that the Peloponnesians gave way 1n fear. But 
although the right wing of the Peloponnesians was m 
fhght, the Boeotians, who held the left, continued to 
put up a stout fight for some time ; for both they and 
the Euboeans who were fighting by their side as well 
as all the other Greeks who had revolted from the 
Athenans feared lest the Athenians, if they should 
once regam their sovereignty, would exact punish- 
ment of them for ther revolt. But when they saw 
that most of their ships had been damaged and that 
the maim body of the v1ictors was turning against them, 
they were compelled to take flight. Now of the 
Peloponnesians some found safety 1n Chios and some 
in Cymé 

100 The Athenians, while they pursued the de- 
feated foe for a considerable distance, filled the whole 
area of the sea 1n the neighbourhood of the battle with 
corpses and the wreckage ofships. After this some of 
the generals thought that they should pick up the 
dead, since the Athenians are 1ncensed at those who 


! À grappling-ron, first introduced in the fighting in the 
harbour of Syracuse (cp. Thucydides, 7. 62). Called the 
" crow " by the ltomans, 1t was used by them with gieat 
effectiveness against the Carthagimans in 260 s.c. 

? Xenophon (//ell 1. 6. 33) says that he *' fell overboard 
into the sea and disappeared." 


405 


4 


5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TeÀevrqkóras, oí 0. édacav Oetv émi r)v Murv- 
Avv vrÀeiv kai 77v raxéiorqv Aca T]v oMopkiav. 
émeyeviriÜn 86 kai xeuuov péyas, eore caAeeoÜa, 
Tds Tpwujpeus kai rovs oTpaTuwOTas Oud T€ TT)V Ék 
Tfs páyns kakomáÜewuv kai Ói& TÓ péyeÜos TÓÀv 
Kupürwov. dvriAÉyew pos TTv üvatpeow Tv ve- 
KpÓv. TéÀos Óé coÜ xewudvos émwreivovros oUTe 
émi Tr)v MurwAvqv émÀevoav obre TOUS TeTeÀev- 
T)kóTras áveiÀavro, DuaoÜévres 8é DwOÓ TOv mvev- 
prev. eis ' Apywotcas karémAevcav. | àmoAovro 
8€ év «fj vavpayiq. TÓv pév ' AOnvaicv vabs eixoot 
qévr€e kai TÀv €év aürats o6 vÀetoTot, Tév 66 TÍeAo- 
zovvngoiov émrà Tpós Talis éfBOopwikovra: Owmep 
TocoUTQV veOv kai TÓV év a)rais yeyevquévov 
dvópOv droAÀcAóTov émAáoÜ» Tf; Kvpnaiov xai 
(Du kaémv 7) rapaÜaAdrTtos yc)pa. vekpáv kai vava- 
yicov. 

'O 8é mv MurvAQvqv soÀwpkóv "Ercóvwos 
TUÜópevós Twos Tiv TÀv lleAomovvgoiov forrav, 
rüs jév vaüs eis Xiov émeue, rov 986 meinv 
OVvauuv  a)rOS éÉxycv ets T?)v lloppaiv  móAw 
&Texycpnoev, obaav aUpaxov: éóeOoukeu yáp, wüj- 
more TQ OTÓMQ mÀevoávrov TÓv 'AÜnvaiev és 
a)TOUs KaL TÓV ék Tfj; mróÀecs émefeAMÜÓvrow kw- 
Ovvejoy Tv Osvapuv dárofaÀetv dxacav. oí 8€ 
ràv 'AÜnvaicv orparwyyol mAeócavres eis MvrvMj- 
vyv ka, Tóv Kóvova uerà TÀv reocapákovra ved 
vrapaÀaDóvres eig Xápov karémAevoav, kükeiÜevy 
Opjwco.evoi T?» TÓY oÀeuiov xyopav émópÜowv. 
perà, óé rabra. ot mepi Tjv. AloAMÓa. kai r1)v "lovíav 
Kai ràs vcovs rüs cvupuaxoUcas AakeÓauuovtots 


! So Palmer: Tuppaíav. 
406 


BOOK XIII. 100. 1-7 


allow the dead to go unburied,! but others of them 406 ».c. 
said they should sail to Mitylené and raise the siege 
with all speed But in the meantime a great storm 
arose, so that the ships were tossed about and the 
soldiers, by reason both of the hardships they had 
suffered in the battle and the heavy waves, opposed 
piekmg up the dead. And finally, since the storm 
increased in violence, they neither sailed to Mitylené 
nor picked up the dead but were forced by the winds 
to put in at the Arginusae. The losses in the battle 
were twenty-five ships of the Athenians together with 
most of their crews and seventy-seven of the Pelopon- 
nesians ; and as a result of the loss of so many ships 
and of the sailors who manned them the coastline of 
the territory of the Cymaeans and Phocaeans was 
strewn with corpses and wreckage 

When Eteonieus, who was besieging Mitylené, 
learned from someone of the defeat of the Pelopon- 
nesians, he sent his ships to Chios and himself retreated 
with his land forces to the city of the Pyrrhaeans.? 
which was an ally ; for he feared lest, 1f the Athenians 
should sai against his troops with their fleet and the 
besieged make a sortie from the city, he should run 
the risk of losing his entire force. And the generals 
of the Athenians, after sailing to Mitylené and picking 
up Conon and his forty ships, put in at Samos, and 
from there as their base they set about laying waste 
the territory ofthe enemy. After thus the inhabitants 
of Aeolis and Ionia and of the islands which were allies 

1 Aehan (Var. Hast. 5 14) states that the Athenians had 
a law requiring anyone who happened upon an unburied 


human body to cast earth upon it. 
? Some fifteen miles west of Mitylené. 


407 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ovvfjADov cis "Edecov, kai BovAevouévow a)rois 
5 / A / 
éBo£ev dmooTéAAew «eis 2vráprqv kai Avcavópov 
^ T b » ^ ^ 
avretoÜa. vavapyov obTros yàp év re TQ TÍíjs vav- 
apytas xpóv« karopÜwes 7v moÀÀà kai é8óke 
/ / ^ 1ÀA c oé 
Ouadépew orparwyiq rÀv àAAcv — oi Óé Aake8ou- 
M 
uóvvo, vópuov. éyovres Otis róv abTOV p) vréumew. kai 
M / » M fA À / » 1 
TÓ Tárpiov éÜos wu? ÜéAovres karaAÀvew, "Apauov 
A e / M LI / 5 4 
pév eiAovro vavapxov, rov 0€ Ajcavüpov iOvwoTQv 
^ / 
abrQ ovwve£érepjav, mpoorá£avres ükoDew &mravra 
^ ) : 
TOUTOUV. O)TO. L€v éxTejubÜévres écrit cT)v vyyepuovíav 
^ / ^ 
&k ve ríjs ILeAovovvijoov «ai sapà rv ovpjidycv 
€ El 4 
rpvpews TlÜpouLov ócas TOvvavro mÀe(oras. 
101 'A8mvato. 96 vvÜOpnevov Tiv év rais 'Apyi- 
/ $ 4 X ^ / 
voUgaug eUvL.epiav érri uév Tf) viky) roUs orpammyoUs 
$ M ^ ^ 
émjvovy, émi 0e TÓ wepuóetv dárádovs roUs Ümép 
^ / / ^ 
Tfjs fyyep.ovias rereAevrqkóras xaÀerós 8GwréÜncav. 
/ M M / / 
()qpauévovs 8€ kai OpacvBojUAov mrpoazreAnÀAvÜóraov 
/ € / [4 
eis 'AOrvas, o-oAaBóvres ot orparwoyoi Tobrovs 
4 Y Aó i Y / 3^ 
«tva, roUs OwaaAóvras mpog rà v/v mepi? rv 
/ ^ 
TeÀevrQoávro, déoreuav kar! abrÓv émioToAÓs 
mpós TOv Ofjuov, 0uacadoüvres Órv ToUTow émératav 
/ ^ 
&veAéoÜUa« roUs reAevr'jcavras: Ómep uáAwov! aDrots 
f ^ e^ 
avrvov éyeviÜUn TÓv kakdv. Ouváuevou yàp éyew 
M ? & 
cvvayavirs eis T')v kpiow ToUs sep. Qopagévmv, 
M / 
dvOpas kai Aóy« Ovvaro)s kai díAovs soAAloUs 
» Y ' / m 
éxovras, kai TÓ LéywTOv, cvjmapayeyovóras mois 
1 So Wessehng : "Aparov. 
? sepi added by Wurm — Wessehng would read zpós rods 


cvyyeveis TOv TeAevrgoávrowv or delete cv ceXevrgoávrov ; 
Palmer would read «Ajo às ápeXjcavras. 


408 


BOOK XIII. 100. 7—101 3 


of the Lacedaemonians gathered 1n Ephesus, and as 406 s.c. 
they counselled together they resolved to send to 
Sparta and to ask for Lysander as admiral ; for during 
the time Lysander had been in command of the fleet 
he had enjoyed many successes and was beheved to 
excel all others 1n slall as a general. The Lacedae- 
monians, however, having a law not to send the same 
man twice and bemg unwilling to break the custom 
of their fathers, chose Aracus as admiral but sent 
Lysander with him as an ordimary citizen,! command- 
ing Áracus to follow the advice of Lysander in every 
matter. These leaders, having been dispatched to 
assume the command, set about assembhng the 
greatest possible number of triremes from both the 
Peloponnesus and their allies. 

101. When the Athenians learned of their success 
at the Arginusae, they commended the generals for 
the victory but were incensed that they had allowed 
the men who had died to maintam their supremacy 
to go unbuned. Since Theramenes and Thrasybulus 
had gone off to Athens in advance of the others, the 
generals, having assumed that it was they who had 
made accusations before the populace with respect 
to the dead, dispatched letters against them to the 
people stating that 1t was they whom the generals had 
ordered to pick up the dead But this very thing 
turned out to be the principal cause of their undomg. 
For although they could have had the help of Thera- 
menes and his associates in the trial, men who both 
were able orators and had many friends and, most 
important of all, had been participants in the events 

1 Xenophon's statement (Hell. 9. 1. T) 1s more precise and 
ciedible. He says that the law forbade a man *' to hold the 


office of admiral twice" and that Lysander was sent as 
** vice-ad mira." 


400 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ei r?v vavpaxíav mpáypagw, ék TOv évavricw 
égyov dvriOU«ovs kai muKpoUs KüTrmyyÓpovs | àva- 
yvaxaUeurv yàp év TO OT TV émuaroAQv e0ÜUs 
|iev TOls r€pL Onpauévqv opylLero TÓ 7j8n, 
ToUTcv Ó€ GmoAoynoapiévcv cvvéDm Tv opyyv 
vá peromeoety eis TOUS ar pormiyoós. OuóTep O 
ÓTjj.os vrpoeOrev abrois KpLot, kai Kóvova nev 
dToÀócas Tíjs airiías mpocéra£e TOÜT(Q TS Owvá- 
peus mrapa&ióoaUo, TOUS Ó. GAAÀovs &lmdioaro Tv 
rayioTmQv TKew. Ov - Aptoroyérrs pév kai ILpcoró- 
paXos QoBnÜévres TÜv Ópynv ToO sr Üovs &jvyov, 

pácvÀAos 9c «ai KaAu dons, eru 06 Avoiag kaL 
IlepwkAfjs «ai '"Àpwgrokpárgs perà cÓv mÀeioTov 
veQv kaTémAevcav «is Tàs 'AÜvjvas, éXriLovres 
TOUS év TaÍs vavoi moÀÀoUs Óvras DBonÜo)s é£ew 
év Tfj kptaet. ds O' eis Tv ekkyatav Tá mijen 
cuvijABov, rfjs uév kartyoptas KaL TÓYV TpÓs yápw 
Ónpmyopotvrcv fjKovov, To)s O' GmroAoyovpévovs 
cuvÜopvBoOvres oók v)jvetyovro TOv Àóycv. | ok éAá- 
xyuora Ó' a)roUce éBAoav ot ovyyevete TÀv rere- 
Aevrnkórov, vrapeAÜóvres pev eis T)V ÉékkÀmnoíav 
év mevÜtgsows, Oeóptevo 06 roD OY Lov Tus) prja oaa 
TOUS mepiecopaKóras àrddovs TroUs Omép Tfs vraTp(- 
Dos Trpo puos rereAeurtKóras.. TéÀos O' oi me 
roUTcV díÀo. kai oi Trois mepi GOwnpapévmqv cvy- 
ayavilópevou TroAAoL kaDearóyres evioxvoaav, Kai 
cwvéBn karaducaoÜ fva, TOoUs oTpaTwyoUs Üavárq 
kai Onp.eUoer TÓV oov. 

102 "lo/vrov 0é xvpuÜévrov kai usAAóvrov aó- 
TÓV «0 TOv Onuocicv émi rÓv Üdvarov áyeoÜa:, 
Avwouéüwv etg TrÓv orporwyGv mopfjÜev eig TÓ 

! eis] xarà. Capps 
410 


BOOK XIII. 101. 3—1023. 1 


relative to the battle, they had them, on the contrary, 406 ».c 
as adversaries and bitter accusers For when the 
letters were read before the people, the multitude was 
at once angered at Theramenes and has associates, but 
after these had presented their defence, 1t turned out 
that their anger was directed again on the generals. 
Consequently the people served notice on them of 
ther tnial and ordered them to turn over the com- 
mand of the armaments to Conon, whom they freed 
of the responsibihty, while they decreed that the 
others should report to Athens with all speed Of 
the generals Ánstogenes and Protomachus, fearing 
the wrath of the populace, sought safety m fhght, but 
Thrasylus and Calhades and, besides, Lysias and 
Pencles and Aristocrates sailed home to Athens with 
most of their ships, hoping that they would have their 
crews, which were numerous, to aid them in the trial. 
When the populace gathered in the assembly, they 
gave attenhon to the accusation and to those who 
Spoke to gratify them, but any who entered a defence 
they unitedly greeted with clamour and would not 
allow to speak. And not the least damaging to the 
generals were the relatives of the dead, who ap- 
peared in the assembly im mourning garments and 
begged the people to punmsh those who had allowed 
men who had gladly died on behalf of their country 
to go unbuned. And in the end the friends of these 
relatives and the partsans of Theramenes, being 
many, prevailed and the outcome was that the gen- 
erals were condemned to death and their property 
confiscated. 

102. After this action had been taken and while the 
generals were about to be led off by the public exe- 
cutioners to death, Diomedon, one of the generals, 


411 


por 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pécov, àv)p kai rà Trepi rÓv móÀeuov éwmpakros 
«ai óuk«atogUvg Tre kaL rais üÀÀous Gperais BOokóv 
Ouadépew. | cwomodvrov 86 mávrov eimrev: "Ay- 
Opes 'AÜnvatot, rà uév sept v. kvpoÜévra avv- 
evéyka, Tf móÀev Tàs O6 Ümép Tfjg vikms ebyàs 
émeirymep 7) TÜyQ kekovkev Tu&s árroOo00vau, ka- 
Ads éyov us dpovricau, kat TQ i T owTíüpi 
kai 'AgóAMow kal Trois oeuvais Üeais dmóOore: 
TOUTO:s yàp «UüÉdjevou ToUs TOoÀeuiovs karevav- 
paxnsapev. ó uév ov AtouéGov raóra. OuaAeyÜels 
éri TOv kupcÜévra Üdvarov dmyero uerà TÓÀv 
dAÀcv oTpaTwyÀv, rois ayaDois rÀv moÀvráv moÀv 
otkrov mapoacTócas kai Odkpua: TÓv yàp dOükcws 
reÀevrüv uéAÀovra ToU uév kaD' a$róv máÜovs ux 
qvrwobv mowtoÜa, uvelav, brép 8é cífjs dGuovons 
TÓÀecos dàfioDv Tàg «ys dmobibóvos Tots Üeois, 
édaiver' ávópós ejoeBoüs &pyov kal ueyaAol yov 
kai Tfjs Trepi aDrOÓv TUy9s àvafiov.  rovrovs uév 
otv oí raxÜévres Or rÀv vóuov €vÓexo, dpyovres 
üvmékTewa», oy olov dOuqkóras Twv Tv mÓÀw, 
àÀAQ vavpaxiav ueytorgv TOv "EAAgot mpós "EA- 
A«vas -"yeyevyuévov  vevuemkóras kai. àv. &AÀAaus 
pdxous Aapwmpás Tyycwvwojiévovs kai Ou vàs lB(ag 
üperàüs TpÓwaLa karü TÓv soÀeuiv éorakóras. 
oUrcs Ó' Ó Ofuos Tóre mapepóvqoe, koi map- 
ofvvÜets áBik«s Dwó rOv BguaycevyGQv Tv Ópy)v 
! So Hemsterhuis and Cobet: $povíca:. 





! The Erinyes (Furies). 
? À Board which had charge of condemned prisoners and 
41 


to 


BOOK XIII. 102 1-5 


took the floor before the people, a man who was both 406 s.c 
vigorous m the conduct of war and thought by all to 
excel both 1n justice and 1m the other virtues. And 
when all became still, he said : '" Men of Athens, may 
the action which has been taken regarding us turn out 
well for the state : but as for the vows which we made 
for the victory, inasmuch as Fortune has prevented 
our paying them, «mce 1t is well that you give thought 
to them, do you pay them to Zeus the Saviour and 
Apollo and the Holy Goddesses ! ; for it was to these 
gods that we made vows before we overcame the 
enemy." Now after Diomedon had made this request 
he was led off to the appointed execution together 
with the other generals, though among the better 
citizens he had aroused great compassion and tears ; 
for that the man who was about to meet an unjust 
death should make no mention whatsoever of his own 
fate but on behalf of the state which was wrongimng 
him should request it to pay his vows to the gods 
appeared to be an act of a man who was god-fearing 
and magnanimous and undeserung of the fate that 
was to befall him. These men, then, were put to death 
by the eleven? magistrates who are designated by the 
laws, although far from having committed any crime 
against the state, they had won the greatest naval 
battle that had ever taken place of Greeks against 
Greeks and fought i splendid fashion in other battles 
and by reason of their individual deeds of valour had 
set up trophies of victones over ther enemues. To 
such an extent were the people beside themselves at 
that time, and provoked unjustly as they were by 
their political leaders, they vented their rage upon 


of the execution of the death sentence. They are more 
commonly referred to simply as '' The Eleven." 


413 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Gméoyev eis dvOpas o) Tuuopias, QÀÀà zoÀÀOv 
ézaivov kai oredávav á&tovs. 

108. 'Taxv 8€ Kai TOUS meícaot kaL Tots mrevoÜetor 
perepéXnoev, oiovel vep.eojavros Tob Saupoviov: 
oí pev yàp e&amarnÜévres émíyewpa, Tíjs d»yvo(as 
cAapov per" o2 TroÀUv Xpóvov karorroAenÜévres oOx 

9 Dd. évós Óeomórov ,Hóvov &ÀA& .Tpudkovra- o 8 
éÉamar/oas kai Tyv yvouwqv eurov KaAMÉevos 
c000 Tob mAvÜovs werapeAnÜEvros eis avriav TAOev 
cs TOv Ofjuov é£qmarmqkos: oók à£wÜeis 8' dmo- 
Aoyías é8€é0m, xai xaraDAÀvgÜeis eis Tv Onuooíav 
dvAaxTv éAa0e werd, rwv 9vpi£as r0 Ocoucrjpuov 
kai O.aOpás mpos. TOUS mroAeptovs eis AekéAeuav 
OTtCOS O.adv'ycov TOv Üávarov pu") uóvov 'Afyvnow 
4ÀÀà kai Tap. TOUS GAÀots " EAAnot SorvAo8euc- 
rovpévrv €xn TT)V mrovnpóav va. oÀov TÓV Biov. 

3. Tà uév oOv KaTó. Tolrov TOv éviavTOv mppaxÜévra 
aXeO0v rabr éoTiy. cTÓÀv Oé gvyypodéov Dioros 
Tv Tpórrqv osvra£w TÓv Zukelkáy eis ToUTov TÓv 
éviavróv karéarpodev. eis 7T) '" Akpáyavros GAcow, 
év BóBAow émrà OwAMÜOv xpóvov érOv mAei Tóv 
ókraKociov, ríjs 0€ 8evrépas ovvrá£ewns T? gv 
&pyTv aO Tf  ríüs mporépas reAevTfjs mremoinrau, 
yéypadoe 8é BBAovs Tégoapas. 

4  Ileogt 8é 7óv aDróy Xpóvov éreAeUrrjoe ZodokAis 
o 2odíAov,? TroVíyTT)S rpayo8uov, érg Dwócas é eveyi]- 
kovra, víkas 0. éycv Okrckaióexa. daoi Ó€ TOv 

i , 99 Dindorf. keréorpeev. 


*? rás added by Fichstadt. 
0 ZoóíAov Meuisius : Geodiov. 





! The " Thirty Tyrants " (cp. Book 14. 3 ff). 
414 


BOOK XIII. 102. 5—103. 4 


r;en who were deserving, not of punishment, but of 400 s. 
many praises and crowns. 

103. Soon, however, both those who had urged thus 
action and those whom they had persuaded repented, 
as if the deity had become wroth with them ; for 
those who had been deceived got the wages of their 
error when not long afterwards they fell before the 
power of not one despot only but of thirty !; and 
the deceiver, who had also proposed the measure, 
Calhxenus, when once the populace had repented, 
was brought to trial on the charge of having deceived 
the people, and without being allowed to speak 1n his 
defence he was put 1n chains and thrown mto the 
public prison ; and secretly burrowing his way out of 
the prison with certain others he managed to make 
his way to the enemy at Decele1a, to the end that by 
escaping death he mught have the finger of scomn 
pointed at his turpitude not only in Áthens but also 
wherever else there were Greeks throughout lus 
entire hfe. 

Now these, we may say, were the events of thus 
year. And of the historians Philistus * ended his first 
History of Sicady with this year and the capture of 
Ácragas, treating a penod of more than eight hundred 
years in seven Books, and he began his second History 
where the first leaves off and wrote four Books.? 

At this same time Sophocles the son of Sophilus, the 
writer of tragedies, died at the age of mmety years, 
after he had won the prize eighteen * times. And we 


? Of Syracuse (cp. supra, chap. 91. 4). 

? Philstus also wrote two more Books on the younger 
Dionysius (ep Book 15. 89. 3), a total of thirteen Books 
on Sicily. 

* The eighteen firsts are confirmed by the '* Victory " 
inseriphion (J.G. n. 97772). 


415 


c 


3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dy8pa ToÜrov TTv €oyárcv rpovyq«O(av eicayayóvra 
«aL vuocavra xyap& mepureoety. àvvsreppAiyrqi, 8U 
^ M ^ ? AA jo o e M 
Tv kai rceAevrioou. "AsoAAó8cpos Ó' O TT wpo- 
7 
vuc»v  oUvra£iw mpayparevoüjevós dw«ov xai TÓv 
Expvrióqv karà TÓv aDTÓv évuavróv TeAevrícat 
b! M / ? ? / ^ ^ 
Twégs Oé Aéyovou map! 'ApyeAÀd« 7  DBaouet 
Maxke0óvov korà T?]jv ycpav é£eMÜóvra voi mepi- 
veoety kai OtaomacÜSvau. pup mTpóoÜev Tobrav 
TÓV xpóvov. 
104 Toü 9' érovs rovrov OwADóvros 'AÜYvnoc 
M 5 * AÀ J , oé ^ *P / 5 A ^ € / 
p.&v tpxev ' AAe£ias, év 06 rj Pour avri àv brá- 
TOV Tp€ts xiÀAtapyot kareorábnoav, láws 'lovAÀwvs, 
/ / / " / Pd 
ILovrA.s KopváAvs, Ydiws Zepovios. rovrov 
A X ? A À / ? ^ M A ? 
66 T7)v apyT|v vrapaAaBóvrov ' AÓnvatow uerá 7]v àv- 
atpecw TÓV oTparmQy|v émi TTv fyepovíav éra£av 
(uAokAéa, kat TO vavrucov aiTÓQ mapaOóvres éÉ- 
érejibav mpós Kóvwva, vpoorá£avres kowós à$- 
1yetoÜa,. vOv Ovvápecov. Os émel korémrevoe mpós 
Kóvova eig 3pov, rüg vaós àmácas émAüpooecv 
oUcas Tpeéis mpós rats ékaróv éBOoj/kovra.  Tod- 
TOV eikocu uév éOo£ev a)ToÜ karaAvretv, rois O9. 
M € 7 5 / E € / e 
&AÀcus dmrdcous dvi]yO0ncav eis 'EAMjomovrov, yov- 
/ / M / 
pévov Kóvovos kai GokAéovs. 
Adcavópos 9' o vOv XAakeüawuLoviov vajapxos 
i ^ 
éx« lleAomovvQoov mwapà TÓÀv éyy)ós ovuudycov 
TpiÁkovra qTévrTe vabüs dÜpoícas karémÀevoev eis 
» / 1 oc M M , / 
Edecov: ueromepibáuevos óé kai TOv ék« Xíov 
/ ? "d » / b M M e^ M 
oTóÀov é£Xprvev: àvéBq 9é kai vpós Kópov TOv 
Aapeíov ToU Daoiuécws vióv, kai xpYuara ToAAÀd 
416 


BOOK XIII. 103 4—104 3 


are told of this man that when he presented his last 406 s c. 
tragedy and won the prize, he was filled with insuper- 
able jubilation which was also the cause of his death. 
And Apollodorus; who composed his Chronology, 
states that Euripides also died in the same year; 
although others say that he was hving at the court of 
Archelaus, the lang of Macedonia, and that once when 
he went out in the countryside, he was set upon by 
dogs and torn to pieces a httle before thus time. 

104. At the eud of this year Alexias was archon imn 405 ».c. 
Athens and m Rome 1n the place of consuls three 
mihtary tribunes were elected, Gaius Juhus, Pubhus 
Cornelius, and Gaius Sernhus | When these had 
entered office, the Athenians, after the execution of 
the generals, put Philocles in command, and turmng 
over the fleet to him, they sent him to Conon with 
orders that they should share the leadership of the 
armaments 1n common. After he had joined Conon m 
Samos, he manned all the ships which numbered one 
hundred and seventy-three. Of these 1t was decided 
to leave twenty at Samos, and with all the rest they 
set out for the Hellespont under the command of 
Conon and Philocles. 

Lysander, the admiral of the Lacedaemomans, 
having collected thirty-five ships from his neighbour- 
ing alhes of the Peloponnesus, put in at Ephesus; and 
after summoning also the fleet from Chios he made it 
ready. He also went inland to Cyrus, the son of Kmg 
Darius, and received from him a great sum of money 


! A philosopher and historian of Athens of the second 
century s.c. (cp. Book 1 5. 1). His Chronology covered 
the years 1184—119 s.c. 


! uerameubdpevos K and all editois before Vogel, pere- 
véujaro other MSS., and Vogel with lacuna after oróAov 


VOL. V P 417 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mapéAafe Tpós Tüs TÓVv orparwwTOv Owrpodods. 

40 0e Kópos, peramepzopnévov ToÜD varpós a)TÓv 
eis llépcas, TQ Avoávópo TOv $$' aboróv mó- 
Aecv TTv émioTaaiav. sapéOcke kai roUg dópous 
ToUTQ TeÀetv ovvéra£ev.  8é A$cavOpos máv- 
TOV TÓV eig TÓÀepuov ebDmopyjcas eis "Edecov dàv- 
éorpeyev. 

5. Ka0' óv 97) xpóvov év 7fj Movrqo rwés óMyap- 
xías ópeyópevot karéÀvaav rÓv Ófjuov, ovjmrpa£áv- 
TOv a)Trots AakeOouuoviov. kai TrÓ uév mpórov 
Avwovuciov ÓOÓvrov év TaÍs oikíaus TOUS páAwTa 
&vrumpürrovras cuvijpmra.oay kal epi Tecoapákovra 
ÓvTaS Gméadotav, pera, àé, Tfjs a'yopüs mnÜosans, 
TpuaKogtovs émAc&avres TOUS «ÜTropcoTdirous v- 

6 eov. oL 8€ Xapwéararou TOV Trà ToÜ O")uov ópo- 
vovrav, Ovres oUK cAárrovs XxiUMtov, QoprÜévres 
TÜV mepiaraaw édvyov mpós Dapvá alov TÓV 
carpáswv* obrog 8é uUo póvas a)TOoUs Oefápevos, 
Ka oraríjpa ypucoUv éKáoTq Scproápevos, Kar- 
qikuoev eis BAatóa," dpospióv. TL Tfjs AvÓas. 

7 Ascayüpos Oé guerà TOv mAelarcov veóv eri 
"lacov Tí Kapías vAevoas kará kpáros a TT]V 
etÀAev " AUnvatots cupiiaxoDoav, KGL TOUS Lev 7 BOv- 
Tàs OkTakociovs Ovras dTéoQafe, ma(Oas O6 kai 
yvvatkas AajvpomoeMjcas karéorabe T) móAw. 

8 per. 0€ Tar eni T^Y "AvrucT)v kai TroAA obs TÓTOUS 
mrÀeóoas uéya d o8€y o9" d£iov uvüumns émpo£e: 
Ou kai ra)ra pév ok àvaypádoew comrovóácapev: 


TO Óé reAevratov Adpubakov éÀcwv T7 pév 'A0-- 


1 So Dindorf: émíoracw. 
? So Wesseling : kAata. 
3 "Iacov Palmer: GO&oowv P, Gdoov cet. 


418 


BOOK XIII. 104. 3-8 


with which to maintain his soldiers. And Cyrus, since 405 s.c. 
his father was summoning him to Persia, turned over 

to Lysander the authonty over the cities under his 
command and ordered them to pay the tribute to hum. 
Lysander, then, after being thus supplied with every 
means for making war, returned to Ephesus. 

At the same time certain men in Miletus, who were 
striving for an oligarchy, with the aid of the Lacedae- 
monians put an end to the government of the people. 
First of all, while the Dionysia was bemg celebrated, 
they seized in their homes and carried off their prin- 
cipal opponents and put some forty of them to the 
sword, and then, at the time when the market-place 
was full they pieked out three hundred of the 
wealthiest citizens and slew them. The most respect- 
able citizens among those who favoured the people, 
not less than one thousand, fearing the situation they 
were in, fled to Pharnabazus the satrap, who received 
them kindly and giving each of them a gold stater! 
settled them 1n Blauda, a fortress of Lydia 

Lysander, sailing with the larger part of his ships 
to Iasus 1n Caria, took the city, which was an ally of 
the Athenians, by storm, put to the sword the males 
of mihtary age to the number of eight hundred, sold 
the children and women as booty, and razed the city 
to the ground. Afterthis he sailed against Attica and 
many places, but accomplished nothing of importance 
or worthy of record ; consequently we have not taken 
pams to recount these events. Finally, capturing 
Lampsacus,? he let the Athenian gaxrison depart 

1 Probably the Persian darie, whose bullhon worth was 


about $5.40 or £1 : 3s. 
? In the Troad about thirty-five miles up the Hellespont. 


410 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vaiav $poupàv &dfikev omóorrovóov, Tüs Óé krtjcets 
Gpmácas Tots Aapalarvots áméboke Tv Tru. 
105 Oi 8é r&v "A8rvatav orpaTyyol TruÜópuevot 
ToUs AakeOauuovious máoy Tij Ovvápet mroALopkey 
Adpajakov, cuvüjyayóv Te mavraxóev Tpwfjpews kai 
xarà. avrovó?)v àvjy0noav ém o.roUs vavoiv ékaOv 
oy8orjkovra. eópóvres 0é T72v móAw fÀoviav, 
TÓóT€ pév év Abyós TOTO.JL00S kaBdppacav Tàs vabs, 
perà Oé Ta0T émnvmrAéovres cTois moÀeuiow ka 
T.épav eis vavpaxiav qpoekaAoDvro.  o)Kk üvT- 
avaryopévay 0€ TÓV IHeAorrovvnotcov, oí , uev -A8- 
vatoi Ovmrópovv ÓTL Xp'jocovrau. TOls m páypaociw, oU 
Ovvápuevo, TÓv qÀei xpóvov éket O.arpéQew TÓs 
Ovvájeus.  'AAkiBuáOov 06 mpós ajbrovs £AÜóvros 
Kai Aéyovros, OTi Mj8okos kai 2e/üns oL TÓV 
Opaxdv Baciueis eiow abrQ Quot, kai ObDvapuv 
moÀX)v djioAóygcav Sdócew, éàv BosAnra, 0.a.- 
TroÀeuetv rois AakeBauuoviow- Ouózrep aXDroUs T)£Lov 
peraGoüva, Tíjs Tyyejiovias, ésraryyeAAópuevos. aorots 
Ovetv Üárepov, 7) vavjaxetv ToUs voAeuiovs ávay- 
Kdcew 17) meíf perà (GOpakóv mpós abDro)s O- 
aycvietoÜa,. — ra0ra O0é Ó 'AArwáOns Emparrev 
émÜvuóv 9i éavroÜ Tjj marpióv uéya. Tv karepyá- 
caoÜa. kai Ou& TOv eDepyecuOv TÓv Ofjuov dro- 
KaraoTíjaQi eig Tv dpyaiav eUvouav. ot O6 TÓV 
'AÜnvatcv oTporwyoi, vouicavres TOV pév éAar- 
Tcudreov éavrots TT pé G«oAovÜriaew, TÓ 
O' émureDypara mTpocdbew awavras" 'AAkuidon, 


! $o Wessehng : DuarpiBew 


* daavras Wesseling  Gmavra. 


1 "(The '*Goat-rivers," about five miles across the strait 
from Lampsacus. 


420 


BOOK XIII 104. 8—105. 4 


under a truce, but seized the property of the in- 505 sc. 
habitants and then 1eturned the city to them 

105 The generals of the Athemans, on learmng 
that the Lacedaemonians in full force were besiegimg 
Lampsacus, assembled their triremes from all quarters 
and put forth against them m haste with one hundred 
and eighty ships. But finding the city already taken, 
at the time they stationed their ships at. Aegospo- 
tam * but afterward sailed out each day agamst the 
enemy and offered battle When the Peloponnesians 
perssted in not comung out agamst them, the 
Athenians were at a loss what to do 1n the circum- 
stances, since they were unable to find supphes for 
ther armaments for any further length of time 
where they were. Alcibiades ? now came to them and 
said that Medocus and Seuthes, the kings of the 
Thracians, were friends of his and had agreed to give 
him a large army 1f he wished to make war to a finish 
on the Lacedaemonians ; he therefore asked them to 
give him a share im the command, promising them one 
of two things, either to compel the enemy to accept 
battle or to contend with them on land with the zid 
of the Thracians? This offer Alabiades made from a 
desire to achieve by his own efforts some great success 
for his country and through his benefactions to bring 
the people back to their old affection for him. But the 
generals of the Athenians, considering that 1n case of 
defeat the blame would attach to them and that m 
case of success all men would attribute1t to Alcibiades, 


? He had retired to two castles 1n Thrace, one of which was 
at Pactyé, only some twenty miles from where the Athenians 
were anchored (cp. supra, chap. 74. 9). 

$3 Xenophon (Hell. 2. 1. 25£.) says nothing about this 
demand of Alcibiades, but only that he urged the generals 
to base upon Sestus. 


49] 


[oli 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TGXécs aDTOv ékéAevoav àmiévau kai umakéri mpoa- 
eyyitlew TÓ oTpaToméOQ. 

106 "Emei 9' oí gév moÀéptot vavpaxetv oók 
TÜcAov, TÓ o8 arporórme8ov ovroOeiLa. karetxe, 
DuAokAfs ékeivqv Tv Tuépav adyoUpevos TOÍS 
pev GAÀAows Tpwpápyous mpocéra&e T npocavras 
Tüs Tpvüpewg ükoAovÜetv, abrós 8' éroiuas Éycv 
vabs Tp.ákovra. ráyvov é£émAevoev. ó 86 Aícavüpos 
T'apá TIV/OV oXrop.óAoyy raór' GKoUcas, ,erà, a.v 
TÓV vedv avaxyÜeis kat rÓv GwokAéa rpeliápevos 
Trpós Tüs àÀAÀas vaüs koreOtcfev.  oUmo O6 TÓv 
rpuijpcov Tos '" AOmvaiows vemÀnpcévcv | 0ópuBos 
karetxev &Tavras Oud Uv aT pocOóknrov émupá- 
veiav TÀV qoÀeuitv. ó O6 Aícavópos ovwOov 77V 
rÓv évavriov rapax", 'Ermeóvuov uév uerà TÓÀv 
eioÜórcv mel$ pudáyeo0aw vayéos dameDiBaoev O 
06 oféos cfj ToÜ kao pori) Xpnoápevos pépos 
kareAd fero Tíjs mra.pepBoAfs" a)TOs O. 0 AuUcavÓpos 
&máaous rois Tpw)peow é£mpruuévaus émimAesoas 
kaL o.01p8s éruBaAcv yeipas, dmréoma ràs Ópposcas 
émi Tf) yf] vaüs.  'A0qsvato. 8é TO mapdOo£ov 
ékmemAmypuévou kai wr  dvaxÜSvaw Talis vovoiv 
&vacTpodmv  éyovres gqwyme meí5 OwuyovíteoÜa 
Ovváuevow Dpax)vv àvrwyóvres xpóvov érpámwy0av, 
e000 O' oi uév ràs vaüs, oi 06 cT"»v sapeuBoAnv 
ékAvnóvres  édvyov, Omov moÜ' éxaoros mme 
c«o«o0o«. TÓV pév odv Tpujpcov Oéka póvoy 
Dueémecov, Qv Miav éyov Kóvov ó O OTpOTT)yOS TÜV 
uev eis "Afrivas emávoOov ré yv $oPnÜeis TTV 
OpyTv ToU O"cuov, mpós Exoyyópav Oé TOv adnyos- 
pevov Tfs K)mpov karédvyev, éycv mpós abróv 


1 66 Wurm: re. * rfj yj Reiske: 72v yfv. 
422 


BOOK XIII. 105. 4— 106. 6 


quickly bade him to be gone and not come near the 405 s.c. 
camp ever again. 

106. $ince the enemy refused to accept battle at 
sea and famne gnipped the army, Philocles, who held 
the command on that day, ordered the other captains 
to man their triremes and follow him, while he with 
thirty trremes which were ready set out in advance. 
Lysander, who had learned of this from some de- 
serters, set out to sea with all his ships, and putting 
Philocles to fhght, pursued him toward the other 
ships! The triremes of the Athenians had not yet 
been manned and confusion pervaded them all be- 
cause of the unexpected appearance of the enemy. 
Ánd when Lysander perceived the tumult among 
the enemy, he speedily put ashore Eteonicus and 
the troops who were practised in fighting on land. 
Eteonicus, quickly turning to his account the oppor- 
tunity of the moment, seized a part of the camp, while 
Lysander himself, sadhing up with all his triremes in 
trim for battle, after throwing iron hands on the ships 
which were moored along the shore began dragging 
them off[ The Athenmans, panic-stricken at the un- 
expected move, since they neither had respite for 
putting out to sea with their ships nor were able to 
fightit out by land, held out for a short while and then 
gave way, and at once, some deserting the ships, 
others the camp, they took to flight in whatever 
direction each man hoped to find safety. (Of the 
tnremes only ten escaped. Conon the general, who 
had one of them, gave up any thought of returning to 
Athens, fearing the wrath of the people, but sought 
safety with Evagoras, who was 1n control of Cyprus 


1 "lus account of the battle differs radically from that in 
Xenophon (7el! 9 1.9'7-28), which 1s more credible. 


123 


T 


10 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eua TÓÀV O€ .orpormruoráv oi TÀetoTro. uév kar 
yijv Qvyóvres eis Znoróv O.eo cÜmoav. AscavBpos 
O6 ràs Aovràüs vaüs rrapaAafiav ax p.a orovs, kai 
Loryprjaas OiAokAéa, rÓv orpacqyóv, drayoyov eis 
Adpaakov dméada£ev. 

Merà 83é rabr eis Aaxebaipova TOUS TV viv 
GravyyeloSvras aTéoTeiAev émi rfs kparíars Tpuj- 
povs, koopifjaos TOÍS rroAvreAeorárous Tüv vay 
ómÀoiws kai Aadyópois . émi O6 To)g cis 2moróov 
karadvyóvras '"ÁAÜnvaiovs orpareícas Tv  uév 
TÓMw  etÀe, voog O' 'AÜmqvaíovs $moomóvOovs 
ü$fjkev. eU00s 0é rfj Óvvápeu mÀeUoas ézi XiÁuov 
a)TOs Lév TraUTQV ÉmoÀAiópke,, l'UAvmrov 86 TOv eis 
ZikeA(lav Tots 2ivpakooiows TQ vavriKQ OupmOo- 
Aewjcavro, &réoTeuev eis Xmráprqv Td Te Àdovpa 
«opiLovra Kai prà To/vrov dpyvptou cdAavra 
xia kai mevrakóoia.  Ovros Oé ToÜ xpünaros 
ev cakitots, kai raUT eXovTos eK OTOU ckvrdAmv 
éyovcav TTV émuypady 7Ó vAfBos TOU Xp'ino;ros 
51Àocav, ra)r«v dyvoycas ó l'UAwrwOS TÀ , uv 
cakía mapéAvaev, é£cAópevos o6 ráAavra Tpwkóoua., 
kai Oud Tfs émvypadris yvooÜeis omo rÀv édópov, 
évye kai kareüucdio0n Üavdro. voapasAnots 8€ 
kal TÓv mOrrépo. roo D vAEmmOV KAéapyov ovveB 
dvyeiv év Tots Sumpooev Xpóvots, OTU oó£as Tra. pd 
IepucAéovs Aafetv xpjsara cepi Tro) T?)v ciopo- 
Arv eis Tv '"AÁTTucWv pe) TovjcaoÓa, kareOucdo0n 


1 mepi] orép Capps. 


ome eight pues down the IIellespont from Aegospotamni. 
chaps. 7, 28 ff. 


Cp. 
he oxvráAn pu à staff used for writing in code. The 


BOOK XIII. 106. 6—10 


and with whom he had relations of friendship; and 405 ».c 
of the soldiers the majonity fled by land to Sestus! and 
found safety there. "The rest of the ships Lysander 
captured, and taking prisoner Philocles the general, 
he took him to Lampsacus and had him executed. 
After this Lysander dispatched messengers by the 
swiftest tireme to Lacedaemon to carry news of the 
victory, first decking the vessel out with the most 
costly arms and booty — After thus, advancing against 
the Athenians who had found refuge in Sestus, he took 
the city but let the Athenians depart under a truce. 
Then he sailed at once to Samos with his troops and 
himself began the siege of the city, but Gyhlippus, who 
with a flotilla had fought 1n aid of the Syracusans in 
Sialy.? he dispatched to Sparta to take there both the 
booty and with it fifteen hundred talents of silver. 
The money was m small bags, each of which contained 
a skytalé * which carried the notation of the amount 
of the money. Gyhppus, not knowing of the s&ytalé, 
secretly undid the bags and took out three hundred 
talents, and when, by means of the notation, Gylippus 
was detected by the ephors, he fled the country and 
was condemned to death. Similarly it happens that 
Clearchus * also, the father of Gylippus, fled the 
country at an earher time, when he was believed to 
have accepted a bribe from Pericles not to make the 
planned raid ito Attica, and was condemned to 


Lacedaemonians had two round staves of 1dentical size, the 
one kept at Sparta, the other in possession of commanders 
abroad. A strip of paper was rolled slantwise around the 
staff and the dispatch written lengthwise on it, when un- 
rolled the dispatch was ummntelhgible, but rolled slantwise 
round the commander's skytalé it could be read. Even if 
Gylippus had found the dispatch he could not have read it. 
^ Called Cleandiidas by Thucydides (6. 93.2). 


VOL V P2 495 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Üavár«, kat $vyov év Govpíow Trfs 'lraMas à- 
érpuDev — oóTow pév o)v, &vÓpes U«avoi vàAÀÀa 8ó- 
£avres eivai, vrabra mpd£avres TÓv àAÀov fiov 
a)TÓv karjoxvvav. 

107. 'A8qvatou Oé Trtv TOv Ovváueov dÜOÜopav 
akojcavres TOÜ jév dvréyeoÜa. cf ÜaÀárTos 
dTéoTQcQV, Tepi Oé Tiv TÓV TeUyÓv koraokeumv 
éyivovro kai To0s Au4évas &exyovvvov,' éXrritovres, 
ÓTep qv eicós, eis  TroAtopkíay kavraorTyoeaÜa:. 
evüv yàp oí pév TÓV Aaxebaupioviav Baociets 
* Axis kai lavcavías perà TroAMijs Dvvápiecos eupa- 
Aóvres eig T"]v ' Àrruc]v mpós vois Tre(yeoww éorpa- 
ToméOevov, Acavópos Oé mÀéov Ty) Oukootaus 
rpwjpeciw «is TOv llewouéa karémAevoev. oi 8 
"Afrvatot TrAucobrois Trepuexópievou Ka.ots Ojos 
dvretyov kai paBicos T)V TÓÀw TOpedUAarrov ém( 
Twa, xpóvov.  Tois Oe IeAorrovvnotots &Oo£ev, 
émeimep Óvayept)s Tjv 7) mroAtopicía, às uév Ovvápeus 
dra, yayety eK TÍjs "Arrucís, Tüis Oé vavoi pakpav 
éebpesew, ÓTOS adrois Hi vapakopua0f, otros. 
ary) ,avvreAcoBévros, oí pev 'AÁÜOmnvatow eis OewTv 
oTáww évémeoov dmávrov uév, udMova. Óé rpodfis 
Oud TO raíTQgv dei karà ÜcAarrav a)Trois kopgíi- 
£eoÜa..  émwrelvovros 66 roO OewoÜ kaÜ' nuépav, 
7) uev mÓAus éyepie vekpáv, ot 06 Aovrroi Ovmrpeopev- 
cápevou zpós AakeOotuoviovs cvvéDevro vq» eip)- 
vyv, co0Te Tà pakpà ckéM] kal rà Teiyn ToO 
Ilewpatécs vepweAetv, xat |uakpàüs vabs ur») mÀetov 
&yew  Oéka, rv 8e móÀecw macóv ékycpfjo. kai 


1 So Reiske: éreyóvvvov. 


——— 


1 Xenophon (Hell. 2. 9. 3), who was 1n. Athens on the 
A26 


BOOK XIII. 106. 10—107. 4 


death, spending his hfe as an exile in Thurii in Italy. 105 s.c. 
And so these men, who in all other affaws were 
looked upon as individuals of abihty, by such conduct 
brought shame upon the rest of their lives. 

107. When the Athen1ians heard ! ofthe destruction 
of their armaments, they abandoned the policy of 
control of the sea, but busied themselves with putting 
the walls in order and with blocking the harbours, ex- 
peetng, as well they might, that they would be be- 
sieged. For atonce the kings of the Lacedaemonians, 
Ágis and Pausanas, mvaded Atüca with a large 
army and pitched their camp before the walls, and 
Lysander with more than two hundred triremes put 
in at the Peiraeus. Although they were in the grip of 
such hard trials, the Athenians nevertheless held out 
and had no trouble defending their city for some time. 
And the Peloponnesians decided, since the siege was 
offering difficulties, to withdraw their armies from 
Áttica and to conduct a blockade at a distance with 
their ships, imn order that no grain should come to 
theinhabitants When this was done, the Athenians 
came into dire want of everything, but especially of 
food, because this had always come to them by sea 
Since the suffering increased day by day, the city was 
filled with dead, and the survivors sent ambassadors 
and concluded peace with the Lacedaemonians on the 
terms that they should tear down the two long walls 
and those of the Peiraeus, keep no more than ten ships 
of war, withdraw from all the cities, and recognize the 


occasion, tells how the news came.  '* It was at night that the 
Paralus arrived at Athens with tidings of the disaster, and a 
sound of wailhng ran from Piraeus through the long walls to 
the city, one man passing on the news to another; and 
durmg that night no one slept. . . ." (Tr. of Brownson in 
the L.C.L.) 


421 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


5 AakeBauuoviots 1 T'yep.óot xpfjo0a. Ó pev oov IHeAo- 
mrOvvi]otaKós nólepos,  apóroros yevópuevos. dv 
L(cj,ev, ToL0ÜTOV éoxe TO TÉéÀos, €T] OLajuetvas ésrTÀ 
TpOS TOÍS e€iKoot. 

108 Mux«póv 8é Tfjs euvqs vorepov éreAeóTqoe 
Aapetos O0 Tf "Aoias Baowe)Us, àp£as érn évvea- 
kaióeka, TT» Ó. mvyyenovtav Oveüé£ aro. TÓV viv o 
mpeapraros "Apra£ép£rs kai zjp&ev € éTw) rpüa Tipos 
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poxov TOV mowur?v 'AmoAAó0cpos ó 'AÜmvaiós 
$noww TvOnkéva. 

2  Kaorà 9é rrjv 2ukeAMav "IptAkov ó TOv Kapyno- 
viov àówyoópevos àpxopuévov ToU Üépovs r?v gév 
TÓV 'Ákpayavrivov róluv karéokode, rv 0. tepáv, 
e 5c ^j 6. ^ EET ; 
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» / 3 M ^ PA 4 ? A 

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émoimoe TÓ oTpáTevpua mavroías cdeAeías — werà 
9€ rara. éri léAav mopevÜeis vapà rÓv Ópovupuov 

4 moTrauÓv Tfj mÓÀe. kareoTparoTéOevoev.  éxÓvrQv 
06 rÀOv leAQwv éxr0s Tfjs "rÓAecos " AqóAAvos &v- 
Ópiávra yaAkoóv cd ó0po. péyav, cuAjaavres airov 
GméoreuAav eis TV Tópov. robrov pev ot Des 
Ado. karà TOv TOU ÜeoÜ xpquouov avéÜmkav, ot 

A / » « 3 e € 5 2» / 
9€ TUpwo, kaÜ' ov kawóv VvoTepov m ' AAe£ávópov 

* puo £Kavós Fost p?) kaAds. 
? So Capps- a/rós. 3 So Wessehng : Kauápwav 


! Cp. p. 417, n. 1 
* Antimachus of Colophon wrote an epic poem entitled 
Thebas and an elegiac poem Lydé. 


428 


BOOK XIII. 107 5—108. 4 


hegemony of the Laeedaemonians. And so the Pelo- 405 s.c. 
ponnesian War, the most protracted of any of which 

we have knowledge, having run for twenty-seven 
years, came to the end we have described. 

108. Not long after the peace Darius, the King of 
Ásia, died after a reign of nineteen years, and 
Artaxerxes, his eldest son, succeeded to the throne 
and reigned for forty-three years. During this period, 
as Apollodorus the Atheman' says, the poet Ánt- 
machus ? flourished 

In Sely ? at the beginning of summer Hxmilcon, 
the commander of the Carthagimans, razed to the 
ground the city of the Acragantim, and 1n the case 
of the temples which did not appear to have been 
sufficiently destroyed even by the fire he mutilated 
the sculptures and. everything of rather exceptional 
workmanship ; he then at once with his entire army 
invaded the territory of the Geloans In his attack 
upon all this territory and that of Camarnmna he en- 
riched his army with booty of every deseriphion. After 
this he advanced to Gela and pitched his camp along 
the river of the same name as the city The Geloans 
had, outside the city, a bronze statue of Apollo of 
colossal size ; this the Carthaginians seized as spoil 
and sent to Tyre.* The Geloans had set up the statue 
1n accordance with an oracular response of the god, 
and the Tynans at a later time, when they were being 
besieged by Alexander of Macedon, treated the god 


3 'The nariative 1s resumed from the end of chap. 96. 

* (Tyre was the mother-caty of the colony of Carthage. 
The Apollo of Tyre, as well as the Apollo who 1s mentioned 
in the treaty between the Carthaginians and Phihp of 
Macedon (Polybius, 7. 9), 1s generally considered to have 
been the god Reshef (variously spelled), originally a flame 
or hghtning god of Syria. 


4290 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ToÜ Makeóóvos émoAwopkotüvro, kaÜóBpiLov cs 
/ ^ / 3 / 5 
cwvaycoviOnevov Totg ToÀeuíow  '"AAefdvüpov 8 
€ / M "d € / / M N 
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ouovvpov Tjuépav kai r?v a)TQ]v cOpav év 5, Kap- 
x"89ówwow TÓv 'AmóÀÀcva cepi VéÀov éovAqocav, 
^ M ^ 
cuvéBm  TrumÜSva. Üvoíous Kai mpooóOow Tas 
neyioraus omo TOv 'EAMjvov, os atrwv yeyevn- 
uévov Tfjs àÀóoewos.  raüra gév oOv, kaümep év 
&AÀows TpaxÜévra xpóvow, o)k àvemwrrjoewv v)yn- 
c&j.e0a. vrap' &ÀXQÀa. Üctvac Gu& 70 mrapáGo£ov. 
€ ? 5 / p^ N 
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neos 7oAÀAMás BowgÜXcovra Tois xivOvvevovow. oi 
M ^ M M ^ ? / / M 
06 Dl'eAQow. 70 pév mpárov éjmóicavro rékva xai 
^ 4 
yvvatkas eis 2!vpakovcas omexÜcoÜa, 81à 7Ó uéyeÜos 
TOÜ mpocOokcopévov kiwOUvov: 7TÓv O6 yvvaudv éri 
ToUs kaT& T?v ayopàv D«wpo)s karaóvyovoóv kai 
^ ^ ^ P4 
Oeouévov Tí a)Tís Tots dvÓpáou TUx"s kowc- 
vfjonu, ovvexopnaav. perà 96 rara rá£ew mown- 
cáj.evow sÀe(oTas, küTrà gépos To)S oTpaTwDTAS 
áméoreAÀov émi Tv wópav: oÓrov O. éyumewíav 
éyovres émreriDevro rots grAavcyuévows rÀv vroAeptcv, 
«ai TroÀÀo)s pev abràv kaD" zjuépav àvfyyov Lóvras, 
, Y 7 A ? / el M / 
oUKk OÀcyovs Oé üvjpovv.  TrÀv 9é Kapyn8oviov 
ár0 gépovs mpooDaAAóvrov Tj TÓÀev. kai ots 
Kpuots kocraBaAAóvreov rà Tebyn yevvaios Yf)usvovro: 
TÓ T€ yàp éd. vcuépas rrrovra. rv TeUydv vukrÓs 
avgkoOópnovv, cvvvmgperovoÓv TÓV yvvaukóv kai 
430 


BOOK XIII. 108. 4-8 


disrespectfully on the ground that he was fighting on 405 s.c. 
the side of the enemy.! But when Alexander took the 
city, as Timaeus says, on the day with the same name 
and at the same hour on which the Carthaginians 
seized the Apollo at Gela, 1t came to pass that the god 
was honoured by the Greeks with the greatestsacnfices 
and processions as having been the cause of its cap- 
ture. Although these events took place at different 
times, we have thought 1t not inappropriate to bring 
them together because of their astonishing nature 
Now the Carthaginians cut down the trees of the 
countryside and threw a trench ? about their encamp- 
ment, since they were expecting Dionysius to come 
with a strong army to the aid of the impenlled in- 
habitants. The Geloans at first voted to remove their 
children and women out of danger to Syracuse because 
of the magnitude of the expected danger, but when 
the women fled to the altars about the market-place 
and begged to share the same fortune as the men, they 
yielded to them. After thus, forming a very large 
number of detachments, they sent the soldiers in turn 
over the countryside ; and they, because of their 
knowledge of the land, attacked wandenng bands of 
the enemy, daily brought back many of them alive, and 
slew nota few. And although the Carthaginians kept 
launching assaults in relays upon the city and breach- 
ing the walls with their battering-rams, the Geloans 
defended themselves gallantly ; for the portions of 
the walls which fell during the day they built up again 
at night, the women and children assisting. For those 


* Cp. Book 17. 41. 7. 
* And also a palisade built from the timbers (infra, chap. 
110 3). | 





i p m Vogel (fiom 17. 43. 5): ekoóónovv. 
431 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


zaíOcv' ot jv yàp àkpdLovres Ta(s TAwkiaus ev 
TOig ÓTÀois OvTes OweréAovv payópevo,, TÓ 8. GÀÀo 
mÀWÜos Tois épyow kai rais dÀÀaus mapaackevats 
TpooTj0peve perà máons mpoÜuuías: TO 6€ osvoAÀov 
oUrcS éOé£avro Tiv édoO0ov rÀv KapxynOovicv eó- 
poT«os, Gore kai Ólv avówxvupov éyovres kai 
cvuMdxcov Oóvres épruou, pos 96 roDrois rà Tei) 
ecpofvres Tümrrovra xarà TAe(ovas TÓmOUs, oU 
karemAdyncav TÓv vepieoTÓ Ta, kivOvvov. 

109 Auov/owos 8' o rv AXvpakoocíov TÜpavvos 
peramepabáuevos mapà cÀv é£ 'lraMas '"EAMjvov 
BoxÜeuav é£fye xai mapà vÀv dÀÀov ovuuáxov 
Osvapuv  éméAece Óé kai TÓv Xwpakocicv ToUs 
mÀeioTovus TÓV é£v Tukíg xai TroUs poÜodópovs 
karéAe£ev eis TO oTpamómeOov. «tye O6 roUs Gmav- 
TQ&S, CS MÉéV Tes, vrevrakiopvptovs, cs 6e Tüuouos 
avéypaije, melos uév Tpwopwpiovs, Gmrmeéis O6 xv- 
Abovs, vaOs 86 karadpákrTovs sevr/kovra. uer 
06 rocaUT)s OÓvváuewos éfopuyoas éri 7)» DoriÜeuav 
Tots l'eAdoiw, «os Tryywe Tíjs mÓÀeo0s, kareorpa.- 
ToméOevce Tapà TTyv ÜdAarrav | éomevóe yàp y) 
O.aomTüv Tv oTrpaTu.Áv, QAÀ  ék vob abDroU TóÓrmOv 
T?)v Opp? ToLoUpevos karà yfv dpa kai kaTà 
Ü&Aarrav àywviLecÜau Tots uév yàp JuÀots v»yc- 
viLero kaL T)V yopav oUK eta mpovoj.eUecÜau, Tots 
9' irm€Üou kai Talis vavoiv émewpüro Ts üyopàs 
dbawetoÜa. rTàs kopttopévas rots Kapyn&oviow éx 
Tf iius émucpareias. éd' Tuépas év oiv elikoot 
OvérpuBov o)0év àfuiov Aóyov mpürrovres: perà e 
TraÜra wvóovos roOs seLo)s eis rpia. uépr) OvetÀev, 
&v uév ráypa vowjoas rÀv 2ukcÀuoTÓv, ois mpoc- 
éraf£ev év* ápwrepü TT sóAw éyovras émi TÓv 
4982 


BOOK XIII 108. 8—109. 4 


who were in the bloom of their physical strength were 405 sc 
under arms and constantly in battle, and the rest of 

the multitude stood by to attend to the defences and 

the rest of the tasks with all eagerness. ln a word, 

they met the attack of the Carthaginians so stoutly 
that, although their city lacked natural defences and 

they were without alhes and they could, besides, see 

the walls falling in à number of places, they were not 
dismayed at the danger which threatened them. 

109. Dionysius, the tyrant of the Syracusans, sum- 
monig aid from the Greeks of Italy and his other 
allies, led forth his army ; and he also enlisted the 
larger part of the Syracusans of mihtary age and en- 
rolled the mercenaries 1n the army. He had 1n all, 
as some record, fifty thousand soldiers, but according 
to Timaeus, thirty thousand infantry, a thousand 
cavalry, and fifty decked vessels. With a force of such 
size he set out to the aid of the Geloans, and when he 
drew near the city, he pitched camp by the sea. For 
his intent was not to divide hus army but to use the 
same base for the fighting by land as well as by sea ; 
and with his light armed troops he engaged the enemy 
and did not allow them to forage over the countryside, 
while with his cavalry and ships he attempted to 
deprive the Carthaginians of the supphes which they 
got from the territory of which they were masters. 
Now for twenty days they were inactive, doing no- 
thing worthy of mention — But after this Dionysius 
divided his infantry into three groups, and one 
division, which he formed of the Sicilian Greeks, he 
ordered to advance against the entrenched camp of 





! rois l'eAdo: Reiske, Madvig, omitted L, rois Tómois cet 
? dy added by Reiske 


433 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Xápao. TÓV évayTitov rropeóeaÜau- TÓ 9 érepov 
ráypa cuppáxov karacrioas ékéAcvaev év^ Octa 
vyV  mÓÀuw Exovras émeíyeoQo: TOp' a)rOv TÓV 
aivyvaÀAóv: abrós O. éxycwv TÓ TrÓÀV pua 0odópcv ov- 
Taypu. 0, Tis vÓÀecs cppmoev émi TOv TÓTOV, oO 
TÓ Aoxav pora TÓv Kapxqooviov fv. xai mois 
pev irmebot TapiyyetÀev, émeuàv iócogt TOUS TeCoUs 
opwnpévovs, OvaBfjva. róv morauov xai TÓ ceOLbov 
kaDurmáteo0at, kàv uév ópOot croDs iOlovs mpore- 
potvras, avveniAaqáveo0ac. rífjs uáxns, àv 9^ éa- 
Tcévovs, 9éyeo0ac Tos ÜMfopuévovs: rois 9 
TOig vavoi vapY?yyee spós Tv TOV 'lraAworów 
édoOov Tfj mapeuBoÀAg T&v moAeuiov émvwurAc6- 
ca. 

110. Eokaipas 9' aTÓv movjaávrav TÓ mapory- 
yeAOév, ot puév ,Kapyvnóóvwo Tros ékeivo TÓ |épos 
vapeforiÜovv, aveipyovres ToUs ek TÓV vedv ümo- 
Batvovras- kai yàp o08 ,OxXvpcpiévoy Tfjs oTpoo- 
mreóelas" TÓ MÉpos elxov, à day TÓ vrapà TÓV aya óv 
ot 9. "lIraMórrat karà roÜrov rÓv kaipóv mapá rjv 
ÜáAarrav rÓ wv Otaviócavres éméÜevro Tfj mapep- 
BoÀá rOv Kapxmóovéov, To)s mÀeiorovs eópóvres 
mapafe ong ]kóras érmi Tàs vas: rovg O' émi roU- 
Tov TOD j.épovs ÓmoAcAeutpuévovs rpeidpevot TOpeug- 
émeoov eig Tv orporomeócíay. oó yevrÜévros oL 
Kapyn8óviov 7T TÀcioro pépew Tíjs óvvápeos ém- 
orpéjavres kai mroÀUv Ouvycvioápevo, xypóvov uóyvs 
é£éncav rog évrOs víjs Tá$pov Diacapgévovs. oi 
0€ 'IraAu)ra. T me. vrÀv Dopfápcov kara- 


4 SkéAeue À, ékéAevoe cet. * éy added by Reiske. 
5 fs orparomeBelos placed here by Reiske from after aiyia- 
óv. 


4984 


BOOK XIII 109. 4—110 3 


their adversaries with the city on their left flank ; the 405 5c 
second division, which he formed of alhes, he com- 
manded to drive along the shore with the city on their 
nght; and he himself with the contingent of mercen- 
aries advanced through the cty against the place 
where the Carthaginian engines of war were stationed. 
And to the cavalry he gave orders that, as soon as they 
saw the infantry advanemg, they should cross the 
river and overrun the plam, and if they should see 
their comrades winning, they should Join in the fight- 
ing, but in case they were losing, they should receive 
any who were in distress ; and to the troops on the 
ships his orders were, so soon as the Italian Greeks 
made their attack, to sail agamst the camp of the 
enemy. 

110. When the fleet carried out their orders at the 
proper time, the Carthaginians rushed to the aid of 
that sector 1n an attempt to keep back the attackers 
disembarking from the ships ; and in fact that portion 
of the camp which the Carthaginians occupied was 
unfortified, all the part which lay along the beach. 
And at this very t&me the Italian Greeks, who had 
covered the entire distance along the sea, attacked 
the camp of the Carthaginans, having found that 
most of the defenders had gone to give aid against the 
ships, and putting to flight the troops which had been 
left behind at this place, they forced their way into 
the encampment. At this turn of affairs the Cartha- 
ginians, turning about with the greater part of ther 
troops, after a sustained fight, thrust out with diff- 
culty the men who had forced their way within the 
trench. The Italian Greeks, overcome by the multi- 


435 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TOVOUL€vou kürà T")v Qvayoprnow «eis TÓ ToÜ 
xdpakos Gama Svpevov évémumTOV, O0ÜUK éÉyovres 
4 BorÜeuav- ol ve yàp IuceAras Ou ToU meOiov 
rropevóp.evou kaÜvorépovv vrÀv kaupóv, ot ve per 
Auovvoiov uuGÜ0oóópor uóyw?  Overopevovro  ràs 
karà TT)V TÓÀw OO00)s, o7 Bwvdguevot Kam Tiv 
ioiay zrpoaípegiv émuoTeÜUcau. oi óc l'eAQoi ILéXp. 
Twós émecióvres émefovÜovv xarà Bpaxàv TÓTOV 
Toig 'lraAworous, evÀaDoUpevou Awmreiv Tv TOV 
TeGx y $vAarev" OuÓTep Üorépovv Tfs PBownÜcias. 
5 oL 06^ TBnpes KQL Kapiravoi nerà TÓY Kapxyn8ovicov 
or porrevóp.evo xai Dapeis émrucetquevo, TOlS TO 
Tfs 'leaAías "EAAqow, karéBaAov aboTOv mÀe(ovs 
TÓV xyiMcv.  TÓv Ó' év rais vavoiv Qveipyóvrov 
TofeUuaci ToUs OÓuókovras, oi Aovroi uer àoQa- 
6 Acías O,eocÜncav mpós T?]v móÓAw. ék 9€ Üarépov 
pépovs oi £ukeAuora, mpós TOUS dmavrcavras 
AiBvas Suaycviodpevou ovxvovs uév aUTÓv dvetÀov, 
To)s 89  dAÀAovs eis Tv oTparomeOe(av ovveOtc£av: 
TOv 6é 'IfWpcv kai Kapmavàv, ér. 96 Kapyn- 
Oovicv, vapaBonÜnaávrov rois AiBvoi, vepi. é£a- 
kogiovs amofjaAóvres vpós TT]|v vóAuwv àmexepmoav. 
7 oL O. immeis (s ei0ov TroUs iOtovs T)TTYU VOUS, kal 
aDTroi mpos TrTv TÓÀw aríjAÜov, émruceuiévavy adrols 
TÓV mroAeguicov. ALovóatos 06 uóyws OwAÜQv cv 
móAw dos karTéAae TÓ orpoómrebov 7 ÀaTTCLÉVOV, 
TÓT€ LéV €vrOg TÓV TeiyÓv Qvexyopnoev 
111. Merü 8€ vaóra TÓÀv diÀwov ocvvayayov 
cvvéOüpiov éBovAeUero sept roO woÀéuov.  mávrcv 
06 Aeyóvrov àvervrjOevov eivau rÓv rÓmOV Trepi TÓV 
l dmofvppévov] érofvppuévov PÀ, ámoxyvpopévov Reiske 
póyu Dindorf: uóXs. 
436 


BOOK XIIL 110. 3—111 1! 


tude of the barbanians, encountered as they withdrew 405 s.c. 
the acute angle of the pahsade and no help came 
to them ; for the Sicilian Greeks, advancing through 
the plain, came too late and the mercenaries with 
Dionysius encountered difficulues in malang their 
way through the streets of the city and thus were 
unable to make such haste as they had planned. The 
Geloans, advancing for some distance from the city, 
gave aid to the Italian Greeks over only a short space 
of the area, since they were afraid to abandon the 
guarding of the walls, and as a result they were too 
late to be of any assistance. The Iberians and Cam- 
panians, who were serving in the army of the Cartha- 
ginians, pressing hard upon the Italian Greeks, slew 
more than a thousand of them. But since the crews 
of the ships held back the pursuers with showers of 
arrows, the rest of them got back in safety to the city. 
In the other part the Scihan Greeks, who had en- 
gaged the Libyans who opposed them, slew great 
numbers of them and pursued the rest into the en- 
campment ; but when the Iberians and Campanians 
and, besides, the Carthaginians came up to the aid of 
the Libyans, they withdrew to the city, having lost 
some six hundred men. And the cavalry, when they 
saw the defeat of their comrades, likewise withdrew 
to the city, since the enemy pressed hard upon them. 
Dionysius, having barely got through the city, found 
his army defeated and for the time bemg withdrew 
within the walls. 

111. After this Dionysius called à meeting of his 
friends and took counsel regarding the war. When 
they all said that hus posinon was unfavourable for a 

43'1 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


óAcv OuakpiveaÜas rots sroAeutois,! mpós T)v éomé- 
pov dGéoTeie küpuka epi Tí eis aUDpuv av- 
a,pégecs rÓÀv vekpüv, kai TOv uév ék Tfjs móAeos 
OxyAov Trepi Trpo $vAakTyy Tfs vukxTOs éfaméore- 
cv, aUTOs Oe qrepi péoas VÜKTOS dope, Korra- 
Aurov TOV JaÀÓv mepi Ov yiAtovs. TobTous Ó Üv 
7rapnyyeAuévov T'Up kalew àv óÀms Tfjs vukrós 
Kai ÜopuBorowetv pós TrÓ Oó£av éwmovíjoaw Tots 
KopynBoviois dos Mévovros év rfj TÓÀe.. oDrow uév 
ov 70m. Tfjs ")épo.s ÜmoQcokotons aóoppuwrocav 
vpós TOUS Trepi TÓV Avovóavov, oí 8é Kapyn8óvwo: 
OvoÜóevot TÓ yeyovos pereorpororrébevoav eis 
T^v TÓAw kai Trà TepieudÜévra karà màs oik(as 
Oujprracav. 

Aovóatos 9é rra pojyevópuevos eig T')v Kapápwav 
Tjvd-ykoce ka ToUs € éket perà rékvov kai yvvaucdv 
eig 3vpakobcas &mriévaa. ToU $óBov o oO8ejuia 
&vafioArjv Ou8óvros Tivés uév àpyüpiov kai ypvotov 
kai, TÀ DQOius  dépeoÜo. DSuvápeva cvveokevátovro, 
Tivég Bé wyoveis kai Tékva! cà viua. AaBóvres 
&pevyov, otOeplav émuarpoQriv Xpup&reov TTOLOU- 
pievou: &viot Óé yeympakóres 1 vóc«c apvvópevot 
ov epnutaw gwyyevav 7] düvov. ÜmeAeizrovro, mpoo- 
okcpévov | ócov oro vapéceoÜa, TÓÀv Kopyn- 
Ooviv: *) yàp tTepi 2ieAwvotvra kai 'luépav, éri 
0€ "Akpdyavra, yevop.évm cvpiQopá TOUS avÜpo rovs 
é£érÀnrre, mrávrQOV kaÜdzep vro T?» Ópaow Aag- 
Bavóvrcv Tv TÓV Kapyn8ovíc Sewórra.. oJ- 
Octo, yàp jv rap. aDTois Qei9c TÓV ückopévov, 


1 BuakpívecÜa, ois soAÀeuíou Vogel.  xpíveoüa. uà o) 
mroÀepiovs 
*? kai after rékva deleted by Wessehng. 


438 


BOOK XIII. 111. 1-4 


decisive battle with the enemy, he dispatched a herald 405 s.c 
toward evening to arrange for the taking up of the 
dead on the next day, and about the first watch of the 
night he sent out of the aity the mass of the people, 
while he himself set out about the middle of the mght, 
leaving behind some two thousand of his hghi-armed 
troops. These had been given orders to keep fires 
burning through the entre mght and to make an 
uproar in order to cause the Carthaginians to believe 
that he was still in the city. Now these troops, as the 
day was beginning to break, set out to joi Dionysius, 
and the Carthaginians, on learning what had taken 
place, moved their quarters into the city and plun- 
dered what had been left of the contents of the 
dwelhngs. 

When Dionysius arrived at Camarina, he compelled 
the residents of that city also to depart with their 
children and wives to Syracuse. And since then fear 
admitted of no delay, some gathered together silver 
and gold and whatever could be easily carried, while 
others fled with only their parents and infant children, 
paying no attention to valuables ; and some, who 
were aged or suffermg from illness, were left behind 
because they had no relatives or friends, since the 
Carthagimuans were expected to arrive almost im- 
medaately. For the fate that had befallen Selinus 
and Himera and Ácragas'! as well terrified the popu- 
lace, all of whom felt as if they had actually been eye- 
witnesses of the savagery of the Carthaginians. For 
among them there was no sparing their captives, but 


1 Cp. chaps. 57 f., 62, and 90 respectively. 
430 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


&AA' ,&ovpma Ds TÓV Tjroynkórcov o)s jv üv- 
eorapouv, ots 0. à$op5)rovs émiyov Uppeis. oU 
Ha aAà Ovetv TróAeav e&opubopiéveov éyepev 7 
Xo po" yovaukóv kai TaLOcv kai TÓV GAÀcv OxAcov: 
& Üewpoüvres oi oaTparurau Ov Ópyfs uév eiyov 
TOv Awovvoiov, vÀéovv OÓé ràs vÓv üakAnpo)vrcov 
TÜyas* éc)pov yàp vratóas cAevÜépovs. KaL "ra pÜcvovs 
émvyápuovs áva&tcs Tfjs Tuta. eS érvXe Kar Tv 
000v dpprpévas, émei07) TTV oepwórnra kai TT) 
TpOs rovs GÀÀoTpious évrpomTv OÓ koupós àjmpetro. 
vapamÀnotes 9é kat Trois mpeopvrépow avvrjAyovv, 
BAérovres vapà d$Vow avaykalouévovs aua rois 
&kpáLovow émomeUOew. 

112 Eo ols é£ekdero TO karó. ToO ALovvotov 
Hiaos Kai yàp UmeAdpBavov aoróv éx ovvÜécecws 
Toro merowkévau 7rpós To TQ! Kapyn8oviov dófo 
TÓV GAY mróAeov do9aAÀÓs Bvvaoedaw. veAoyt- 
Lovro yàp TTV BpaSvrijra TÍS BonÜc(as, TÓ pm6éva 
mreTTCOKÉVO TÓv puot odópov, TO pgn98evos Gpot 
"rralojuoros yeyernpévou $vyeiv dAÀóycs, cro 8e 
péyvoTov, TO unéva. TÀv zroAen iov émkoÀov- 
Üsxévav dore Tots mpórepov émiÜvuobow koupóv 
Aafetv -Tíjs dwoorácecos xaÜdrep Üeóv mpovoía 
mávra! Owovpyet pos Tv karáÀvoiww Tfs Óv- 

/ 
vaoretas 

Oi uév oov 'lraAwOras kaTaÀwrÓvres abrOv éw 
otkov Ouà Tfjs pegoyetov Ti]v rrope(av émowjcavro, 

O6 TÓv wpakxociov imme TÓ pév mpórTov 
* éyepiev 9? xopo Wurm  év Tf xdp 
? ró TO Dindorf: 7À 7ív PA, TO TÓY Cél. 
3 So Reiske . Távras. 


1 To Gela. 
440 


BOOK XIII 1il. 4—112 3 


they were without compassion for the wictims of «05 s.c. 
Fortune of whom they would crucify some and upon 
others infhct unbearable outrages | Nevertheless, now 
that two cities had been driven into exile, the country- 
side teemed with women and children and the rabble 
in general. And when the soldiers witnessed these 
conditions, they were not only enraged against 
Dionysius but also filled with pity at the lot of the 
unfortunate victims; for they saw free-born boys and 
maidens of marnageable years rushing pellamell along 
the road in a manner mmproper for ther age, since 
the stress of the moment had done away with the 
dignity and respect which are shown before strangers. 
Similarly they sympathized also with the elderly, as 
they watched them being forced to push onward 
beyond their strength while trying to keep up with 
those 1n the prime of hfe. 

112 Itwasforthesereasons that the hatred against 
Dionysmus was flaring up, ance men assumed that he 
had so acted from thus definite plan: by using the 
dread of the Carthaginians to be lord of the remaining 
cities of Sicily without risk. For they reckoned up his 
delay m bringing aid ! ; the fact that none of his mer- 
cenanes had fallen; that he had retreated without 
reason, since he had suffered no senous reverse ; and, 
most mmportant of all, that not a single one of the 
Carthagimians had pursued them. | Consequently, for 
those who before this were eager to seize an oppor- 
tunity to revolt, all things, as if by the foreknowledge 
of the gods, were workmg toward the overthrow of 
the tyrannical power. 

Now the Italian Greeks, deserting Dionysius, made 
their way home through the interior of the 1sland, and 
the Syracusan cavalry at first kept watch in the hope 


441 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


émerYjpowv, eL OUvouvro kaà TT O800v dveAeiv TOv 
TÜpavvov: cs 9é écpuov o)k darmroÀetmrovras aDTÓv 
To)s guoÜ0odópovs, OpoÜvuaóO0v Gdürmevoav eis 
TÓS Zwpakoócas. karaAaBóvres 0€ To)g év rois 
vecoptows àyvoobtvras TÀà epi Tiv l'éAav, ciafjAUov 
oX0evós kayMógavros, ka Tv pev OLKCLO TD Auovv- 
oiov Ow)pracav yéuovoav àpyópov Te kai ypvcob 
kai rfs àAÀns voÀvreAe(as ümáons, T?)v 06 yvvatka 
cvAÀAafóvres oOrw OuDecav kaküs dore kai TÓv 
T)pavvov Papécos évéyew mv Opywvv, vopitovres 
Tiv TOüUTUS TUicopiav peytorv etva, vioTU fs 
vpós AAA ovs kowtvias karà T?)v eriBeaw. o 
Oe Auovóotos xarà T7 OOowvropíav TÓ yeyovós 
karaoToyalóuevos, éméAefe vOv (immécov kai TÓv 
meLÀv ToUs TioTOoTÓTOUS, pueÜ" (v Tymevyero TpÓs 
T?v TÓlw oTovófjs o)0€v éAAevro v: éAoyilero yàp 
o)k dv dÀÀos Óvvaróv émwuparfoat TÀVv UmTÉécV, 
eb p) cre Ot" Ómep emotmoev. e( yàp Trapa- 
Oo£órepov? ekelvcov movijoauTo T)v ddi£w, TAmie 
pg8íes kporijoew Tfjs empoAMfs ,Smep kal ovv- 
émeoev. oí yàp UrTTels OUT. üv eT * dveABetv obre 
petvau koarà TÓ aTparómeOov TOv Awovóouov Üm- 
eAduBavov: OGumep  kexpargkéva.  7íjs  évBoAMs 
vouicavres, édacav a)rÓóv ék pév VéAas mpoorow- 
Üfva. Tro)s (Doivucas  dmoO0i0páokew, vvvi O6 os 
aAÀnÜds dro8e8pakéva, Tos 2ivpakootovs. 

118. Auovóotos 06 Ouavicas oraOiovs epi rerpa.- 
Kooiovs mapfjv mepi uéaas vükras pos TT»v TÜÀqv 


1 So Post: éveyketv 
? So Reiske. meot. 
? zapaóo£órepov] mapà 80£av Reiske. 
* ày ér added bv Post. 


442 


BOOK XIII. 112. 3—113. 1 


that they might be able to slay the tyrant along the 405 ».c 
road ; but when they saw that the mercenaries were 
not deserting him, they rode off with one accord to 
Syracuse And finding the guards of the dockyards ! 
knew nothing of the events at Gela, they entered 
these without hindrance, plundered the house of 
Dionysius which was filled with silver and gold and all 
other costly things, and seizing his wife left her so 
ill-used? as to ensure the tyrant's keeping his anger 
fiercely alive, achüng as they did in the belief that 
the vengeance they wreaked on Daonysius' wife 
would be the surest guarantee of the holding by 
each other in their attack upon him. And Dionysius, 
guessing while on the way what had taken place, 
picked out the most trustworthy of his cavalry and 
infantry, with whom he pressed toward the city 
without checlang speed; for he reasoned that he 
could overcome the cavalry by no other means than 
by speedy action, and he acted accordingly. For if 
he should make his arrival even more of a surprise 
than theirs had been, he had hope that he would 
easily carry out his design ; and that is what hap- 
pened. For the cavalry assumed that Dionysius 
would now neither return to Syracuse nor remam 
with his army ; consequently, 1n the belief that they 
had carried out their deagn, they said that he had 
pretended that im leaving Gela he was giving the slip 
to the Carthaginians whereas the truth in fact was 
that he had given the slip to the Syracusans 
113. Dionysius covered a distance of four hundred 

stades ? and arnved at the gates of Achradiné about 
» 2r Dionysius had taken up his residence (chap. 
96. 2). 


? According to Plutarch (Dion, 3 1), she subsequently 
committed suicide 3 About 46 miles. 


443 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ ? ^ 5€ 7 € M bI ^ e 
Tfs 'AxpaOwftis je0* immréov ékaróv kat meGóv é£a- 
Kocicv: fv karaÀapeov kekAewpévnv, mpoaoéünkev 
a)Tf rÓv karakekopucpévov ék TOV €Ààv káAapiov, 
CN A^ / € / A A ^ 
Q xpfja6o. vopitovow ot Zvpakógto, mpós Tv TÍjs 
Kovias oUvOeow.  év 0o«q 0€ cvvéDauve ràs s/Àas 
karakatecÜa,, mpocaveAduBave rovs à$vorepotv- 
Tas.  émei05 O6 TO mÜp karédÜeipe mTàs mas, 
obros uév perà TOV zkoAovÜskórcov eio] Aavve óuà 
TÍS "Axpo&wfjs, TÓV Ó Urméay oL Ovvamóyramot TÓ 
yeyovós àkovoavres, TÓ pév cAMÜos ook avépuevov, 
evÜUs ó e&epojÜovv Ovres 0ACyoi mavreAQs—1oav 
6€ qepi TUVO , &yopáv—kai KkvukAcÜOévres n0 TÓYV 
iuo odópcov Gmravres kartqKovriaÜroav. 0 66 Ato- 
votos émeABov rv mÓAw ToVs T€ ovropdómv éxBon- 
Üoüvras àvetÀe, kai mv àAÀAorpics! Oukewuiévov 
eme. Tüs oiKías, Qv TOUS pv amékTewe, roUs 8 
eK Tfjs móAecos e£ épaAe. TO 8é Aovróv zMjos TÓV 
Umrméov ékereaóv ék Tfs TróAecos. kareAáBero T)v vOv 
kaAovpévrv Avryqy ^ dpa o T epa. TÓ pev vÀsÜos 
TÓV pia odópcov kai TÓ oTpárevpa TÓv 2ukeA- 
crüv karTvTQOev eig ràs 2wpakodcas, l'eÀQor 8é 
«Gi Kapapwato: vr  covvaio S$uadópos | éyovres 
eis. Aeovrivovs àürmAÀéynoav. 

114. . . . Auómep omró TOv rrpozynárov àvaykató- 
pevos 'luias émejujev eis Xvpakovcas k"puka, 
rr'GpakaAÓv rovs 1rr]uévovs 9.aÀjoacÜat.  Aopévos 
O  jmakoUcavros ToU /uvvoiov TTv eipyvqv émi 
ToicÓe éÜevro  Kapywqooviov «iva. perà | Ov éé 
&pxfs aTotkcv 'EAUjovs* kat 23ucavoss: 2eAwovv- 

1 rf móÀe, after üAorpicos deleted by Vogel. 


? So Wessehng -* 'Axpaóujv 3 nera Madvig : uév. 
* So Madwvig, Unger | dAAovs. 


444 


BOOK XIII. 113. 1—114. 1 


the middle of the night with a hundred cavalry and 405 s.c. 
six hundred infantry, and finding the gate closed, he 
piled upon it reeds brought from the marshes such as 
the Syracusans are accustomed to use to bind then 
stuceo. While the gates were bemg burned down, he 
gathered to his troops the laggards. And when the 
fire had consumed the gates, Dionysius with his fol- 
lowers made their way through Achradiné, and the 
stoutest soldiers among the cavalry, when they heard 
what had happened, without waitng for the main 
body, and although they were very few in number, 
rushed forth at once to aid m the resistance They 
were gathered in the market-place, and there they 
were surrounded by the mercenaries and shot down 
toaman. Then Dionysius, ranging through the city, 
slew any who came out here and there to resist him, 
and entenng the houses of those who were hostile 
toward him, some of them he lalled and others he 
banished from the city. The main body of the cavalry 
which was left fled from the city and occupied Aetné, 
asitisnow called. At daybreak the main body of the 
mercenaries and the army of the Sicihan Greeks 
arrived at Syracuse, but the Geloans and Camari- 
naeans, who were at odds with Dionysius, left him and 
departed to Leontini 

114. . . .! Consequently Himilear, acting under 
the stress of circumstances, dispatched a herald to 
Syracuse urging the vanquished to make up their 
differences. Dionysius was glad to comply and they 
concluded peace on the followig terms: To the 
Carthaginians shall belong, together with their original 
colonists, the Elym: and Sicam ; the inhabitants of 


! Here there was probably an account of the plague which 
visited the Carthaginian army 


445 


2 


3 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tiovs 06 kai 'Akpayavrivovs, éru O' 'luepaíovs, 
Tpós 8€ rovro: l'eÀgovs ka. Kapuapwaiovs oüketv 
pév dv á&rewlorows mais wóÀeow, dópov Óé reAetv 
rois Kapyv9ovtois : Acovrivous 0€ kai Meocamvíovs 
kai 2iuceAoUs Grravras oXrovópovs elvat, kai 2pa- 
Kootous Hev jTO0 ÁAwv)octov reráxBou- TO, O€ aixuá- 
Aera kai ràs vaOs dmoOoÜvau TroUs" Ééyovras Toís 
aToBaAo0ot. 

Tv cevvÜgkàv 8é yevouévov Rapxr8ówot pev 
eis. Auogv e£énAevaav, vÀetov T) TÓ Tipuov |épos 
Tdv OrparwTÓv &moBaAóvres ÓzO Tí vócov: 
oU0év O' frov kat karà Awgówv Ouapetvavros ToO 
Aouuo0, vaumrÀwÜets abDrÓÀv Tre rÀÓv Kapxyn8oviov, 
éru 06 rÓv ovppdycv OveÜápnoav. 

'"Huets 8é mapayyevÜévres émi TT)V kardAÀvow 
TÓV moÀépov, kará pev T7jv 'EAAáóa roO lleAorov- 
voto, kara àé TÜV ZukceAMay ToU Kapy8ovíows 
TpOs Avovictov mpórov gvorávros, TyoUpeÜ0a. Oetv 
émvrereAeapévns Tis TpoÜécecs TÓS é£fjs mpáéew 
eis? T)v éyouévqv. BipAov karaycpíca. 


1 rovs added by Reiske. 


? ràs éfás v «e Wessehng: eis ràs é£fjs npá£es. 


446 


BOOK XIII. 114 1-3 


Selnus, Acragas, and Himera as well as those of Gela 405 s.c. 
and Camarma may dwell in their cities, which shall be 
unfortified, but shall pay tribute to the Carthaginians; 

the inhabitants of Leontini and Messené and the S1ceh 

shall all live under laws of their own making, and the 
Syracusans shall be subject to Dionysius ; and what- 

ever captives and ships are held shall be returned to 

those who lost them 

Ás soon as this treaty had been concluded, the 
Carthagmians sailed off to Libya, having lost more 
than half their soldiers from the plague; but the 
pestilence continued to rage no less in Libya also and 
great numbers both of the Carthaginians themselves 
and of thex allies were struck down. 

But for our part, now that we have arrived at the 
conclusion of the wars, in Greece the Peloponnesian 
and 1n Sicily the first between the Carthaginians and 
Dionysius, and our proposed task has been completed, 
we think that we should set down the events next in 
order in the followmg Book 


1 Cp. chap. 1. 3. 


44/7 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER 
NAMES! 


ABDERA, 323 

Abydus, 220-283, 240, 259 

Academy, 325 

Acanthus, 69 

AÀcarnama, 28 

Achradiné, 9989, 443 f 

Acragantini, 1i1, 185, 270, 285, 
351-379 passum 

Actage; 279, 285, 289, 351-375, 


Acté, 11, 73 

Adeimantus, 915 

Adramytium, 85, 95 

Aegesta, 139, 143, see also Egesta 

Aegestaeans, 135, 237-243, 2775 

Aeginetans, 67 

Aegospotami, 421 

Aemilius, Ans, 105 

Aeolians, 397 

Aequi, 63, 141, 237 

Aetolians, 51 

Agatharchus, 150 

Agis, 97- ne 149, 323 £, 427 

Alcaeus, 8 

Aldo 97£,107,113f,129f, 
1835 f, 147 f, 197, 207, '291 T5 
"m h f, 24'7, 257- 265, 301-399, 


Alexander, 429 f. 
Alexias, 417 

Alopé, 13 
Ambraceiotes, 53 
Ameilnias, 8l 
Amphipolis, 71f,87 
Amyntas, 29 
Andros, 315 
Antandmnans, 235 
Antandrus, 81 


Anthemion, 303 
Antügenes, 333 
Antimachus, 429 
Antiochus, 81, 319 f 
Antiphon, 108 
Antisthenes, 359 f. 
Anytus, 303 
A pollo, 429 f 
Apollo Pythaeus, 97 
Apollodorus, 417, 420 
Aracus, 400 
Archelaus, 257, 417 
Archestratus, 329 
Archias, 97 
Archidamus, 9, 21 
Argeius, 369 
Arginusae Islands, 397, 401 
Argives, 91, 95-107, 137 
Arimnestus, 109 
Aristagoras, 71 
Aristeides, 81 
Aristion, 80 
Aristocrates, 329, 411 
Aristogenes, 329, 411 
Ariston, 151 
Artaxerxes, 61, 429 
Asinarus River, 175 
Astyphulus, 95 
Atalante, 13 
Atarneus, 305 
Athenians, 9, 11-235 passum, 243- 
271 passwn, 299-845 qpassvm, 
307-429 passum 
Athos, 25 
Aulis, 2 


Bahandes Islands, pu 
Blauda, 419 


i1 A complete Index will appear m the last, volume. 


VOL. V 


440 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Boeotans, 3-7, 75-79, 97, 251, 
28 f , 405 
Bolae, 237 

Botticé, 21 

Brasidas, 11, 57-61, 69-75, 81 £, 87 
Byzantines, '109, 300 f 
Byzantium, 218, 307 


Calhades, 411 
Callias, 65, 218, 347 
CRIICHRMDAN, 9835-345 passum, 399- 


Callxenus, 415 

Camarmaeans, 135,157, 365, 445 f. 

Cameirus, 331 

Campanians, 03, 241, 27", 295, 
947, 363, 367-371, 497 

Canis, 897 

Cardia, 257 

Carthagmians, 111 f, 239-248, 
2773-207, 345- 951, 361- 271, 305, 
429-441. 

Catanaeans, 185, 189 

Catané, 185 f, 139 f,175 

Centoripa, 357 

Cephallenia, 18 

Cephalus, 217 

Cercyraeans, 95, 43 f, 
Corcyra 

ChabriAs, 129 

Chaereas, 259-268 

Chaleedon, 801 

Chalcedonians, 109 

Chalcidians, 29 f 

Chaleis, 251 

Chanieles, 149 

Charoeades, 35 

Chians, 305, 885 

Ch10s, 213, 297, 405 £ , 417 

Ohrysopols, 301 

Claudius, Titus, 109 

Clazomenae, 919 


See also 


Clearchus, 231, 263, 309, 401, 425 | 


Clemippides, 30 

Cleoeritus, 147 

Cleon, 41, '85 f, 

Cleophon, 271 

Cleopompus, 13 

Cleri, 261 

Cnemus, 28, 2b f 

Cocalus, 81 

Conon, 11, 255, 329, 335-345 
passum, 407, 411, 417, 428 

Corcyra, 138, 253-257, see also 
Cercyraeans 


450 


| 





Coré, 205 

Cormnth, 141 

Cormthians, A3f, 65,95 
Cornelius, Aulus, 102, 105 
Cornelius, Garus; 295 
Oornelns, Marous, 2837 
Cornelis, Publius, 218, 417 
Cornelius. Cossus, Aulus, 89 
Cornelms Cossus, Servius, 38 
CornehDus Macerinus, Aulus, 17 
Coroneia, 2338 

Cos, 317 

Cratesippidas, 305 

Croesus, 183 

Crommyon, 6'7 

Cronus, 365 

Cymaeans 327 

Cymé, 93 f , 327, 307, 405 
Cyrus, 183, ' 817 f, 417 f 
Cythera, 67, 105 

Cyziceni, 233 

Cyzcus, 231, 259, 207 


Daphnaeus, 865-360, 3 

Danus, 71, 79, 221, SEN 417, 429 

Dasceon, 161 

Deceleià, 1490, 823, 415 

Delha, 79 

Dehans, 95 

Delum, 75-79, 325 

Delos, 49, 85 

Delphinium, 385 

Demeter, 205 

Demosthenes, 51 f, 69, 75, 151- 
159, 171, 175, 209, 303 

Dexippus, 368, 367f, 873, 885 f, 


Diagoras, 141 

Diocles, 175, 211-210 passwn, 218, 
289, 293, 3, 331 f. 

Diodorus, 513 

Diomedes, 320 

Diomedon, 929, 411 f 

Dionysius, 333, 970-805 passum, 
493-447 

Dioscurias, 138 

Diotimus, 25 

Dium, 69 

Dorieus, 225, 243 f. 

Drabeseus, 78 


Edones, 78 

Egestaeans, 109-118, see also Ae- 
gestaeans 

Tion, 87 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Eleians, 13 

Eleus, 227, 959 

Rlorium, 175 

Elymi, 445 

Empedion, 287 

Endius, 267 

Epameinon, 17 
Ephesians, 301 
Ephesus, 299, 317, 385, 417 f 
Ephorus, 233, 278, 291, 340 
Epiclerus, 30 

Epicles, 293 

REpidamnus, 48 
Epipolae, 143 f,155 
Epipolé, 145, 155 
Erasmides, 399 

Hretna, 221 

Eryx, 349 

Eteonicus, 407, 423 
Eubatus, 311 

Euboea, Sl 

Euboeans, 405 
REucleides, 31 
Euctemon, 9811 
Euphemus, 105 
Euripides, 899, 417 
REurnpus, 251 
Eurymedon, 37, 158, 159 
Euthydemus, 159 
Euthynes, 45 

Evagoras, 498 
Exaenetus, 109, 213, 355 


Fabius, Caeso, 225 

Fabius, Gaius, 213 

Fabius, Marcus, 45 

Fabius, Quintus, 1490, 273 
Fahns, Marcus, 45 

Fidenates, 105 

Furims, Gaius, 108, 278 

Funus, Lucis, 51, 105, 237, 8347 


Galepsus, 73 
Geganius, Marcus, 11 
Es 365, 875, '885, 895, 420- 


Geloans, 135, 157, 279, 375, 385, 
389'"7, 429- 447 passum 
Gelon, 183, 239, 275, 287, 2905, 


Gescon, 239 

Glauecippus, 297 

Gorgias, 83 

Gylippus, 141-145, 197-211, 215, 


Hagnon, 17 £., 73 
Halicarnassus, 23b 

Hamilcar, 230, 287, 205 
HanPAD 229- :249, 573- 207,847f, 


Hanno, 347 

Hecabé, 281 

Hera Lacuna, 133 

Heracleia, 49 £ , 81, 95 

Heracleidae, 91 

Heracleides, 133 

Heracles, 51 

Hermes, 129 

Hermocrates, 188, 155, 178, 177, 
215, 220, 207 f , 331f, 875, 395 

Hiero, 217 

Himera, 143 f, 287-297, 331 

Himeraeans, 15, 147, 157, 287- 
297, 347, 365,4 47 

Himilear, 363- 370, 445 

Himilcon, 347, 367, 389, 4920 

Hippocrates, &0, 78, 307 

Hipponicus, 65 

Hyecara, 139 

Hyperbius, 95 

Hysiae, 107 


lasus, 419 

Iberi, 243, 2/78, 347 
Iberians, 270, 361, 367, 437 
Ielysus, 331 

Isarchus, 63 


Juhus, Gaius, 25, 68, 417 
J uhus, Lucius, 63 
Juhus, Sextus, 109 
J unius, Lucis, 81 


Labdalum, 1438 

Labic, 14i 

Lacedaemonians, 7 f, 15, 21-27, 
39-43, 490-01, 87- 100 passum, 
137, 441, 149, 215, 221-237 
qassvm, 243-271 passvm, 299- 
343 passum, 397-429 pasewn 

Laches, 35, 99 

Lamachus, 81, 115, 129, 143-147 

Lampsaeus, 305, 410 f 

Leontines, 33- 37, 111 

Leonüni, 375, 301 f,445f 

Leotrophides, 303 

Lesbians, 37-41 

Lesbos, 227, 837 

Leucas, 51 

Libya, 243, 351, 447 


451 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Libyans, 347, 361, 437 
Luüybaeum, 273 f 
Lindus, 331 
Liparaeans, 37 
Locrians, 37, 105 
Lucretius, Opiter, 85 
Lucretius, Publius, 141 


Lysander, 317-321, 385, 409, 417- | 


4277 
Lysias, 329, 408, 411 


Macedonians, 29 f. 

Manius, Marcus, 81 

Manius Aemilus, Gaius, 335 
Mantneians, 99-108 
Mantitheus, 313 
Maurusians, 947 

Mazarus River, 275 
Mecyberna, 97 

Medocus, 421 

Megarians, 18 f£, 67 f£, 803 f£ 
Mehans, 65, 105 

Menander, 159 

Mendé, 88 

Menenius, Agrippa, 141 
Menes, 9360 

Meropis, 235 

Messapians, 153 

Messen, 297, 865, 447 
Messenians, 185, 255, 301 f. 
Metellus, Gaius, 51 
Methoné, 11, 67 
Methymnaeans, 41, 337 
Miletus, 317, 419 

Mindarus, 225-233, 243-2065 pas- 


8m 

Matylenaeans, 208, 348 f , see also 
Mytilenaeans 

Matylené, 327, 337-345, 897, 407, 
see also Mytilenà 

Molycria, 58 

Motyée, 273, 2903, 299, 371 

Mount Athos, 239 

Mylaeans, 37 

Myranus, 73 

Mysteries, 195, 205 

A MAE 39-41, 81, see also Mity- 
en 

Mytilenaeans, 37-41, 
Matylenaeans 


Naupactus, 23, 51 f£ , 61, 255 
Nautius, Spurius, 109, 149, 311 
Naxians, 185 

Naxos, 135 


452 


$ee also 


J 
I 
i 








Ni1c1as, 63-67, 883, 105, 113 £, 129, 
143, 147, 157 £, 163 £ , 1783, 175, 
195, 2 

Nicolaus, 177-199 

Aneostratus, 83, 99 

Nisaea, 69, 105, 308 f 

Nomads, 347 

Notium, 819 f£ 


Oeniadae, 23 

Oesymé, P3 

Oetaeans, 49 
Olynthians, 23, 97 
Orchomenians, 77 f, 101 
Orneae, 107 f£ 

Oropus, 65, 79, 215, 221 


Paches, 39 f 

Pactyé, 3920 

Pagondas, 75 

Panormus, 299, 371 

Papimnus, Gaius, 91 

Papirius, Lucius, 17, 07 
Papius, Mareus, 129, 149, 311 
Paros, 253 

Patrae, 28 f 

Pausanias, 981, 427 

Peiraeus, 25 f, 1981 f£, 427 
Peisistratus, 993 

Perdiccas, 29 

A tuo (the elder), 9, 15 f , 401, 


Pericles (the younger), 329, 401- 

405, 411 

Persians, 221 f 

Phalarns, 877 

Phanomachus, 21 

Pharax, 101 f 

Pharnabazus, 221-225, 2831-285, 
249, 259-265, 297, 301, 309, 419 

Pharnmaces, 85 

Pheia, 13 

Phibstus, 381, 415 

Philocles, 417, 423 f 

Phocans, 105 

Phoenicians, 347 

Phormzo, 21, 28 

Pinanus, Spurius, 51 

Plataeans, 3-7, 21, 41 f., 03 

Pleitonax, 331 

Pohchné, 143 


| Polycleitus, 357 


Polydorus, 217, 265 
Polyxenus, 395 
Pompeius, Gnaeus, 347 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Poseidon, 23, 365 
Postumrus, Aulus, 63 
Postumius, Marcus, 103 
Postumius, Tiberius, 223 
Potidaea, 17f 
Proconnesus, 259 
Protomachus, 329, 411 
Pydna, 257 

Pylos, 53- 61, 95, 301 f. 
Pyrrhaeans, '407 
Pythes, 148, 159 


Quncetius, Lucius, 95, 105 
Quinctius, Titus, 63, 89, 108 


Rhegians, 35, 133 
Rhegium, 135 
poches 49 
Rhium, 23 f 

Rhodes, 248, 317, 3891 
Rhodians, 

Romans, 63, 237 


Salaminia, 137 

Salaminians, 27 

Samos, 213, 233, 827, 335,397, 425 

Sardis, 91 19 

Sc10n6, 81-85, 98 

Seipio, 977 

Socylletium, 133 

Sehnuntians, 109 f, 131,135, 157, 
237-2492, 973- 289, 947, 265, 447 

Selybria, 307 

Sempronus, Aulus, 95, 105, 149 

Sentus, Lucius, 109 

Sergius, Lucis, 11, 85, 129 

Servilius, Gaius, 141, 417 

Servilius, Lucius, 45 

Servius, Marcus, 129 

Servihus. Structus, Gaius, 97 

Sestus, 229, 240, 257, 4925 

Seuthes, 491 

Sicani, 147, 2890 e 

S1CAnUs, 133, 155,1 

Siceli, 135, 159, M S87, 447 

Sicily, 33-37 

Sigeium, 227 

Sitalces, 27-31 

Sogdianus, 79 

Sophilus, 415 

Sophocles (general), 87 

Sophocles (poet), 415 


Spartolus, 21 

Sphaeteria, 55-61, 93, 189 
Stratocles, 51 

Stratus, 25 

TURDUGIUS Praetextatus, Quintus, 


Symmachus, 25, 683, 81 

Syracusans, 33- 37, 131-219 passum, 
237-241, 273- 209 passvwm, 993, 
945, 349 f , 365-895 passu. 


Tanagraeans, 65 

Tantalus, 67 

Tarantni, 133 

Tegeatans, 101 

Teians, 335 

Telhas, 9355-359, 375 

TT'hasos, 321 

Thebans, 3-7, 65, 77 £, 97 

Theopompus, 295, 2397 

Theramenes, 225, 235, 253, 257- 
265, 301, 307, 401, 400 f 

Therma, 345 

Theron, 365 

Thorax, 337 

Thracians, 20 f , 421 

Thrasondas, 401 

Thrasybulus, 225, 220 f , 245, 957- 
265, 209- 329 gasswun, 399, 409 

Thrasyllus, 225, 220, 945, 401, 411 

Thrasymedes, 55 

Thronium, 13 

Thucydides, 297 

Thurians, 153 

Thuni, 133, 137, 427 

T hyreae, 15, 07 

"Timaeus, 273, 201, 349, 357, 303, 
9377, 481, 483 

Timarchus, 308 

Timoleon, 217 

Tísandrus, 141 

Toroné, 75, 85 

Trachis, 49 f. 

Troezen, 97 

Tyre, 429 


Valerius, Gaius, 225, 335 
Verginius Tricostus, "Proculus, 25 
Veturius, Spurius, 14 


Xenophon, 21, 237 
Xerxes, 03, 79 


Poinied in Great Brilaia by R. & R. Ct ARK, Liuii1ED, Edinburgh 


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